Abstract in English:Annual fluetuation of densities and population strueture of Armases angustipes (Dana, 1852) from a rocky shore at Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil (25º51'S and 48º32'W) were studied. The population strueture was treated in the following aspects: sexual proportion, dial intensity of activities, size composition and its fluetuation, and general condition of the crabs. The collections were made monthly, from January to December 1991. The samples were obtained handly, in the morning and at night, at the supratidal zone during low tides. There were caught 1,139 crabs, among which 34 were juveniles, 544 males, 555 females and 4 ovigerous females. Population density was highest in April (19.56 ind.m"² ) and in October (23.86 ind.m"² ). The sexual proportion was 1:1 in eleven months. Although the male crabs were more abundant than the females in May, there was not any statistical significam difference between the sexes. The activity of the population is intenser at night than at morning for both sexes. The recruitment of juveniles oceurs mainly in March, April and July. The condition factor in females is related to the reproduetive period. The population can migrate to the terrestrial habitat near the supratidal zone.
Abstract in English:The relative growth of the male chelipod and female abdomen of Armases angustipes (Dana, 1852) was studied in order to determine the carapace size of puberty. Also, the age of juvenile crabs in laboratory was established. A total of 537 males and 557 females were analysed and the transition point between mature and immature stages was determined for both sexes. Males attain maturity at 1.00 cm carapace width and females at 1.08 cm. The relative growth of female abdomen was more remarkable than that of the male chelipod, although both are positive allometric. It suggests a greater importance of a large abdomen in females than a strong chelipod in males. Juvenile crabs reared from megalopa stage has five developmental stages before reaching sexual differentiation. This occurs in the sixth juvenile stage, when the intermolt stages become longer. The potential equation between carapace width and accumulated duration of juvenile stages is described as CW = 0,047D0,508.
Abstract in English:Paraphetea gen.n. is described to accommodate Parmula gibbula Fairmaire, 1846 (type species) (from Brazil) and Ophiderma fascipennis Funkhouser, 1919 (from Bolivia). Paraphetea gibbula (Fairmaire, 1846) comb.n. and Paraphetea fascipennis (Funkhouser, 1919) comb.n., are characterized, commented, and illustrated.
Abstract in English:With the purpose of investigating the biological aspects of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866) Kamensky, 1905 in Subulina octona Bruguiere, 1789 experimental infections were carried out with the exposure of 90 adult molluscs to 155 L1 of the parasite/mollusc during 24 hours. The intramollus-can larval development was checked out daily through the chemical digestion of four infected molluscs and one molluscs from the control group during 21 days after infection. Until the 6th day post-infection, only Li of the parasite has been observed. On the 7th day; the presence of L2 was detected and from the 13th day on, L3 of A. vasorum also appeared. By means of larval morphometry, it has been observed that, Li had na average size of 335 x 14,5 um whereas L2 had an average size of 440,7 x 33,9 um on the 7th day ofter infection, reaching a, aximal diameter of 41,8 um on the 12th day after infections. The L3 had an average size of 472,4 x 38,7 um on the 13th day day and on the 21st' day after infection the measure was 551,3 x 27,6 um. In order to verify the infectivity of L3, from 5. octona to the definitive host, infection of a dog was undertaken by means of ingestion of tritured molluscs. On the 49th day post-infection, Li was found in the feaces of the dog and at necropsy on the 84th day post-infection adults worms were found in the lungs.
Abstract in English:The crustaceans of the genus Aegla Leach, 1820, are found in streams, rivers of caves, current rivers and lagoons, from Franca, São Paulo, Brazil (20º60'S, 47º40'W), to Ilha Madre de Dios (5uº01'10"S, 75º18'45"W), Chile in South America. The crabs (Aegla plalensis Schmitt, 1942) were monthly sampled by hand fromjuly 1997 to september 1998 in Arroio do Mineiro, Taquara (29º46'S, 50º53'W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The sex, the length and width of the carapace were registered. After being collected the animais were returned to the stream. The repro-ductive period, the size at the first maturation and the sex-ratio were identifred. The reproductive period of A. platensis lasts the whole year. The percentage of ovigerous females is higher in july. The size at the first maturation is from 14,40 to 15,60 mm of carapace length. The sex-ratio is 1,08 male to 1 female. The annual population's density is 12 animais per square meter.
