Revista CEFAC, Volume: 23, Issue: 4, Published: 2021
  • International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in adult and older users of audiology services Original Articles

    Souza, Valquíria Conceição; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivo: descrever aspectos da funcionalidade e incapacidade, relacionados à audição e fatores sociodemográficos de usuários de um serviço de audiologia. Métodos: estudo exploratório com amostra probabilística composta por 152 indivíduos que responderam um questionário socioeconômico e assistencial. A funcionalidade e incapacidade foram analisadas por meio da Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde. Foram realizadas análises descritivas dos dados. Resultados: a maior parte dos usuários do Serviço de Saúde Auditiva considerou ter deficiência ligeira 41,2% e moderada 34,2% em b1560Percepção Auditiva e deficiência ligeira 36% e moderada 35,1% em b230Funções Auditivas. Em Atividades e Participação os usuários do Serviço de Saúde Auditiva obtiveram melhores resultados em d330Falar 83,3%, d315Comunicar e receber mensagens não verbais 65,8% e d760Relacionamentos familiares 65,1%. O Aparelho de Amplificação Sonora Individual foi um facilitador na interação social desses sujeitos com o ambiente. A maioria dos indivíduos atendidos no Ambulatório de Audiologia não apresentou deficiência ou dificuldades nas atividades e participação e o ambiente atuou como um facilitador. Conclusão: a maior parte dos participantes atendidos no Serviço de Saúde Auditiva apresentou deficiência na percepção auditiva e funções auditivas, porém essa deficiência não atuou como um fator limitante no desempenho da maioria das atividades e participações avaliadas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to describe aspects of functioning and disability related to hearing and sociodemographic factors of audiology service users. Methods: an exploratory study with a probabilistic sample comprising 152 participants who answered a socioeconomic and assistance questionnaire. The functioning and disability were analyzed by means of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Descriptive data analyses were conducted. Results: most users of the Hearing Health Care Service considered they had mild (41.2%) or moderate (34.2%) disability in b1560 Auditory perception, and mild (36%) and moderate (35.1%) disability in b230 Hearing Functions. In Activities and Participation, the users of the Hearing Health Care Service obtained better results in d330 Speaking (83.3%), d315 Communicating with and receiving nonverbal messages (65.8%), and d760 Family relationships (65.1%). The hearing aid was a facilitator in these subjects’ social interaction with the environment. Most of those attending the Audiology Outpatient Center did not have disabilities or difficulties in the activities and participation, and the environment was a facilitator. Conclusion: most of the participants attending the Hearing Health Care Service had a disability in auditory perception and hearing functions. However, such a disability was not a limiting factor in the performance of most of the activities and participations assessed.
  • Maximum phonation time in the pulmonary function assessment Original Articles

    Moreno, Edvania Gomes Henrique; Calassa, Bianca Teixeira; Oliveira, Daniela Vitoria Silva; Silva, Maylanne Iris Nascimento; Albuquerque, Laienne Carla Barbosa de Barros; Freitas-Dias, Ricardo de; Silva, Bruno Rafael Vieira Souza; Araújo, Rodrigo Capatto de; Costa, Eduarda Lubambo; Costa, Emília Chagas; Correia Junior, Marco Aurélio de Valois

