Abstract in English:A new species of gymnophthalmid lizard with reduced members (genus Bachia) is described after three specimens obtained at Cáceres (16º10'S, 57º41'W), in the State of Mato Grosso, western Brazil. Specimens were found under or inside rotting logs in forested or partially disturbed areas and are primary associated to the so called "cerradão" vegetation. Bachia cacerensis sp.n., belongs to the "bresslaui" group and is characterized by the unique dorsal color parttern, with seven longitudinal dark lines on a cream ground color; 49-51 transverse dorsal scale rows; 35 scales around midbody; 38 longitudinal ventral scale rows. Anterior limbs generally with four unharmed apical scales, resembling toes; posterior limbs with a single, unharmed apical scale. A specimen of Bachia dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1839) collected at the municipality of Jauru (15º14'S, 58º44'W), near Cáceres, is also described. In the Brazilian territory, B. dorbignyi has been previously recorded only for the State of Rondonia.
Abstract in English:Onchocerca cervicalis Railliet & Henry, 1910 is a nematode that parasite equines. Its ocurrence has already been reported in the States of Mato Grosso and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Different diagnostic techniques were used in this study to establish the prevalence of the parasite in Rio de Janeiro State and the biting behaviour of the simuliid and ceratopogonid species suspected of being vectors was studied. All of the biopsies made in the region of the withers, shoulder and umbilicus of 57 animals were negative. Necropsies carried out on 28 equines revealed 4 to be positive for the parasite; 2 for microfilariae and 2 for adults. Simuliid flies showed preference for biting the ventral region and ceratopogonids the lower parts of the legs of horses. It was concluded that a more detailed investigation is required to determine a better diagnostic technique in order to verify prevalence rates of the parasite in horses in the State.
Abstract in English:Three nests of Euglossa (Glossura) annectans Dressier, 1982 were obtained from trap nests at Serra do Japi, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil. The bees nested in bamboo cane (one nest) and in wooden-boxes (two nests). Solitary (two cases) and pleometrotic (one case) foundations were observed. Two nests were re-used once by two females working in each of them. Re-using females that shared the nests were of the same generation and each built, provisioned and oviposited in her own cells, characterizing a communal association. The brood development period was related to climatic conditions. Natural enemies included Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 (Bombyliidae), Coelioxys sp. (Megachilidae) and Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae).
Abstract in English:Little is known about the morphology of the quitinized structures related to the spermatheca of Muscidae (Diptera). Most papers illustrate only the spermatheca, which shape has little systematic significance when analyzed as a separate character. The analysis of these structures in 16 Muscidae species, made it possible to clarify and understand some characters, which can be used in further phylogenetic analysis. The species selected to this study belong to different sub-families: Muscinae, Muscini: Biopyrellia bipuncta (Wiedemann, 1830); Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758; Azeliinae, Reinwardtini: Philornis univitattus Dodge, 1968; Cyrtoneurininae: Charadrella malacophaga Lopes, 1938; Cyrtoneurina polystigma (Wulp, 1896); Neomuscina neosimilis Snyder, 1949; Mydaeinae: Brontaea debilis (Williston, 1896); Graphomyia mexicana Giglio-Tos, 1893; Mydaea plaumani Snyder, 1941; Scutellomusca marginata (Albuquerque, 1954); Phaoninae: Dolichophaonia gallicola (ALbuquerque, 1958); Phaonia nigriventris (Albuquerque, 1954); Coenosiinae, Limnophorini: Limnophora saeva (Wiedemann, 1830); Coenosiini: Coenosia camorinensis Albuquerque, 1956 and Neodexiopsis paulistensis Albuquerque, 1956. The structures were described based on seven diagnostic characters.
