Abstract in English:Diagnosis and genitalia description and illustration of Dissomphalus bicavatusEvans, 1979;D. bispinulatusEvans, 1969;D. brasiliensisKieffer, 1910;Z). caviclypeus Evans, 1969; D. cornutus Evans 1964; D. dumosus, Evans, 1966; D. fungosus Evans, 1979; D. gilvipes Evans, 1979; D. incomptus Evans, 1964; D. infissus Evans, 1969; D. mendicus Evans, 1969; D. microstictus Evans, 1969; D. mirabilis Evans, 1966; D. nanellus Evans, 1969; D. napo Evans, 1979; D. plaumanni Evans, 1964; D. punctatus (Kieffer, 1910); D. puteolus Evans, 1969; D. rufipalpis Kieffer, 1910; D. xanthopus Ashmead, 1893 are provided. Female of D. mirabilis is first described. Five synonymies are proposed: D. connubialis Evans, 1966 of D. brasiliensis, D. montanus Kieffer, 1910 of D. punctatus, D. obliquus Evans, 1979 of D. rufipalpis, D. teren Evans, 1969 of D. cornutus and D. hastatus Evans, 1979 of D. bispinulatus. D. microtuberculatus sp.n. from Northern Argentina is described and illustrated.
Abstract in English:Two new species of Dasmeusa Melichar, 1926 are descri bed and illustrated: D. basseti sp.n. from Guyana and D. isabellina sp.n. from Brazil, Pará.
Abstract in English:The collects from mosquitoes' sample that repro-duce in leaf imbricate of bromeliads were done by two differents methods: a conven-tional method where the plants were felled and the water inside were dropped in a recipient and in the second method the samples were collected by sucking the water, so the plant wasn't felled. The number of bromeliads studied in each method was 120 plants from zero to 15 m height. The period of study lasted from january till december 1989. The bromeliads were collected monthly by each method. The score of immature was done at the laboratory. The variables studied were the number of leaf axils with water (Xi, Yi), water volume (cm³) inside each bromeliad (X2, Y2), the number of immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) inside each water volume from each bromeliad (X3, Y3), respectivelly, for the methods that the samples were obtained: by sucking or by felling the plant and the time (month) variable. By this study, we concluded that there is no significative difference between the methods done for a = 0,05. There is also no significative difference between both methods in each month. However, there was significative difference between the monlhs for α = 0.05.
Abstract in English:The Pumpkin toadlet, Brachycephalus ephippium (Spix, 1824), is an orangish daily anuran, which inhabits the litter of the Atlantic Forest of Southeastem Brazil. During a survey of this species' natural history in the vicinities of Campinas (22º52'S, 46º49'W), São Paulo State, field observations were made on the oviposition behavior, in which after the male left the oviposition site, the female covered the surface of ali eggs with soil particles. She pressed and rolled each egg against the ground using her hindfeet, until the eggs were indistinguishable from the litter background. A clutch was obtained in laboratory and two others were found in the field. After 25 days of development the embryo possess a big yolk sac, differentiated mouth and a small tail with caudal membranes poorly developed. After 41 days, fingers and toes are fully formed, the tail is relatively smaller than the previous state, the abdômen is large due to the yolk within, and the mouth possess two egg tooth. After 54 days, the tail remains as a small appendix, there is only one egg teeth, and body is densely pigmented. The hatehling oceurred after 64 days of development, the young possess reddish brown coloration, vestigial tail, and no egg teeth.
Abstract in English:The pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston, 1970 are described and illustrated. Eleven species of four Hymenoptera families (Apidae, Eumenidae, Megachilidae and Sphecidae) are recorded as hosts of the immature stages of A. o. oedipus and A. o. aquilus.