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a concordância do tempo máximo de fonação (TMF) com a Capacidade Vital, intra e interexaminador, por meio da técnica de contagem numérica em uma única respiração (TC) e do fonema /a/ sustentado e da capacidade vital lenta (CVL). Métodos: trata-se de um estudo de concordância realizado em três grupos de indivíduos saudáveis, cada grupo com 30 voluntários, alocados de acordo a idade. A CVL foi mensurada por meio do espirômetro, enquanto o TMF foi avaliado pela emissão do fonema/a/ e da TC. Os dados foram analisados pelo programa SPSS versão 20.0. Inicialmente utilizou-se estatística descritiva e para concordância dos dados foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI). Resultados: os Coeficientes de Correlação Intraclasse (CCI) intraexaminadores foram considerados excelentes, com resultados significantes acima de 0,92 para a CVL e maiores que 0.79 para a TC e fonema/a/. Em relação à avaliação interexaminadores, os CCIs também foram significantes tanto para a CVL com valores maiores que 0,96 quanto para a TC e o fonema/a/ com valores maiores que 0,85. O erro inerente a técnica foi avaliada por meio do erro padrão da medida para as analises intra e interexaminadores com valores que variaram de 1,79 a 3,29 para fonema/a/, 3,20 a 6,58 para TC e 65,05 a 206,73 para CVLml. Conclusão: as técnicas de fonação com o fonema /a/ e TC, assim como a CVL, demonstraram uma excelente concordância intra e interexaminadores.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to evaluate the reliability of the maximum phonation time (MPT) and Vital Capacity intra and inter-examiner, by means of the single-breath counting test (CT) and the sustained /a/ phoneme, and the slow vital capacity (SVC). Methods: a reliability study carried out in three groups of healthy individuals, each group with 30 volunteers, allocated according to age. SVC was measured using a spirometer, while the MPT was assessed by the phoneme /a/ and CT. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Initially, descriptive statistics were used and for data reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were considered excellent, with significant results above 0.92 for SVC and greater than 0.79 for CT and phoneme /a/. Regarding the inter-examiner evaluation, the ICCs were also significant for both SVC with values greater than 0.96, and for CT and the phoneme /a/ with values greater than 0.85. The error inherent in the technique was assessed using the standard error of the measurement for intra and inter-examiner analyses with values ranging from 1.79 to 3.29 for phoneme /a/, 3.20 to 6.58 for CT and 65, 05 to 206.73 for SVCml. Conclusion: phonation techniques with the phoneme /a/ and CT, as well as SVC, have an excellent reliability, due to intra and inter-examiner agreement measures.
  • Pediatric voice-related quality of life and acoustic analysis of voice: a study in schoolchildren Original Articles

    Reis, Suelene Cibelle Silva dos; Nascimento, Giselle Frutuoso; Lira, Zulina Souza de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira Camargo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a qualidade de vida em voz pediátrica autorreferida em escolares, sem queixas vocais e correlacioná-la aos parâmetros acústicos vocais. Métodos: a população desta pesquisa foi constituída por 31 crianças, com média de idade de 6,5 (±0,17) anos. Para verificar a percepção das crianças sobre a qualidade de vida em voz, foi aplicado o protocolo Qualidade de Vida em Voz Pediátrico composto por dez questões fechadas e três domínios. Os parâmetros acústicos avaliados foram frequência fundamental, jitter, shimmer, glottal-to-noise excitation ratio e índice de ruído, além do diagrama de desvio fonatório, a partir da análise da emissão da vogal /ɛ/ sustentada por cinco segundos. Resultados: os três domínios do protocolo Qualidade de Vida em Voz Pediátrico apresentaram escores próximos a 100% para todas as crianças. Quanto aos parâmetros acústicos, a maioria apresentou valores fora da normalidade, no diagrama de desvio fonatório e nos valores de shimmer. Observou-se diferença entre as meninas e os meninos apenas na frequência fundamental. Conclusão: a qualidade de vida em voz pediátrica autorreferida, nas crianças estudadas, apresentou impacto positivo, a despeito das alterações acústicas vocais encontradas. Não houve correlação entre a qualidade de vida em voz pediátrica e os parâmetros acústicos vocais, no grupo estudado.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the self-reported voice-related quality of life of schoolchildren without voice complaints and correlate it to acoustic parameters of voice. Methods: the research population comprised 31 children, mean age 6.5 (±0.17) years. The children’s perception of their voice-related quality of life was verified with the Pediatric Voice-Related Quality of Life Survey, which has 10 closed-ended questions and three domains. The acoustic parameters assessed were fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, glottal-to-noise excitation ratio, and noise rate, besides the phonatory deviation diagram, based on the analysis of the emission of the sustained vowel /ɛ/ for 5 seconds. Results: all the children obtained scores close to 100% in the three domains of the Pediatric Voice-Related Quality of Life Survey. As for the acoustic parameters, most of them presented abnormal values in the phonatory deviation diagram and in shimmer. There was a difference between girls and boys only in fundamental frequency. Conclusion: the pediatric self-reported voice-related quality of life of the children studied had a positive impact, despite the acoustic changes found in the voices. There was no correlation between the pediatric voice-related quality of life and the acoustic parameters in voice in the group studied.
  • Association between speech and dental occlusion changes in children with cleft lip and palate and time of primary plastic surgeries Original Articles

    Schilling, Gabriela Ribeiro; Cardoso, Maria Cristina de Almeida Freitas; Silva, Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da; Maahs, Marcia Angélica Peter