Abstract in English:The crustaceans of the genus Aegla Leach, 1820 are found in streams, rivers and lakes from Franca, São Paulo, Brazil (20º60'S, 47º40'W), to Ilha Madre de Dios, Chile (50º01'10"S, 75º18'45"W) in South America. The growth and cheliped asymmetry of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942 were analyzed. The animals were collected from July 1997 to September 1998 at Arroio do Mineiro, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29º46'S, 50º53"W). The sex, length, width of the carapace and the total weight of the crab were registered. And after that, the animals were returned to the stream. In the statistical analysis von Bertalanffy's model was used. The growth curves in length (mm) of males and females are described, respectively, by the following equations: L1 = 17.39 [1 - e -0041(t + 3913)] and L1 = 19.12 [1 - e -0.0033 (t + 50.38)]. The equations that describe the growth in weight (g) of males and females, respectively, are: Wt = 2.48 [1 - e -0.0041(t + 3913)]3.04 and Wt - 3.38 [1 - e - 0033(t + 50.38)]3.05 Among 36,5% males had larger left chelae and 52% of females had chelae of the same size.
Abstract in English:The new species can be distinguished by the male genitalia, mainly by the aedeagus process that present each rami with a apical bifurcation.
Abstract in English:The genus Corysles Mulsant, 1850 is revised and illustrations of pertinent characters are provided. Lectotypes are designated for Diazonema fallax Weise, Callanga, Peru and Corystes cavifrons Weise, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Diazonema Weise, 1926 and Corysles (Diazonema) Duverger, 1989, are synonymyzed with Corystes Mulsant, and Diazonema fallax Weise, 1899 Corystes cavifrons Weise, 1926 and Corystes pubescens Weise, 1926 are placed in synonymy of Corysles hypocrita Mulsant, 1850.
Abstract in English:Description of the fifth larval instar and pupa of Caligo martia (Godart, ) from material reared in southern Brasil are described and illustrated. The larvae feed on two species of Cyperaceae. The Caterpillar and pupa appearences are compared with others Caligo species.
Abstract in English:The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a.) when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary). Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126) are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76%) of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic) or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian), from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities. Vicariance (physical) was the principal event that appealed to explain the distribution of many subfamilies and tribes whereas dispersal accounted for distribution of the majority of interzoogeographical genera.
Abstract in English:This paper reports twenty eight acarine species belonging to twenty four genera in eleven families, associated with rubber trees, Hevea spp. (Euphorbiaceae), from Brazil. A key to the genera and species is included.
Abstract in English:The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W) at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young leaves of soya been (Glicine max), oat (Avenasaliva), ryegrass (Lolium mulliflorum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Only one female was observed feeding on dry leaves. A stag was observed feeding on a barley ear. Group's average size was 1.5 individual. Stags/female proportion was 1: 0.96. Animais displaying velvet coated antlers were observed in June and July which is in accordance with literature about antlers change in a definite period restricted to winter. Only one youngster was observed in September 1996. It is believed that the species survive in the region despite human activities through adaptation of feeding habits with the introduction of agricultura! species. This population could disappear in a few years because of the small number of individuais and their isolation.
Abstract in English:The analysis of field notes of specimens conserved in museums, specimens labels, informations from bibliography and field observations by the author permited the identification of two áreas (Teresópolis and Serra da Bocaina, in the Serra do Mar, states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, respectivelly) where specimens of Phaenomys ferrugineus (Thomas, 1894) have been collected in the past. The species is endemic to South Eastern Brazil and has not been collected for more than fifty years.
Abstract in English:Pseudonannolene mesai sp.n. from Biritiba Mirim, State of São Paulo, Brazil, is described and the chromosome number (2n=16) is reported. It was impossible to observe the chromosomal sex determination mechanism.
Abstract in English:The proventriculus morphology of the cricket Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 is described using scanning electron microscopy and the correlation of this structure with the feeding habits briefly considered.
Abstract in English:Forty six beetles Scotocryptus melitophilus Reitter, 1881 collected in a nest of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1836 were studied. All beetles were put together in a large petri dish with 14 males, 14 virgin queens and 14 workers of M. quadrifasciata, which was not aggressive towards the S. melitophilus and flew with 3 to 10 beetles attached to them. When groups of 20 workers, 20 males and 20 virgin queens were put separately in three petri dishes, the workers become attractive to beetles after they were seven days old, while the males after the 19 days old. Only one virgin queen five days old attracted one beetle. The anatomic parts of the workers bees more attractive to the beetles when smeared to a filter paper were the head (32%), abdomen (29%) and legs (29%). The part of the workers bees that less attracted the beetles was the thorax (10%). 5. melitophilus, both males and females, are able to distinguish caste, sex and age differences of their host M. quadrifasciata, what can increase the adaptive value of the beetles involved in phoretic behavior.
Abstract in English:The digestive tube of workers of Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen, 1858) e Coptotermes havilandi Holmgren, 1911 was analysed under the anatomical view. The digestive tube of both species did not show conspicuous diferences in relation to the morphology, morphometry and the configuration of the digestive tube that were the aspects studied. The general organization of the digestive tube of these species show several similarity with other lower termites previously analysed.