Abstract in English:In the present study it was examined the age and growth of Gymnogeophagus lacustris Reis & Malabarba, 1988 in Caconde lagoon (Tramandaí River Basin). The specimens (1080 males and 267 females) were collected monthly, between July 1992 and June 1993. The growth curve in total length was obtained by von Bettalanffy expression and the weight curve through the dedutive method supported by the mathematical expressions of the length growth curve and the length/weight relationship. Formation of the annulli in scales ocurred between winter and spring, and the first anual ring appears when the animals are aproximately 1.5 years old. L∞ and W∞ obtained for males and females, were 206.6mm and 157.3g and 120.2mm and 30.2g, respectively, demonstrating a characteristic sexual dimorfism for the species.
Abstract in English:A new genus and new species are described from Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil. Clypelliana gen.n. present clypellus strongly swollen, with two lateral lobes.
Abstract in English:Pawiloma rubra sp.n. is described based on specimens from the Rio Temas, Belize and Antilles. Its male genitalia is similar to those of other species in the genus, but it may be distinguished by the shape of the aedeagus, which is long and with two short, convergent apical processes.
Abstract in English:The Anthidiine bees Nananthidium analuizae sp.n., Nananthidium foersteri sp.n. and Nananthidium panamense sp.n. are described. New combinations are proposed to Nananthidium quadrimaculatum (Cockerell, 1927) and Nananthidium gualanense (Cockerell, 1912). By the first time notes on the morphology of the male of Bothranthidium Moure, 1947 are presented.
Abstract in English:The records of eleven species from the Paraná State coast are presented. One of them, Ascidia curvata (Traustedt, 1882), is first registered in the Brazilian coast. Six other species had their geographic distribution extended to the south in West Atlantic waters.
Abstract in English:Decapod crustaceans from rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil. II. Spatial distribution of population densities. A study of the spatial distribution of the decapod populations from a rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, State of Paraná, Brazil (25º51'S, 48º32'W) was canied out. In the supralittoral the rocky surface is covered partially by a layer of litter coming from the terrestrial habitats; in the midlittoral boulders and pebbles cover the rocky basin and in the infralittoral, there is a belt of seaweeds. A total of 8 samples were taken by hand, two from each of the following levels: supralittoral (emersion time 8-12 hours), upper midlittoral (4-8), lower midlittoral (0-4) and limit between midlittoral and infralittoral, monthly, from May/1990 to April/1991. The number of species increased from supralittoral (5) to infralittoral (22) and a clear vertical zonation on density was observed according to the emersion time gradient. The supralittoral is characterized by grapsids Armases angustipes (Dana, (1852), Cyclograpsus integer H. Milne Edwards, 1837 and Metasesarma rubripes (Rathbun, 1897) which have terrestrial habits and aerial respiration as a main way in obtaining the oxygen. In the midlittoral, the decapods show three basic types of adaptation against emersion desiccation and thermal stresses: (1) by digging into wet mud among the stones such as Panopeus americanus Saussure, 1857, Panopeus occidentalis Saussure, 1857 and Eurypanopeus abbreviatus Stimpson, 1860, (2) by resting in shady and wet space between the boulders and pebbles or underside of them, like Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850), Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) and adults of Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859 and (3) by clinging over the soaked filamentous algae layer on the pebbles or bouders surfaces, a strategy observed in small species such as Pilumnus dasypodus Kingsley, 1879, Podochela sp., Petrolisthes galathinus (Bosc, 1801 ), Alpheus bouvieri A. Milne Edwards, 1878 and juveniles of Menippe nodifrons. In the infralittoral, small species which are vulnerable to desiccation stresses share space by diversification of their diet and adaptation strategies such as camouflage, body color change according to the substratum, flattened body for tight adhesion on hard surface and rapid movements. The main species of this zone are Petrolisthes armatus, Petrolisthes galathinus, juveniles of Menippe nodifrons, Epialtus brasiliensis Dana, 1852, P. dasypodus, Synalpheus fritzmuelleri Coutière, 1909, Megalobrachium roseum (Rathbun, 1900) and species of Palaemonidae. The rocky shore at Farol Isle is a complex architectural environment due to the conjunction of diversified habitats such as litter over a hard surface, spaces and crevices among boulders and pebbles, muddy substratum and phytal.