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivos: descrever alterações de fala e dento-oclusais em crianças com fissuras labiopalatinas, verificar a associação entre si e destas com a época das cirurgias plásticas primárias. Métodos: estudo transversal, com coleta de dados de identificação, idade nas cirurgias primárias, avaliação clínica dento-oclusal e da fala. Utilizou-se o teste Qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fisher e teste t para verificar as associações entre as variáveis, com um nível de significância de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: amostra composta por 11 crianças entre seis e dez anos, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino, etnia autodeclarada branca e fissura transforame incisivo (com prevalência de acometimento do lado esquerdo). A média da realização da labioplastia foi aos seis meses e palatoplastia aos treze meses. Dentre as principais alterações dento-oclusais, destacam-se: mordida cruzada posterior e mordida cruzada anterior. Todos os sujeitos apresentaram alteração de fala com prevalência de alterações em casos com deformidades dentoalveolares e palatinas, seguidas pelas alterações passivas e alterações ativas. Houve tendência dos sujeitos que apresentaram mordida cruzada anterior terem sido submetidos à labioplastia primária, em média, quatro meses antes dos sujeitos sem mordida cruzada anterior. Conclusões: as associações entre alterações de fala e dento-oclusais e destas com a época das cirurgias plásticas primárias não foram estatisticamente significantes, e ainda que se saiba que a labioplastia precoce é o ideal para favorecer funções orais e estética, os resultados demonstraram tendência a mordida cruzada anterior nestes sujeitos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to describe the changes in speech and dental occlusion in children with cleft lip and palate and verify their association with each other and with the time of primary plastic surgeries. Methods: a cross-sectional study with collected data on the subjects’ identification, age at the time of primary surgeries, and clinical assessment of speech and dental occlusion. The chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t-test were used to verify the associations between the variables at the 5% significance level (p < 0.05). Results: the sample comprised 11 children aged 6 to 10 years, most of whom were males, self-reported white, with trans-incisive foramen cleft, predominantly on the left side. The mean age at lip repair surgery was 6 months, and 13 months at palatoplasty. Among the main dental occlusion changes, posterior and anterior crossbite stood out. All the subjects presented changed speech, with a prevalence of cases with dentoalveolar and palatine deformities, followed by passive and active changes. Subjects with anterior crossbite tended to have undergone primary lip repair surgery at a mean of four months earlier than the subjects without anterior crossbite. Conclusions: the associations between speech and dental occlusion changes, and between these and the time of primary plastic surgeries were not statistically significant. Even though it is known that early lip repair surgery is ideal to favor oral functions and aesthetics, the results revealed a tendency towards anterior crossbite, in these subjects.
  • Occurrence and remission of loss of sensitivity of inferior alveolar nerve in mandibular fractures Original Articles

    Pellegrini Rocha-Junior, Washington Geraldo; Pavan, Eduardo Pipino; Luz, João Gualberto Cerqueira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to evaluate the occurrence of loss of sensitivity of the inferior alveolar nerve, and to monitor the remission of this change in patients with mandibular fractures subjected to surgical treatment. Methods: patients with mandibular fractures, surgically treated within one year, were prospectively evaluated. Data regarding etiology, fracture location, type and displacement, and surgical access, were obtained. The tactile and thermal tests were applied at eighteen points in the mental region, within a period of six months. Statistical tests were applied to compare the categories of variables and the period of observation (p ≤ 0.050). Results: during the study, 37 patients were included. There were 24 bilateral and 13 unilateral fractures. Sensory changes occurred in 56.8% of the patients in the preoperative period, in 83.8% of the patients, in the postoperative period, and 35.1% of the patients presented complete remission during the final period of the study. Conclusion: sensory changes occurred in about half of the patients, due to the fracture, increasing greatly in the postoperative period, with complete remission in about one third of the cases. The fracture type, degree of displacement and surgical access type influenced the occurrence of sensory alterations.
  • Profile of patients undergoing speech-language therapy in a physical and rehabilitation medicine hospital service Original Articles