Abstract in English:The Lagoa do Peixe ("Peixe's Lagoon") is located between Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa dos Patos and is 30 Km long and 0,5-2,0 Km wide (31º13'S, 50º55'W -31º26'S, 51º09'). For one year, the composition and distribution of Crustácea Decapoda were analyzed monthly (from July/1994 to June/1995), in seven subareas (terrestrial border and aquatic area) and physical and chemical parameters (depth, salinity, sediment texture, oxygen in water, organic material of sediment and water temperature) were registered. Decapoda from the families Grapsidae, Ocypodidae, Portunidae (Brachyura), Diogenidae (Anomura) and Penaeidae (Penaeidea) were captured. Chasmagnathus granulata Dana 1851 was found ali months near the canal connecting Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa do Peixe, but inside the lagoon it was collected only in October/94 and June/95, and in extreme subareas it was sampled in February/95 when the salinity was 31 ‰ at these sites. Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 and Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 were captured throughout the year, except October/94 and April/95, respectively. Both species were found in ali áreas of sample, indicating a high plasticity in relation to the factors analyzed in this study. Another species captured probably come in the lagoon in specific months, when the environment provides ideal conditions for their develo-pments.
Abstract in English:A specimen of Enyalius perditus Jackson, 1978 collected in a pitfall trap installed at the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Municipality of Lima Duarte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on 19 March 1997, showed a transversal rupture of the skin, on dorsum of posterior region of the head, just joining the ear openings. In captivity, the continuance of the shedding scain spent approxima-tely one hour and forty minutes. The pieces of skin were removed in the sequence: head, venter, arms and flanks, legs, tail, and finally the tip of the fingers. The removed skin was eaten at the end of each stage.
Abstract in English:A monthly quantitative study on B. platycnemis (Fieber, 1851) was carried out in a sand dune marsh, on the littoral of Rio Janeiro State. The aims of this study were to correlate the life cycle of the species with the seasonal regime of the water body, defining steps of the annual cycle, age strueture, and to indicate oviposition sites and trophic relations. The species shows a marked seasonal tendency. The major steps of the life cycle obtained were an invernal (weak) with a predominance of imagines, followed by another of population expansion, characterized by the absence of adults, massive eclosions and predominance of low instar nymphs. Probably, B. platycnemis has a sensibility to water levei variation and might be intluenced by the concentration of Spirogyra sp. (Chlorophyceae) in the water column. In relation to oviposition, B. platycnemis has not shown preference for any macrophyte, since eggs were found in Rhynchosphora corymbosa (Linnaeus) Britton (Cyperaceae), Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth. (Cyperaceae) and Nymphoides indica (Linnaeus) O. Kuntze. (Menyanthaceae). The observed predators of B. platycnemis were Anax amazilli (Burmeister, 1839) (Aeshinidae), Eryihemis crédula (Hagen, 1861) (Libellulidae) and other Odonata, nymphs and adults of Belostoma candidulum Montandon, 1903 (Belostomatidae), Notonecta (Paranecta) disturbata Hungerford, 1926, Buenoa antigone antigone (Ki-rkaldy, 1899) (Notonectidae), besides Curicta cf. tibialis (Martin, 1898) and Ranatra horvalhi Montandon, 1910 (Nepidae). Larvae of Sayomyia sp. (Chaoboridae), Chiro-nomus spp. and Labrundinia sp. (Chironomidae), Callibaetis gutlatus Navás, 1915 (Baetidae), cladocerans and copepods are potential prey of B. platycnemis, while ostracodes were refused.
Abstract in English:The Atlantic Forest small mammal land fauna, except bats, and the abiotic factors that might have an influence on its composition, were studied in the Itapevi County, State of Sao Paulo, a forested region, partly altered by antropic action, from January, 1995 to June, 1996. The trapping effort consisted of 2,888 trap-nights, resulting in a 4.6% trapping success and consisted of monthly trappings, for five consecutive days. During this period, 134 specimens were captured, of which 46.3% were Didelphimorphia and 53.7% were Rodentia. Eleven species were registered: two Didelphimorphia: Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1841), and nine Rodentia: Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887), Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841), Oxymycterus hispidus Pictet, 1843, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837), Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818), Oryzomys angouya (Fischer, 1814), Raltus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769), Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814) and Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777. The relative density indices were correlated with meteorological data by Spearman and Pearson coefficients. For marsupials these correlations were not significant. For rodents, the correlations were significant and directly related to lower temperature and rainfall indices (p<0.05). During the dry season the occurrence of small mammals was 50% greater than during the wet season, probably due to foraging strategies in the studied fragment of Atlantic Forest.