Abstract in English:A paraoxonase activity present in serum of two Brazilian fish species was consistently assayed at pH 8.5 using 7.5 mM paraoxon final concentration. The paraoxonase activity was more activated by 0.5 M NaCl in serum of Piaractus mesopotanricus Holmberg, 1887 (pacu) than in serum of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 (cascudo). Apparent values of K M were 3.3 x 10-3 M for cascudo and pacu paraoxonase activity in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl. Apparent maximum velocity values calculated in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl were 6.1 and 6.5 nmole/min/mL of serum for cascudo and pacu, respectively. Vmax/K M ratio values of determinations in the presence and absence of 0.5 M NaCl showed that NaCl had a more evident effect on increasing the affinity of serum paraoxonase for paraoxon in pacu serum. Young specimens of pacu showed a marked decreased paraoxonase serum activity when kept in tanks treated with 0.25 ppm methyl-parathion.
Abstract in English:Enzymatic production of p-nitrophenol in liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 was consistently assayed at pH 8.5 using 7.5 mM paraoxon as substrate. This pacu liver paraoxonase activity was activated by NaCl. Apparent values of K M were 2.42 x 10-3 M in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl and 8.99 x 10-3 M without NaCl. Apparent maximum velocity values calculated in the absence and presence of 0.5 M NaCl were 1.09 x 10-3 µmoles/min/mg of proteins and 1.29 x 100-3 µmoles/min/mg of proteins, respectively. These Vmax values are fifty-fold the value described for trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) liver paraoxonase. Paraoxonase activity of pacu liver homogenates was recovered as much in cytosolic as in particulate cellular subtractions, but the particulate subtractions showed higher specific activities. The data presented here indicate that hepatic hydrolysis of organophosphorous pesticides may not be an important detoxification process in pacu.
Abstract in English:The ontogenetic aspects of larvae of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829) from the ichthyoplankton samples collected in the Itaipu reservoir between March 1988 and April 1990 were analysed. Sample were caught by 0.5 mm mesh conic-cylindrical plankton net. Larvae of H. edentatus were identified and described as Siluriforms from the morphological and morphometric development series. They have a small to medium-sized head, long body, small eyes, little pigmentation, mandibular barbules and 53 to 56 myomeres. High values obtained with correlation coefficient (r > 0.97; p < 0.001) show that growth was proportional in different parts of the body.
Abstract in English:Fishes were sampled by beach seine during the day and night at the high and low sygygy tides, on a sandy beach at the southeast coast of Brazil. The quantitative results appear to indicate a larger concentration of fish in the surf zone of this beach, in low tides at the start and end of the day. Only eight from the 17 most abundant taxa, appeared to have been influenced singly or in combination by the factors of the moon, day, night and tide.
Abstract in English:Larva and pupa of Paracalais prosectus (Candèze, 1857) from Eastern Australia are described and illustrated. Larvae were collected under bark of decayed log of Pinus ellioti, together with Cerambycidae larva. Up to now, only the larva of Paracalis gibboni (Newman, 1857) was described.
Abstract in English:A detailed analysis of the interactions between Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821) and the artisanal fishing of mullets (Mugil spp.) is presented at two localities in the south of Brazil: Laguna (Santa Catarina) and Inibé/Tramandaí (Rio Grande do Sul). Its behavioral strategies and the advantages of their association are re-described and quantified based on the success of the capture and on the selectivity of the prey sizes. The mullets are the main resource involved (92% to 75%) both at numerical level and as biomass. Twenty individuals of Tursiops truncatus participated in the interactions in Laguna and 9 in Imbé/Tramandaí. The participation and learning of calves is also reported.