    Prieto Farias, Paulo; Campo Rivas, Manuel Nibaldo del

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el perfil y factores de riesgo de usuarios atendidos por fonoaudiólogos en un servicio hospitalario de medicina física y rehabilitación (SMFyR) de la red pública de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohortes retrospectivo. Las variables fueron resumidas mediante frecuencias, proporciones y medidas de tendencia central. Los riesgos relativos (RR) se estimaron mediante razón de incidencias (IC:95%) y la prueba exacta de Fisher bilateral. Se consideró un nivel de significancia p<0,05. Resultados: 23.365 prestaciones fonoaudiológicas distribuidas en 8416 sesiones se realizaron entre los meses de septiembre de los años 2016 y 2018, en un SMFyR. Las prestaciones se concentraron en personas mayores de 60 años en las áreas de la deglución (28,6%) y cognición (11,7%). Se identificó como factor de riesgo para ingreso por enfermedad cerebrovascular la edad igual o superior a 60 años 1,36 (IC., 95%: 1,24-1,49; p = 0,001) y pertenecer al tramo B del fondo nacional de salud 1,37 (IC., 95%: 1,29-1,46; p =0,001). El RR por patología respiratoria fue mayor en el periodo invernal 1.63 (IC., 95%: 1,50-1,76; p= 0,001). Conclusión: las personas mayores y de bajos ingresos presentan mayor riesgo de requerir rehabilitación fonoaudiológica en el contexto de un SMFyR.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the profile and risk factors of patients attended by speech therapists in a hospital service of physical and rehabilitation medicine (P&RM) of the public health system. Methods: a retrospective cohort study was carried out. The variables were summarized using frequencies, proportions, and measures of central tendency. Relative risks (RR) were estimated, using the incidence ratio (IC:95%) and the bilateral Fisher's exact test. A level of significance was considered p <0.05. Results: 23,365 speech therapy activities distributed in 8,416 sessions were carried out between September 2016 to September 2018, with patients admitted to a P&RM service. The activities focused people over 60 years in the areas of swallowing (28.6%) and cognition (11.7%). Age equal to or greater than 60 years was identified as a risk factor for admission, due to cerebrovascular disease of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.24-1.49; p = 0.001), and belonging to section B of the National Health Fund (FONASA), 1.37 (95% CI: 1.29-1.46, p = 0.001). The RR for respiratory pathology was greater in the winter period: 1.63 (95% CI: 1.50-1.76; p = 0.001). Conclusion: elderly and low-income people are more likely to need speech therapy rehabilitation in the context of P&RM service.
  • Proposal of a questionnaire to investigate social communication skills of children with typical development and communication disorders Original Articles

    Lagus, Shelly; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivo: verificar a possibilidade de uso de um questionário simples, aplicado a interlocutores familiares da criança, para identificar as características funcionais de comunicação de crianças com diferentes manifestações do desenvolvimento da linguagem. Métodos: foram realizadas 95 entrevistas individualmente com os responsáveis de crianças posteriormente diagnosticadas com Distúrbio de Linguagem (DL), com Distúrbio de Produção da Fala (DPF), com Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo (TEA) e com Desenvolvimento Típico (DT). Nas entrevistas foi aplicado o Questionário de Habilidades Comunicativas para caracterização do desempenho pragmático. Foram utilizados o teste t de Student e a Análise de Componentes Principais para análise estatística, considerando-se como significante p-valor<0,05. Resultados: as análises estatísticas evidenciam que o uso do questionário desenvolvido permitiu a diferenciação entre os grupos de crianças com diagnósticos de Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo e Distúrbio de Linguagem e o grupo de crianças com diagnóstico de Distúrbios de Produção da Fala e com desenvolvimento típico. Conclusão: o questionário proposto mostrou-se capaz de diferenciar e caracterizar, do ponto de vista pragmático, as crianças com diferentes manifestações do desenvolvimento de comunicação, evidenciando o comprometimento das habilidades pragmáticas de crianças com Transtornos do Espectro do Autismo e com Distúrbios de Linguagem.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to verify the possibility of administering a simple questionnaire to family members who communicate with their children to identify communication functional characteristics of children with different manifestations of language development. Methods: 95 parents/guardians were individually interviewed. Their children were afterwards diagnosed with language disorder (LD), speech production disorder (SPD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). The interviews were conducted with the Communicative Skills Questionnaire to characterize the pragmatic performance. The Student’s t-test and the principal component analysis were used in statistical analysis, considering significant p-values < 0.05. Results: the statistical analyses reveal that the questionnaire distinguished the groups of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and language disorder from the groups of children with speech production disorders and typical development. Conclusion: the questionnaire proved to be capable of distinguishing and characterizing, from the pragmatic standpoint, the children with different manifestations of communication development, revealing the impaired pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders and language disorders.
  • Comparison between rhinometric variables and nasal airing in children with mouth breathing Original Articles