Abstract in English:Pimelodus maculatus Lacepede, 1803 is an important fish of the Säo Francisco river basin, where it is economically significant in both professional and sports fisheries. The fish, maintained in captivity, was subjected to hypophysation with crude caip pituitary extract. Approximately 70% of the females treated spawned viable eggs. The eggs were opaque, demersal, yellow and free. Egg stripping was performed at 213 hour-degrees (duration = 8.3 h) after the second dose injection, at water temperature of 25-26ºC. Hatching occurred at 394 hour-degrees (duration = 16.3 h) after egg fertilization, at water temperature of 24-25ºC. Egg fertilization rate was 64.8%. The relationship between absolute fecundity (AF), initial fertility (IF) and final fertility (FF) and body weight are expressed, respectively, by AF = - 331 + 181717 Wt (r² = 0.62), IF = - 16839+ 158123 Wt (r² = 0.65), and FF = -9874 + 100365 Wt (r² = 0.63).
Abstract in English:The females and nests are described of two new species of social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) from dry evergreen forest on the Ilha de Maraca, Roraima, Brazil. Mischocyttarus (Monocyttarus) maracaensis sp.n. closely resembles M. flavicornis Zikan, 1935 in morphology and coloration. Polybia (Myrapetra) roraimae sp.n. is a member of the P. occidenlalis (Olivier, 1791) group of species.
Abstract in English:Latrodectus gr. mactans is responsible for 28% of ali accidents provoked by spiders in state of Bahia, Brazil (1980-1990), which makes necessary the study of its manejament. The spiders were captured in Ondina, Salvador, and in Baxio, Esplanada (Bahia, Brazil); they were mantained in captivity, with food supply weekly (Atta sp., larva of Tenebrio sp. and Drosophila melanogaster) with three hours/ offers observation time, during march/95 to april/96. In captivity, the spiders accepted two kinds of food: Atta sp., which seems to be the major item of its diet in natural conditions, and larva of Tenebrio sp., which is not available in natural conditions. Drosophila melanogaster was systematically rejected. The feeding behavior iscomposed by four distinct steps: (1) imrnobilization, (2) inoculation, (3) second immobilization and (4) ingestion. Two kinds of social alimentary behavior are descri-bed. The results indicated that larvae of Tenebrio sp. can be an alternative supply for successfull maintenance of this specie in captivity.
Abstract in English:This study provides a list of anurans occuring in Londrina Municipality, north of Paraná, and analyses the difference in species richness between one well preserved forest area (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy) and another, altered area (Estação de Piscicultura da Universidade Estadual de Londrina). The greatest number of species was in the preserved area (24 species) when compared to the altered one (14 species). The occurence of true forest species (stenoics), such Crossodactylus sp., Eleutherodactylus binotatus, E. guentheri, and Hyalinobatrachium uranoscopum, only in the Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy shows the conservation leveis of áreas and put in evidence the anurans as biological indicators of environmental quality. New registers for Paraná State were the following species: H. uranoscopum, P. avelinoi and Scinax perereca.
Abstract in English:A total of 6,575 larvae in the preflexion, flexion and post-flexion stages of 15 families, 26 genera and 29 species were captured in the surf zone of Pontal do Sul beach, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of the families Gerreidae and Scianidae predominated and larvae of Eucinostomus argenteus (Baird&Girard, 1854), Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823), Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier, 1830), Menticirrhus ameri-canus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz, 1829) were the most dominant species. Greater abundance of larvae was observed during the summer, followed by winter and in a less extent during spring and autumn. The number of species was greater in the summer, and there were no significant differences in the rest of the seasons.
Abstract in English:A new species of Plesiommata Provancher, 1889 is described, from Mato Grosso, Brazil. P. zanolae is similar with P. corniculata and P. mollicula, but its different in the structural aspect male genitalia and coloration.
Abstract in English:Residence patterns, habitat use, range, and some population estimate of the coastal bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821), were documented in two coastal sites in southern Brazil: Laguna (Santa Catarina) (28º30'S; 48º55'W), and Imbe/Tramandai (Rio Grande do Sul) (29º58'S; 50º07'W). Regular observations were carried out at the Laguna system for 27 months (August 1989 to December 1991). The dolphins were photo-identified using natural permanent marks. Over 4,500 photograps were taken from shore grounds 6 to 14 meters away. Up to 51 dolphins have used the estuaries of Laguna's canal and Imarui-Santo Antonio's lagoon system in 1991. A stable group of nine animals has inhabited the Imbe/Tramandai area for over 13 years. Both sites were considered distinctive geographical communities, with 5.7% interchange within their individuals. In Laguna 88.5% of the individuals were resident and the rest were nonresident. Four cases of movement along the coastline were followed and females were more resident than males.
