Abstract in English:A study comparing the morphology of the proboscis of the following muscoid species is presented: Scatophaga stercoraria (Linnaeus, 1758) (Scatophagidae), Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761) (Fanniidae), Taenomyia auricollis Stein, 1918 (Anthomyiidae) and Phaonia valida (Harris, 1780) (Muscidae). Comparisons were made with Archiborborus sp. (Acalyptratae, Sphaeroceridae), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Oestroidea, Calliphoridae) and other muscids.
Abstract in English:Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki, 1911 has been placed in different subfamilies mainly based on chaetotaxy and general morphology of adults. This genus has most recently been placed in Reinwardtiinae on the basis of larval characters. The male terminalia, however, indicates that Polietina is phylogenetically close to the basal group of Muscinae. By the analysis of all available type material, the genus and nine species are redescribed: P. bicolor Albuquerque; P. distincta Couri & Lopes; P. flavithorax (Stein); P. major Albuquerque; P. minor Albuquerque; P. orbitalis (Stein); P. rubella (Wulp); P. steini (Enderlein) and P. concinna (Wulp) which is revalided and lectotype designated. Neotypes are proposed to Polietina flavithorax and to Polietina orbitalis. Polietina wulpi is proposed as a new species. A key is also presented.
Abstract in English:Euplychia paeon (Godart, 1824) (=Euptychia marmorata Butler, 1866) and Euptychia griseldis Weymer, 1911 are placed under Carminda gen.n. Carminda umuarama sp.n. is described. The studied specimens are from southem Brazil and adjacent areas of Paraguay and Argentina.
Abstract in English:Larocanthidium gen.n. is proposed to include ten new species of Anthidiinae from Brazil characterized by the mandibles of the females with four little teeth, two apical and two basal connected by a large smooth area and by the bissinuate or straight lamela projected only dorsally on the sixth tergum and the two apical carinate lobes on the seventh tergum of the male.
Abstract in English:Cataulax varicornis (Walker, 1867) is transferred to the genus Ablaplus Stål, 1864. Ablaplus lopesi Becker & Grazia, 1989 is considered as a new synonym. The female genitalia is described and illustrated.
Abstract in English:This Work was conducted in Eucalyptus stands at the Itapoã farm of the Mannesmann Fi-El Florestal Ltda. in Paraopeba, MG. The species of fungus growing-ants and leaf-cutting ants found in regrowth areas and in harvesting phase plantings were: Acromyrmex balzani Emery, 1890; Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel 1908; Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel, 1893; Atta laevigala (F. Smith, 1858); Alta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908; Mycocepurus goeldii Forel, 1893; Sericomyrmex sp.; Trachymyrmex fuscus Emery, 1894 and three morphospecies of Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893. Taxa belonging to the genus Atta Fabricius, 1804 represented 39.14 and 41.22% of the total number of nests found in the regrowth area and in the harvesting phase plantings, respectively. For Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 these values were 14.34 and 13.16%; for Trachymyrmex, 40.59 and 30.89%; for Mycocepurus Forel, 1893, 5.34 and 12.50% and Sericomyrmex Mayr, 1865, 0.59 and 2.23% in the regrowth area and in the harvesting phase plantations, respectively.
Abstract in English:This study involved 344 Mullets, Mugil platanus Günther, 1880, captured in the estuarine region of Cananeia, São Paulo, Brazil (25º00'S, 47º55'W). The following data were recorded for each fish: total weight, total length, haemoglobin ratio (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), erythrocyte count (Er), differential leucocyte count (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils and "other cells") and haematometric indices; MCV, MCH, and MCHC. The sex and stage of gonadal maturity (undifferentiated, juvenile, resting, maturing, mature, and spent) were determined by macroscopical inspection of the gonads. Parasitological inspections revealed the following infestations: Gills - Trichodinidae, Monogenea, Copepoda, and Hirudinea. Liver: cysts of Digenea. Intestine: Nematoda, Digenea and Acanthocephala. Blood: Trypanosoma sp. and Haemogregarina sp. Analysis of variance was done to evaluate how far blood and gill parasitism had any effect on total length, total weight, the biological condition factor or the measured blood parameters. Significant differences were found for the haematocrit (infested versus noninfested by Trichodinidae) and for MCHC (infested versus noninfested by Trichodinidae and Copepoda). No differences were found with regard to leucocytes.