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira Camargo; Cunha, Daniele Andrade da; Almeida, Wigna Rayssa Pereira Lima; Lima, Sandro Junior Henrique; Cunha, Renata Andrade da; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the correlation between the values of nasal aeration and geometry of the nasal cavities, before and after nasal cleansing in children with mouth breathing. Methods: 20 children aged 4 to 12 years old were chosen. The questionnaire Identification Index of Signs and Symptoms of Oral breathing was applied and nasal patency was assessed by nasal aeration, through the Altmann graded mirror, and the nasal geometry measured by acoustic rhinometry. After nasal cleansing and massage, the same aeration measurements and nasal geometry procedures were performed. Group normality was analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test considering the hypothesis of normal distribution whenever p>0.05. The Spearman’s test was applied to analyze the correlation between variables (p<0.05). Results: there was a strong and significant correlation between nasal aeration and the corresponding cross-sectional area of the front of the inferior turbinate (CSA2) in the left cavity before cleansing. There were no correlations between the nasal aeration and other rhinometric variables. Conclusion: there was a correlation between nasal aeration values and the anterior portion of the turbinates, before the massage and nasal cleansing technique, in mouth breathing children. There were no significant differences when the nasal aeration was correlated with other rhinometric variables.
  • Communicative skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder: clinical and family perception Original Articles

    Freitas, Fernanda Aparecida Ferreira de; Montenegro, Ana Cristina de Albuquerque; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda; Delgado, Isabelle Cahino; Almeida, Larissa Nadjara Alves; Alves, Giorvan Ânderson dos Santos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivo: descrever as habilidades de comunicação de crianças com TEA considerando a perspectiva clínica e familiar. Métodos: foi analisada, a partir do ponto de vista dos pais e terapeutas, a linguagem de 10 crianças com TEA. Todas as crianças estavam em acompanhamento fonoaudiológico no ambulatório de uma Clínica Escola de Fonoaudiologia. Foram utilizados dois protocolos para coleta dos dados. O Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist- ATEC, o qual foi aplicado com os pais das crianças, e o Protocolo de Avaliação de Habilidades Pragmáticas de Crianças com Transtornos do Espectro do Autismo - PAHPEA, o qual foi respondido pelos terapeutas. Após aplicação dos protocolos, os dados foram examinados por meio de uma análise estatística descritiva, utilizando-se da frequência absoluta e relativa, e inferencial por meio do teste de associação Qui-quadrado, com significância de 5% para todas as análises. Resultados: de acordo com as respostas apresentadas pelos terapeutas, uma expressiva presença de déficits comunicativos foi observada. No protocolo respondido pelos pais também foi possível observar a mesma tendência, uma vez que as crianças deixaram de pontuar em vários itens da Subescala I. Conclusão: os pais e terapeutas evidenciaram alterações nas habilidades comunicativas das crianças pesquisadas, ressaltando que, assim como os terapeutas, os quais possuem conhecimento técnico linguístico, os pais também podem ser bons informantes sobre o processo de desenvolvimento comunicativo de seus filhos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the communication skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), considering the clinical and family perspective. Methods: from the point of view of parents and therapists, the language of ten children with ASD was analyzed. All children underwent speech therapy at the outpatient clinic of a Speech Therapy School. Two protocols were used for data collection. Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), which was applied to the children's parents, and Protocol for Assessment of Pragmatic Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders - called Pragmatic Protocol (PP), which was answered by therapists. The data were examined through a descriptive statistical analysis, considering absolute and relative frequency, and inferential statistics, through the Chi-square test, with a 5% of significance for all analyses. Results: an expressive presence of communicative deficits, in the answers presented by the therapists, was seen. In the protocol answered by the parents, it was also possible to observe the same trend, since the children failed to score in several items of Subscale I. Conclusion: parents and therapists evidenced changes in the communicative skills of the children surveyed, and emphasized that therapists, who have technical linguistic knowledge, like parents, can also be good informants about their children's communicative development process.
  • Family literacy in preschoolers’ linguistic and metalinguistic skill development Original Articles