Abstract in English:Uca (Minuca) burgersi Holthuis, 1967 was studied in the laboratory under the morphological and systematical stand points. One experiment was carried out involving 100 larvae, derived from one ovigerous female collected in the north coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment were carried out in a climatically controlled room at 25±1ºC and steady saltness of 34‰ The larvae were maintened individually and food consisted of rotifers (Brachionus plicatillis) in the first stage and Artemia sp. in the last stages. Uca (Minuca) burgersi have five or six zoeal stages and a megalopa one. All larval stages were drawn and described in detail. Tables where the morphological characteristic of each stage of the studied specie was described are also included. They were compared with the other species found in the bibliography passible of being analyzed. The comparative studies of the larval forms of each species of Uca showed that they presented a great similarity of characteristics whose specific identifications were only possible with the aid of several structures analyzed together. In the other hand, the differences among the genera of Ocypodinae occurring in Brazil are more conclusive, and can be obtained by the analyses of a few characteristics.
Abstract in English:Diacyclops uruguayensis Kiefer, 1935 is redescribed from specimens from Santa Catarina and Ceará, Brazil. These new records represent a significant range extension from southern Uruguay.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to analyse the reproductive period, fecundity and the size of the first gonadal maturation of Cyphocharax voga (Hensel, 1869) of Custódias Lagoon, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The specimens (293 males and 247 females) were collected monthly, during the period between October 1994 and September 1995. The reproductive period took place from early winter until the end of spring. The average absolute fecundity was 36608 oocytes. The size of the first gonadal maturation was estimated in 121 and 128 mm for males and females respectively.
Abstract in English:The Custódias lagoon has a great importance in the Tramandaí system, because it works as reproduction area, feeding and nursery grounds to several fish species. The aim of this work is the study of aspects related to the reproduction of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther, 1864) as such as reproductive period, sexual ratio, fecundity and size of the first gonadal maturation. The specimens were sampled monthly from October/1994 to October/1995. For each sex, maturation curves were established, based on the monthly variation of the gonadossomatic index mean values, as well as, the relative frequencies of the sexual maturity stages. Breeding seasons took place during the winter and spring. The sex ratio was significanthly different from 1:1, with more females than male in almost all month. The species had a average fecundity of 9.694 ovocytes. The estimated size of first sexual maturation was 114 mm for male and 131 mm for females.
Abstract in English:A review of the Neotropical Lauxaniidae genus Triconopsis Hendel, 1914 is presented with redescription of T. longicornis Hendel, 1914 and the description of T. caioalbertsi sp.n. (type locality Uruguay), including illustrations and a key.
Abstract in English:A small black Parapsaenythia is described from Vilhena, Rondônia, Brasil. This species can be easily distinguished by lacking yellow and ferruginous marks. It is very densely and finely punctured and marginal depressions marked. Parapsaenythia costaricensis Friese, 1921, is excluded from this genus, and some comments are made on Parapasenythia fusca Vachal, 1909.
Abstract in English:A new species of Cyrtonota is described, from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Its relationships with other species are discussed.
Abstract in English:Chasmocarcinus arcuatus sp.n. from Amapá, Chasmocarcinus hirsutipes sp.n. from Pará and Chasmocarcinus meloi sp.n. from Alagoas, Brazil are described.
Abstract in English:At a locality near Brasilia the sizes of hunting areas and of colonies of 13 species of social wasps varied greatly. Size of the hunting area varied 152 fold and was strongly related to the number of adult wasps per colony which varied 400 fold. The total number of adults of the 13 species was estimated at 182.9/ ha (range 7.1 fold among the species) and their total biomass was 1.6 kg/ ha (range 3.6 fold). Hunting range was not significantly related to body size. Variation in wing area (11.3 fold) was similar to that of the fresh weight of the adult female (10.7 fold). Eleven species showed habitat preferences where they hunted. Models relating prey size to the distance prey are carried are discussed.