Abstract in English:The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.
Abstract in Portuguese:A musculatura que serve aos arcos branquiais, arco hióideo e opérculo nos 22 gêneros marinhos do Atlântico oeste e nos 4 gêneros dos rios da América se caracterizam por apresentar a origem, percurso e inserção das seções e subseções musculares de maneira geral comum para todos os Sciaenidae estudados. Porém, existem algumas variações relacionadas principalmente com o grau de desenvolvimento desta musculatura, que para efeitos da descrição permite o agrupamento dos diferentes gêneros em três (3) grupos, o grupo "Macrodon" (Macrodon, Cynoscion, Larimus, Nebris, Isopistus, Plagioscion, Lonchurus, Stellifer, Odontoscion, Bairdiella e Corvulla), grupo "Micropogonias" (Micropogonias, Umbrina, Equetus, Pareques, Leiostomus, Sciaena, Ctenosciaena, Pachyurus, Pachypops, Menticirrhus, Paralonchurus e Ophioscion) e grupo "Pogonias" (Pogonias e Aplodinotus), mas este último se afasta do padrão geral devido à fusão dos quintos ceratobranquiais e ao desenvolvimento de um processo ventral no mesmo que determina algumas variações críticas a respeito da origem e inserção dos músculos que o servem.
Abstract in English:This paper contains a preliminary list of the fishes caught monthly during the period between March, 1982 and April, 1986, in the littoral of the São Luís Island, and estuarine region including the localities Cururuca, Paciência, Cachorros and Ana Jansen, and the straits Coqueiro/Mosquitos. 132 species belonging to 94 genera and 56 families were obtained. Salinity ranged between 1.0 - 37.5‰ at Cururuca and Paciência; 3.9 - 20.8‰ at Ana Jansen, and 1.0 - 32.7‰ in the area including Mosquitos/Coqueiro and Cachorros. No correlation between salinity and distribution of species was obtained. Genyatremus luteus was the predominant species (21.4%) followed by Mugil curema (11.6%) and Arius herzbergii (11.2%). Ariidae, Mugilidae, Sciaenidae and Engraulidae were the most representative families in number of individuals and species.
Abstract in English:Females of white-eared opossum Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841) from natural population of the "cerrado", State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, present a seasonal reproductive activity. Young-pouches were found in females captured from August to March. During the months of April to July youngs were not present in the pouch. The only two females captured in July showed pregnant uterus. All females collected in August and September were litter positive. The average number of individuais per litter was 7.04 ± 1.9.
Abstract in English:(1) The Pantanal is the central portion of a sunken flat plain bordering the upper Paraguay river, with an area of 140,000 km². Seasonal floods begin in January and end in April. From May to October the land dries out and campos (grassland formations) and scattered pools appear. (2) Typical capybara habitat in the Pantanal is composed of three components: the water, a patch of forest, and a grass field for foraging. Highest densities of capybaras (14 individuals/km²) were found during the rainy season when the available space for capybaras was reduced due to the flooding. Areas without ponds or creeks presented low densities (from 0.38 to 0.84 capybaras/km²). Group sizes ranged from 2 to 49 individuals (x = 9.48). (3) Reproduction occurred year-round and young of different ages were seen throughout the year. However, the principal recruitment of young to the population was observed in July-August. While the females took turns in caring for young of different ages, probably the offspring of mothers who are sisters in the same social groups, the males competed intensively with each other for access to breeding females. The male's reproductive success appears to be limited to the number of breeding females that males have access to in the social group.
Abstract in English:The pantanal is one of the world's richest freshwater wetlands. The pantanal is located in the flood plain of the headwaters of the Paraguai river, covering 140,000km². The habitats of the Pantanal are present in a complex mosaic. The major habitat types are: pockets of forests, called capão or cordilheira, seasonally flooded grasslands or campos, and permanent or temporary lagoons, called baías. The Pantanal harbors both rich and abundant mammal fauna. A survey was conducted at Fazenda Nhumirim, a research station run by the Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Pantanal (CPAP) in Corumbá, a research branch of EMBRAPA. The Fazenda covers an area of 4,310 ha in the sub-region of Nhecolândia, appoximately 150km east of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul. The area receives an average annual rainfall of 1,022mm, and has a mean monthly temperature that varies between 29.1ºC (January) and 22.0ºC (June). Four routes were followed between two times during ten days of each month. The survey routes were covered on horseback by between two and four observers. Each route was followed and equal number of times in the morning and in the afternoon, to eliminate bias related to the activity patterns of mammals. In order to evaluate relative abundance of nocturnal species, we also conducted a number of nocturnal censuses. These censuses were done by car; a high intensity searchlight was used to spot the animals. We also conducted a trap-mark-recapture survey of the small mammals at Fazenda Nhumirim. After the census period, we continued to collect observations on the occurrence of mammals at the Fazenda, noting wherever possible the kind of habitat in which the animals were observed. The survey identified a diversity of mammals at Fazenda Nhumirim: six orders, 14 families, 19 genera, and 20 species. Nasua nasua was the most frequently observed species during the diurnal census, accounting for 61.5 percent of all observations. Dusicyon (formely Cerdocyon) thous was the most frequently observed species on the nocturnal census (39.13%). The small mammal community of Fazenda Nhumirim is composed of seven species: one marsupial, four cricetine rodents and two echimyid rodents.