    Borges, Monica Teixeira; Azoni, Cíntia Alves Salgado

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivo: verificar a prática de literacia familiar com crianças pré-escolares de uma escola pública de um município da região nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: participaram 21 pais ou responsáveis de crianças pré-escolares do Infantil IV e V de uma escola pública. Um questionário com 18 perguntas sobre a participação dos pais ou responsáveis em práticas de literacia familiar foi elaborado para a pesquisa. Os dados obtidos foram analisados de forma descritiva e inferencial, adotando-se nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: a média da idade dos pré-escolares foi de 69 meses e dos pais ou responsáveis que responderam ao questionário foi de 31 anos. A escolaridade da maioria dos pais era Ensino Fundamental Incompleto ou Ensino Médio Completo. Sobre a relação positiva entre a escolaridade dos pais/responsáveis e os itens do questionário, houve significância entre as práticas de prestar atenção quando a criança fala, demonstrar os sons das letras e palavras e ensinar/incentivar a criança a escrever seu próprio nome. Conclusão: práticas de literacia familiar não são comumente desenvolvidas na cultura do nordeste brasileiro e quando são relacionam-se mais àquelas cujas atividades assemelham-se ao que é ensinado em ambiente escolar. Também foi encontrada correlação fraca entre escolaridade dos responsáveis e as práticas de literacia familiar.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to verify family literacy practices with preschoolers from a public school in a municipality of the Northeast Region of Brazil. Methods: 21 parents/guardians of pre-kindergarten and kindergarten students from a public school participated in this study. A questionnaire with 18 items on the parents’/guardians’ participation in family literacy practices was develop for this research. The resulting data underwent descriptive and inferential analysis, with the significance level set at 5%. Results: the preschoolers’ mean age was 69 months, and that of the parents/guardians who answered the questionnaire was 31 years. The educational level of most parents/guardians was either high school or unfinished middle school. A significant, positive relationship, between the parents’/guardians’ educational level and the following questionnaire items was seen: paying attention to the children when they spoke, calling their attention to the sound of letters and words, and teaching/encouraging them to write their names. Conclusion: family literacy practices are not commonly developed in the culture of the Northeast Region of Brazil, and when so, most of them are similar to activities taught at school. There was also a weak correlation between the parents’/guardians’ educational level and the family literacy practices.
  • Repercussions of language difficulties in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the impact on their lives and on their caregivers Original Articles

    Leite Neto, Lavoisier; Novais, Thais; França Júnior, Marcondes; Chun, Regina

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as repercussões das dificuldades de linguagem para pessoas com Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica e seus cuidadores e o impacto em suas vidas. Métodos: estudo de corte transversal e abordagem qualitativa, estruturado de acordo com o COREQ. Realizou-se entrevista semiestruturada com 30 participantes, familiares e/ou cuidadores de pessoas com a doença, a maioria com tempo de diagnóstico menor que 5 anos, transcrita e analisada sob critérios de repetição e relevância. Resultados: a maioria dos participantes era do sexo feminino, cônjuges, entre 50 e 70 anos, com tempo médio de cuidado menor de 3 anos. Grande parte dos entrevistados relatou ausência de dificuldade em se comunicar com as pessoas com a doença, usar pouco a Comunicação Suplementar e/ou Alternativa, participação social restrita e perceber sinais de desânimo e tristeza na pessoa sob seus cuidados. Em relação a si próprios, referiram angústia em relação ao prognóstico, sobrecarga emocional e mudança intensa de rotina em suas vidas. Conclusão: dificuldades de linguagem não foram frequentemente relatadas, apesar de ter sido percebida restrição na participação social. Os achados mostraram os impactos negativos na qualidade de vida da pessoa e de seu familiar e/ou cuidador, que são vividos com angústia.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the repercussions of language difficulties in people presented with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and in their caregivers, and the impact on their lives. Methods: a cross-sectional study and qualitative approach, structured according to the COREQ. Semi-structured interview was conducted with 30 participants, family members and/or caregivers of people with the disease, most of them diagnosed for less than 5 years, and then transcribed and analyzed under repetition and relevance criteria. Results: most participants were women, spouses, between 50 and 70 years of age, in average being a caregiver for less than 3 years. Most interviewees reported the absence of communication difficulties with the disease, little use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication, restricted social interaction, and the perception of signs of discouragement and sadness in the person under their care. Regarding themselves, they mentioned anguish related to the prognosis, emotional overload, and intense change of routine in their lives. Conclusion: language difficulties were not frequently reported, despite the observation of restricted and social interactions. These findings showed the negative impacts on the quality of life of individuals and that of their family members and caregivers, which are experienced as anguish.
  • Universal neonatal hearing screening program at a university hospital: an analysis using quality indicators Original Articles