Abstract in English:A year-long beach seine survey at the continental margin of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, catching mainly young-of-the-year and juvenile fishes was carried out from July 1983 to June 1984, in order to describe the community structure and their spatial and seasonal variations. Fifty-five monthly samplied carried out in five sites in the marginal surf zone waters yielded 11,463 fishes in 82 species, 59 genera and 31 families. Gerreidae, Engraulidi-dae, Atherinidae and Ariidae families amounted 87.01% of the total catch in number, and 81% in weight. Cerres aprion Cuvier, 1829, Anchoa januaria (Steindachner, 1879), Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911), Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) and Neluma barba (Lacépède, 1803) were the most numerous species, each one contributing more the 4% of total catch. Overall, both spatial and seasonal changes in fish were not evident although most individuais were more abundant in the outer Bay. The high number of fish species in this area, suggest the important role played by the Sepetiba Bay in the fish community to where many species probably migrate from the nearby sea and stay in the Bay during part of their life cycle. Decreasing diversity and high dominance of a few number of species seem to indicated a trend of environmental deterioration in the Sepetiba Bay over the last decade, as this date are compared whith similar sampling program carried out in 1993/94. It same to indicated that changes in fish populations which use this area as rearing grounds, occurred during their early life history.
Abstract in English:Spatial distribution of birds was studied in 10 ha forest fragment at Londrina State University, southem Brazil (23º15'S, 51º10'W). Five habitats were categorized in the forest fragment: four related to the edges and one related to the forest interior. A line transect, crossing ali these habitats, was used to identify the bird species one day each two weeks from September 1996 to September 1997 totaling 57 days of samplings. The forest was divided into three leveis: understory (bellow 3 m), mid-levels (3-7 m) and canopy (above 7 m). Occurrence frequencies in each habitat and each forest levei were calculated for each of the 62 species identified during the field work. The number of species in each levei was similar (43 species in the understory, 42 at mid-levels and 40 in the canopy). Edges had higher number of species (51, 46, 33 and 30 species) and most of them with more than 50% of occurrence frequency. By contrast, forest had the lowest number of bird species (29 species), 80% of them with less than 50% of occurrence frequency, what suggest that the edge effect is strong on this forest fragment.
Abstract in English:The mean values of hepatosomatic relation (HSR), splenosomatic relation (SSR) and relative condition factor (Kn) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilolicus Trewavas, 1983); pacu (Piaractus mesopolamicus Holmberg, 1887); piauçu (Lepori-nus macrocephalus Garavello & Britski, 1988) and tambacu hybrid (P. mesopotamicus male x Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 female) are described. The experiment was carried out from feefishing farm situated in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. Nile tilapia showed the greatest HSR compared to pacu, piauçu and tambacu. Although, in the last three fishes the relation was similar. The SSR between tilapia and piausu was similar, but smaller than observed in pacu and tambacu. Nevertheless, SSR in pacu and tambacu was different. The hepatic weight/body weigth relation and hepatic weight/body length relation presented positive correlation in ali studied fishes. The splenic weight/body weigth relation and splenic weight/body length relation were not significam (P>0.05) in Nile tilapia, pacu and tambacu, but highly significant in piauçu (PO.01).
Abstract in English:During one year of the project called "Survey of the Entomological Fauna in Paraná State" (henceforth PROFAUPAR), 126,340 adult specimens of Trichoptera were collected with light trap. The individuais of the family Hydropsychidae were identified and a list of species is presented. Eighteen species in four genera were identified. From this, S. (R.) discalis Flint, 1972,5. (R.) paramnsis Flint, 1983;S (R.) spinulosa Flint, 1972 are for the first time registered for Brazil and Leptonema sparsum (Ulmer, 1905), Macrostemum hyalinum (Pictet, 1836), S. (Smicridea) albosignata Ulmer, 1907; S. (Rhyacophylax) dentifera Flint, 1983; S. (R.) iguazu Flint, 1983; S. (R.) piraya Flint, 1983; S. (R.) unguiculaia Flint, 1983; S. (R.) vermiculata Flint, 1978 and S. (R.) weidneri Flint, 1972, for Paraná State. Discussion about the individuais abundance and species seasonality is presented.
Abstract in English:For the first time, Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert, 1983 is registered in São Paulo State. The previously suggested occurrence of this species in Brazil is confirmed.
Abstract in English:Fermeria is proposed as a new name for Fairmairiana Sakakibara, 1998 (praeoc.) (non Fairmairiana Alexis & Delpont, 1998 (Coleoptera, Cetoniidae)), and, consequently, the following change: Fermeria spinolai (Sakakibara, 1998), comb.n.