Abstract in English:An osteological description of the syncranium and hyoid apparatus of Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) is presented. By comparison between males and females signiflcant intersexual differences were found in relation to: skull size, frontal, parietal and basisphenoid bones, interpterygoid opening and teeth number and mor-phology. Absence of pterygoid teeth in A. ameiva is verified out. The specimens used for this study carne from Chaco and Formosa provinces (Argentina).
Abstract in English:Thirteen new riodinid taxa are described: Euselasia azurea sp.n., Euselasia albomaculiga sp.n., Euselasia pseudomys sp.n., Euselasia pance sp.n., Euselasia eberti sp.n., Mesosemia bahia sp.n., Pterographium elegans chocoensis ssp.n., Ematurgina grandis sp.n., Pachythone sumare sp.n., Audre middletoni diamantina ssp.n., Synargis calyce pernambuco n.ssp., Nymphidium trinidadi sp.n., Nymphidium smalli sp.n.. Notes are presented on relationships, habits, habitat and range of each taxon. The foodplant afN. trinidadi in Colombia is Inga coruscans H. & B.
Abstract in English:Bacterial strains isolated from the kidney and liver of grey mullets, Mugil platanus Giinther, 1880, captured in Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil, in October 1996, belong to the genera Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Aeromonas and Vibrio. The resistance/susceptibility patterns of the isolated micro-organisms to nine antimicrobial substances were determined, the more resistant bacteria had been Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Micrococcus. To the best of the authors knowledge this is the first bacteriological study done on Mugil platanus in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Parauchenipterus striatulus is a representative of the freshwater catfish with wide distribution in the South America region. Despite of being a very abundant fish in rivers and reservoirs of this region, little is known about its biology and ecology. In Ribeirão das Lajes reservoir (22º42'S - 22º50'S, 43º53'- 44º05' W, Rio de Janeiro), the Rio de Janeiro state's largest hydroelectric reservoir, this species is very abundant, representing about 40% of the total experimental fish catches using gill nets. This paper aims to assess aspects of the reproductive cycle of this species describing the gonadal stages, gonadosomatic index, weight-length relationship and condition factor. Fish sampling were carried out bi-monthly, between April 1996 and May 1997. Gill nets used were 100 m long, 4 m high with mesh size between 25 and 65 mm. Macroscopic analysis of 339 individuais were performed for the determination of 5 maturation stages, for both sexes (immature, maturation I, maturation II, ripe, spawned (females) and emptied (males). The gonadosomatic index for both sexes was higher from October to March, suggesting a long spawning period while the condition factor was higher from February to June, showing an inverse relationship between these two parameters. Weight-length relationship for males was W=0,0095L3,C862and for females W= 0,0116L3,126, and no significam differences were shown between sex with reference to the alometry coefficient.
Abstract in English:In this study the incidence of moths and beetles was examined from feces samples of bats that use different foraging behaviors. Twenty sites around the Fazenda Intervales, a Field Research Station located in São Paulo State, in southeastern Brazil were sampled. Feces were collected from bats caught in mist nets, Turtle Traps or hand nets and, in one case, from beneath a roost. Feces samples were taken from six species of bats: Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842), Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838), Furipterus horrens (F. Cuvier, 1828), Myotis riparius Handley, 1960, Myotis ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806) and Histiotus velalus (I. Geoffroy, 1824). To record and describe the frequencies dominating bat echolocation calls, an Anabat II bat detector coupled with an Anabat ZCA interfaces and DOS laptop computers were used. The data show that Furipterus horrens feeds extensively on moths, as predicted from the features of its echolocation calls. Gleaning bats, whose echolocation calls are much less conspicuous to moths take a wide range of insect (and other) prey.