    Avila, Audrei Thayse Viegel de; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Vernier, Luíza Silva; Silveira, Adriana Laybauer

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar o programa de triagem auditiva neonatal universal por meio de indicadores de qualidade. Métodos: foram analisados os registros de recém-nascidos que realizaram triagem auditiva neonatal em 2018, comparando-se os dados aos cinco primeiros indicadores de qualidade definidos pela diretriz nacional de atenção à triagem auditiva neonatal: 1°) índice de cobertura de triagem (≥95%); 2°) idade em meses na realização da triagem (até o 1° mês de vida); 3°) índice de encaminhados para diagnóstico (2% a 4%); 4°) índice de comparecimento ao diagnóstico (≥90%) e 5°) idade na conclusão do diagnóstico (até o 3° mês de vida). Os dados foram analisados de forma estatística quantitativa descritiva. Resultados: indicadores de cobertura; idade na realização da triagem e número de encaminhamentos para diagnóstico ficaram dentro do estabelecido pela diretriz nacional. Índice de comparecimento ao diagnóstico ficou abaixo do esperado e a idade na conclusão do diagnóstico foi registrada para 70% dos casos. Conclusão: o uso de indicadores de qualidade forneceu dados importantes sobre a efetividade do programa de triagem auditiva neonatal, assim como identificou oportunidades de melhoria no serviço, as quais podem contribuir na identificação precoce da deficiência auditiva.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the universal neonatal hearing screening program using quality indicators. Methods: the records of newborns who were submitted to the neonatal hearing screening in 2018 were analyzed, comparing the data with the first five quality indicators established by the national guideline for neonatal hearing screening attention: 1) rate of screening coverage (≥95%); 2) age at the screening in months (up to the first month of life); 3) rate of referrals for diagnosis (2% to 4%); 4) rate of attendance to diagnostic examination (≥90%); 5) age at confirmed diagnosis (up to the third month of life). The data were submitted to quantitative and descriptive statistical analysis. Results: the rate of coverage, age at screening, and the number of referrals for diagnosis met the indicators established by the national guideline. The rate of attendance to diagnostic examination fell short of the expected, and the age at confirmed diagnosis was verified in 70% of the cases. Conclusion: using the quality indicators furnished important data on the effectiveness of the neonatal hearing screening program and identified opportunities to improve the service, which can help identify hearing loss, early.
  • Using a screening tool to identify the auditory behavior of students who are learning to read and write Original Articles

    Santos, Giulia Ádni Viana; Lima, Maria Luiza Lopes Timóteo de; Cavalcante, Manoelina Xavier; Venâncio, Leonardo Gleygson Angelo; Teixeira, Cleide Fernandes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o uso de uma ferramenta de rastreio pelo professor, para identificar o comportamento auditivo de estudantes no ciclo de alfabetização. Métodos: estudo de corte transversal realizado na região metropolitana do Recife. Participaram 22 estudantes que responderam ao questionário Fisher’s auditory problems checklist (QFISHER). A análise do questionário foi realizada considerando as categorias: audição; atenção; memória; linguagem e desempenho escolar. Foi utilizado o teste estatístico Qui-Quadrado e Mann-Whitney para comparar o escore entre as faixas etárias avaliadas, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: no QFISHER a pior frequência foi para o desempenho escolar (87,72%), seguido da atenção (62,10%), linguagem (60,53%) e audição (59,65%). A mediana evidenciou pior avaliação para o desempenho escolar (100,0%) seguido da atenção (60,0%). O escore global do QFISHER foi de 66,7% e quando comparado entre as faixas etárias, verificou-se que não houve diferença significante para os domínios avaliados. Conclusão: o QFISHER, enquanto ferramenta de rastreio utilizado pelo professor no ciclo de alfabetização, pode identificar alterações comportamentais sugestivas de transtorno do processamento auditivo, ampliando a possibilidade de intervenções precoces.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the use of a screening tool, by teachers, to identify the auditory behavior of students who are learning to read and write. Methods: a cross-sectional study including 22 students who answered the Fisher’s Auditory Problems Checklist (QFISHER). The analysis of this questionnaire approached the categories of hearing, attention, memory, language, and school performance. The chi-square statistical test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the scores between the age groups, considering the 5% significance level. Results: school performance had the worst frequency in QFISHER (87.72%), followed by attention (62.10%), language (60.53%), and hearing (59.65%). The median revealed worse assessment in school performance (100.0%) followed by attention (60.0%). The QFISHER overall score was 66.7%. The comparison between age groups did not reveal any significant difference for the domains assessed. Conclusion: the QFISHER, used by teachers, as a screening tool for children who are learning to read and write, can identify behavioral changes suggestive of auditory processing disorder, broadening the possibility of early interventions.
  • Synchronous teleconsultation in the management of temporomandibular disorder Original Articles