Abstract in English:It was sampled the litter frogs at altitudinal sites of a semideciduous mesophytic forest located at Sena do Japi (Jundiaí, São Paulo, 23º17'S, 47º00'W, 800-1300m altitude, 1500mm rain/year). Forty two plots of 8x8m were sampled in the dry/cold season of 1995: 21 at a Higher Site (HS) (1000m) and 21 at a Lower Site (LS) (850m). The plots were evenly located near, mid-distance, and far from the stream-bed. It was found a total of five species, three at each site. Eleutherodactylus guentheri comprised 83% of the individuals at HS and E. juipoca 67% at LS. The density of individuals was higher at HS and near the stream. The greater density at HS may be due to greater humidity there, provided by mist. The frogs may aggregate in wetter places (stream edges) in the dry/cold season. The studied sites represent harsh and early successional environments and both these factors may be acting together to produce the low observed diversity.
Abstract in English:A comparative study on the pre-branchial cranial anatomy of the scalloped hammerhead sharks [Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834)] and the Brazilian sharpnose shark [Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839)] was carried out to check the modification in the musculature, inervation and optic stalk related to the appearance of the cephalofoil in Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810. A total of seven adults and one juvenile of R. lalandii and eight juveniles of S. lewini were examined. In S. lewini the levator palaliquadrati and the levator labii superioris were the most modified cephalic muscles, as they became dorsalventrally attached and laterally developed. Among the oculomotor muscles, the recti followed the lateral expansion of the head constituting the rectal stalk associated with the nerves II, III, IV and VI and the optic stalk. It was observed that the oculomolorius branch "a" does not inervate the adductor mandibulae as it was mentioned in a previous paper. The myological structures and the inervation pattern presented diagnostic characters. Despite the shared characters between Carcharhinidae and the Sphyrnidae, the cephalofoil represents an autapomorphy which includes all the hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae.
Abstract in English:The niche breadth of the Portunidae and their overlap on the subtidal sediments of Fortaleza bay, Ubatuba (São Paulo) was analyzed. Samples were made monthly from November/1988 to October/1989, inseven areas of the bay using a shrimp fishery boat equipped with two otter-trawls. Each area was characterized based on environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic matter and granulometric composition of the sediment. The number of individuais of each species was registered to each area (resource). Levins's standardized measure (BA) and niche percentage were calculated. Five species of swimming crabs were recorded in this study: Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818), Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 and Portunus spinicarpus (Stimpson, 1871). The widest ecological niche occurred to C. ornatus, present in all sampled areas (generalist species). Such fact can be related to high sediment tolerance when it is compared to P. spinimanus (especialist species) which was limited to the areas with coarse granulometric fractions. Highest niche overlap was verified between C. danae and A. cribrarius may be due to greater salinity tolerance of these species. The low occurrence of P. spinicarpus and its reduced niche size in Fortaleza Bay are due to association of this species to cold water currents (ACAS) more evidente in smaler depths during summer months. One future evaluation of the portunid diet can be useful to complement informations about this important aspect of the marine ecology.
Abstract in English:Studies on the occurrence, temporal distribution and nychthemeral variation of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) were undertaken in Leopoldo's Inlet, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil. Seventeen thousand and sixty specimens (11,786 larvae and 5,274 juveniles) were captured with a conicalcylindrical plankton net of mesh 0.5mm in monthly samples between February 1991 and February 1992. Results show that the greatest densities of larvae (301.83 larvae/10m³) and juveniles (168.8/10m³) of this species were caught in December 1991. Largest captures were made during the night. With regard to abiotic factors water temperature ranged from 20º to 30ºC, pH ranged from 5.66 to 7.37 and electric conductivity ranged from 51.83 to 65.33µS/cm. Relationship between the density of larvae and juveniles and abiotic factors was calculated by the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which revealed the influence of some limnological variables especially on the distribution of larvae.
Abstract in English:Some species of Cyra are described and illustrations of pertinent characters are provided. New combinations of species is done. A key to four species of Cyra are added.
Abstract in English:The purpose of this paper is to present a prototype, which was developed using an ARC/INFO software, for the informatization of Butterflies' Collection of the "Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná".