Abstract in English:A quali-quantitative survey was carried out in two riparian forests fragmente (approximately 40 ha each) at Jacaré-Pepira river. Our intention was to characterize its bird community conceming richness, abundance and species occurrence in these areas. The qualitative survey showed 130 species at Santa Elisa (Brotas, São Paulo) and 151 at Morro Chato (Dourado, São Paulo), whereas the quantitative survey revealed the presence of 69 and 75 species at Santa Elisa and Morro Chato, respectively. The small size and the isolation might be responsible for the low number of species found. Observing the abundance index values (IPA) we realize that there are a few number of species with a high IPA on the one hand, while on the other there is a large number of species with intermediate and low IPA rates. A high detection coefficient (vocalization), low predatoiy rates and competition might have contributed for the higher abundance values found among these species. Furthermore, we have also registered species which are abundant in a fragment, but absent in the other, which might be explained by initial exclusion or local extinction. In spite of the riparian forests being protected by law, its clearing process has not stopped yet. Therefore, the study of this bird community is of uppermost impoitance for the elaboration of both conservation and management projects regarding these areas.
Abstract in English:Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the central nervous system (CNS) of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 wandering stage larvae. The PAP immunocytochemical method was applied to the entire CNS (whole mounts). About 90 neurons were visualized in the CNS (20 in the brain and 70 in the ventral ganglion). Both somata and axons were strongly stained. These neurons showed a segmental arrangement and bilateral symmetry. All processes presented a basic projection pattern, in which the major fibres travel contralaterally. Comparison of these neurons with serotonergic neurons described in other insects suggests order-specific traits such as cerebral clusters and presence of only one 5-HT immunoreactive neuron in the 8th abdominal neuromere as well.
Abstract in English:The results obtained by two estimators of population sizes, MNKA and Mh, were compared for four species of small mammmals - Didelphis aurita Wied, 1826, Philander frenata (Olfers, 1818), Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827) and Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) - during a long-term population study. The MNKA estimator consistently underestimated the population sizes in relation to Mh. On the other, the probabilistic estimator Mh, which reduces bias through the jackknife technique, could not be used in all cases as its assumptions were not always met. Correction factors between the estimates obtained by the two methods were calculated for the last three species, for which catchability did not vary significantly in time and that presented positive correlation between the estimates by the two models. In order to combine the adavantages of both methods for small mammal population studies, is suggested the use of probabilistic closed population models and to calculate a correction factor based in another model which allow estimates in all cases, and which provides correlated estimates. This correction factors should be used in those cases where the probabilistic model cannot be used.
Abstract in English:Bethylidae specimens from the Reserve were studied in its ecological and faunistic aspects. The material was collected by Malaise and Window traps simultaneously in ten different areas of the Reserve during four years. The total number of genera and specimens were analyzed. Indices of diversity and evenness were used for characterizing the community ecology. Clustering analysis of localities and genera were provided. Nine genera of Bethylidae were found in the Reserve, being Pseudisobrachium Kieffer, 1904 and Apenesia Westwood, 1874 the most common ones. Window trap was more efficient than Malaise trap in terms of genus diversity.
Abstract in English:The redescription of Triorla interrupta (Macquart, 1834) and T. striola (Fabricius, 1805) and the description of T. parastriola sp.n. are presented with illustrations of the abdomens, inale and female terminalia and the spemiathecae.
Abstract in English:Adult Tephritidae, especially of the genus Anastrepha (Schiner, 1868), have been observed to feed on a wide variety of natural diets. The fruit on which they feed, in general, are rich in sugar content, chiefly glucose, frutose and sucrose, which are also the sugars that those insects utilise better. Neither the behavioural mechanisms, nor the physiological ones, that control food selection by insects, are well known. Because some of those aspects are not known for the species Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) either, and in order to understand their biology better, three experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, it was checked whether there was a difference in metabolic profit by those insects, when fed the carbohydrates more frequently found in nature, as resulting in a bigger egg production and higher survival rate at the end of the experiment. In the second, it was checked whether A. obliqua can regulate diet ingestion according to carbohydrate content in dry as well as wet diets. In the third experiment, measurements were made to establish the lowest carbohydrate concentration flies are able to recognise in the diet. Analysis of the data showed that ingestion of carbohydrates which are commonly found in nature, in association with a protein source, is very well utilised by females of A. obliqua. It was also shown that .those insects are not probably able to compensate for the difference in carbohydrate content in dry diets, whereas they do so for wet diets. In relation to discrimination threshold, it seems that it is related to the higher occurrence of the carbohydrate in their normal diet, that is, they can recognise carbohydrates that are common in their natural diet better than the less frequent ones.