    Stüermer, Vanessa Müller; Roxo-Gonçalves, Michelle; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Gonçalves, Marcelo Rodrigues; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze synchronous teleconsultation as a support tool in the management of temporomandibular disorders in primary health care and to identify which factors have an impact on decisions about teleconsultation. Methods: retrospective study perfomed in TelessaúdeRS, between May 2018 to May 2020. This study used primary data from synchronous teleconsultation, requested by primary health care professionals and carried out by multiprofessional teleconsultants. The data collected were the information reported by the requester, the teleconsultant's suggestions and if there was referral of the patient for specialized care after teleconsultation. The statistical association was investigated between patient characteristics and decision of teleconsultation; and teleconsultation conduct suggestions and decision of teleconsultation, using Fisher's exact test and modeling was performed using binary logistic regression considering 5% of significance (p≤0.05). Results: during the period, 56 teleconsultations had a temporomandibular diagnostic hypothesis, these 79.2% patients were female and the average age was 43.7 years. In 59.1% of teleconsultations, primary care management was suggested, with 72.4% of patients being managed. An association was found between the decision of teleconsultation and referral to specialized care (p <000.1). The trauma report (p = 0.004) was associated with a greater chance of being referred for special care and suggestions for pharmacological (p <0.001) and non-pharmacological (p = 0.007) treatments were introduced among the teleconsultation managed in primary care. Conclusion: teleconsultation helped to manage the majority of temporomandibular disorder, streamlining care and having the potential to avoid unnecessary referrals to special care.
  • Intensive therapy for speech rehabilitation of a patient with cleft lip and palate: a case report Case Reports

    Vieira, Fernanda Keller Abrantes; Correia, Ingrid; Coelho, Ana Cristina; Picinato-Pirola, Melissa

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO A terapia intensiva é uma alternativa para acelerar o processo terapêutico de indivíduos com fissura labiopalatina. O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever, aplicar um programa de terapia intensiva e comparar a evolução antes e após o programa de fonoterapia de uma criança com fissura transforame incisivo unilateral direita operada e insuficiência velofaríngea em uso de prótese de palato obturadora. Foram realizadas 60 sessões de terapia, durante 4 semanas. Antes e após, aplicou-se anamnese, avaliação da fala e nasofibroscopia. Como resultado, a paciente apresentou adequação da ressonância e da inteligibilidade de fala, diminuição dos distúrbios obrigatórios e das articulações compensatórias após terapia intensiva com prótese de palato obturadora; e redução do gap velofaríngeo após a terapia intensiva com e sem o uso da prótese. Concluiu-se que a fonoterapia intensiva proporcionou evolução do caso.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Intensive therapy is an alternative to accelerate the therapeutic process of individuals with cleft lip and palate. The purpose of this study is to describe an intensive speech therapy program and compare the results before and after the program on a child with previously operated right unilateral cleft lip and palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency, using a speech bulb. Sixty therapy sessions were carried out over a 4-week period. Before and after, anamnesis, speech assessment and evaluation of the velopharyngeal function with nasofibroscopy, were performed. The patient presented with adequate resonance and speech intelligibility, reduction of obligatory disorders and compensatory articulations, after intensive therapy with the speech bulb and reduction of velopharyngeal gap, after intensive therapy with and without the speech bulb. Progress was achieved with the intensive speech therapy.
  • ERRATUM: Maximum phonation time in the pulmonary function assessment Erratum

ABRAMO Associação Brasileira de Motricidade Orofacial Rua Uruguaiana, 516, Cep 13026-001 Campinas SP Brasil, Tel.: +55 19 3254-0342 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
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