Abstract in English:Two new genera - Potnioides gen.n. and Sakakibarella gen.n. - and five new species are proposed: Potnioides corniculatus sp.n. (Peru, Cuzco), Sakakibarella seminigra sp.n. (Costa Rica, Turrialba), S. costaricensis sp.n. (Costa Rica, Heredia), S. elongaia sp.n. (Costa Rica, Alajuela) and S. maculata sp.n. (Colombia, Huila).
Abstract in English:Thirty four (34) species of Alchisme Kirkaldy, 1904 are presented with descriptions, illustrations, and key for identification, except for two of them which were not seen, A. truncaticornis (Germar, 1835) and A. intermedia (Distant, 1881). The following nomenclatural changes are introduced: Achisme intermedia (Distant, 1881), sp. rev.; A. testacea (Fairmaire, 1846), sp. rev.; Alchisme apicalis (Walker, 1851) = A. costaricensis Goding, 1929, syn.n.; A. inermis (Fairmaire, 1846) = Triquetra nigrocarinala Fairmaire, 1846, syn.n.; A. rubrocostata (Spinola, 1852) = A. neuquina Remes-Lenicov, 1978, syn.n.; A. turrita (Germar, 1835) = Triquetra submaculata Buckton, 1901, syn.n.; A. ustulata (Fairmaire, 1846) = Triquetra virgata Fairmaire, 1846, syn.n.; A. virescens (Fairmaire, 1846) = Alchisme spinosa Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Alchisme banosiensis sp.n. (from Ecuador); A. bordoni sp.n. (from Venezuela); A. colombiana sp.n. (from Colombia); A. salta sp.n. (from Argentina); A. cultellata sp.n. (from Venezuela); A. deflexa sp.n. (from Venezuela); A. erecta sp.n. (from Venezuela); A. frontomaculata sp.n. (from Brazil); A. goiana sp.n. (from Brazil); A. henryi sp.n. (from Venezuela); A. insolita sp.n. (from Colombia); A. mackameyi sp.n. (from Ecuador); A. onorei sp.n. (from Ecuador); A. schuhi sp.n. (from Peru).
Abstract in English:In addition to the Survey of the Entomological Fauna in Paraná State, the family Saturniidae was studied in its ecological and faunistic aspects. The material was captured using one light trap installed in eight different sites of the State: Antonina, São José dos Pinhais, Colombo, Ponta Grossa, Telêmaco Borba, Jundiaí do Sul, Guarapuava and Fênix, from October 1986 to September 1987. The total number of specimens and means values of capture were analyzed. Indices of diversity and evenness were used to discuss richness and dominance of species in each locality. Besides using ecological indices, the data were also compared by Clustering Analysts, Principal Coordinate Analysis, Minimum Spanning Tree and Linear Correlation Coefficient. The results were compared with meteorological and floristic conditions in the eight localities.
Abstract in English:The absence of morphological external characteristics that allow the recognition of the sex as well as the presence of both male and female gonopores in the same animal [except in some sexual forms of Parastacus nicoleti (Philippi, 1882)] gives rise to the hypothetical existence of some form of hermaphroditism in crayfishes belonging to the genus Parastacus Huxley, 1879. Specimens of Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) were collected in a rivulet at Mariana Pimentel municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the laboratory they were reared and dissected. The results suggest that P. brasiliensis may be a sequential hermaphroditic species, but male and female gonadal tissues were not simultaneously present in the analized samples. In testes and ovaries two pairs of genital ducts are present; that connect, respectively, to the gonopores on the coxae of the fifth and the third pairs of pereiopods. In the females only the apertures and anterior ducts seem to be functional, while in the males only the apertures and posterior ducts may be functional. The existence of different degrees of obstruction in the female genital apertures and different degrees of projection in the male genital apertures was observed. The aspect of the gonopores were used to recognize, externally, the sex of animais.
Abstract in English:Is registered for the first time in the South Brazilian coast, the ermit crab Pagurus brevidactylus Stimpson, 1859, wich previous South limit of distribution was at São Paulo State and now it is extended to the Santa Catarina State coast line. Were collected 100 ermit crabs, being 50 males and 50 females, from wich 20 ovigerous were found. The organisms were collected by scuba diving in Ponta da Sepultura and Retiro dos Padres beach, on the rock and sand bottom, at Bombinhas city, in October and November 1995.