Abstract in English:The New World taxa of the pantropical Chlidanotinae tribe Chlidanotini (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) are reviewed. Twenty seven species and two subspecies are described as new: Auratonota auriginea, A. badiaurea, A. clasmata, A. exoptata and A. tessellata (Brazil); A. paidosocia and A. spinivalva cubana (Cuba); A. cataponera, A. flora, A. foederata, A. monochroma, A. moronana, A. nugax, A. petalocrossa maldonada, A. splendida, A. stigmosa and A. virgata (Ecuador); A. effera, A. oxytenia, A. serotina and A. spinivalva spinivalva (Mexico); A. magnifica (Venezuela); Heppnerographa brasiliana and H. lapilla (Brazil); H. ardea, H. carchiana and H. ecualorica (Ecuador). Three new combinations are also established: Auratonota hyacinthina (Meyrick, 1911), A. multifurcata (Meyrick, 1932), and Heppnerographa tricesimana (Zeller, 1877).
Abstract in English:This study analyses some reproductive aspects of Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, a crab usually commercialized in Ubatuba region. Monthly otter-trawl collections were taken for two years along the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. The reproductive period was studied based on the frequency of ovigerous females in the population along the year; the frequency of physiologically mature swimming crabs and the type of spawn. The condition of development of ovigerous females ovary was associated with the stage of eggs development. This species presents continuous reproduction in Ubatuba region and total spawn, but with successive broods, which suggests a multiple spawn during the reproduction period.
Abstract in English:Arlesia arleana sp.n. is described and illustrated. Arlesia proxima (Arlé, 1939) is redescribed based on especimens from Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.
Abstract in English:Two new species are described: N. xavantina sp.n. and N. itaumiensis sp.n., both from Brazil.
Abstract in English:The female of Huancabamba rotundiceps is described. Illustrations of male genitalia is also added.
Abstract in English:A study of four tree-hole nesting bee species of Centris Fabricius, 1804 was conducted between July, 1988 and June, 1990 in isolated and continuous "terra firme" forests at Manaus region. Nests were obtained from wood trap-nests of different diameters and consisted of a linear series of brood cells. Centris dichrootricha (Moure, 1945) and C. terminata Smith, 1874 were the most abundant species. Centris terminata nested principally in gaps and continuous forest and C. dichrootricha in cleared areas and small fragments of forest. More nests were obtained in trap-nests placed at 8 and 15 m height above ground. Nesting activity was more pronounced in the wet season between August and January. Natural enemies are the beetle Tetraonyx Latreille, 1805 and the bees Coelioxys Latreille, 1809, Mesocheira Lepeletier & Serville, 1825 and Mesoplia Lepeletier, 1841. Nest architecture of Centris spp. are described.
Abstract in English:Three new associations of Philornis Meinert, 1890 flies and Thamnophilidae are registered: Formicivora erythronotos (Hartlaub) with Philornis sp., Thamnophilus ruficapillus (Vieillot) with P. downsi and Thamnophilus palliatus with P. glaucinis.
Abstract in English:Bordoniana is here proposed as a new name for Bordonia Sakakibara, 1997 (praeoc.) - non Bordonia Cobos, 1978 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) -, and, consequently, the following changes: Bordoniana venezuelana (Sakakibara, 1979) comb.n.; B. clypeata (Sakakibara, 1997) comb.n.; B. majuscula (Sakakibara, 1997) comb.n.; B. nigricosta (Goding, 1926) comb.n.; B. virescens (Funkhouser, 1940) comb.n..
Abstract in English:A case of partial albinism in the pampas deer, recorded at the Emas National Park, Goiás, Brazil is described. The coat color and behaviour of the albino are compared with normal pampas deer.
Abstract in English:Burckhardtia nom. nov. is proposed for Neopelma Burckhardt, 1987 (Psyllidae, Homoptera), preoccupied by Neopelma Sclater, 1860 (Pipridae, Aves).
Abstract in English:Limnocoris bergi De Carlo, 1941 (Heteroptera: Naucoridae) is proposed as a new synonymy of L. brasiliensis De Carlo, 1941.