Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Strawberry cultivation requires the use of cultivars adapted to the temperature and photoperiod conditions of the production region. The objective of this work was to evaluate cultivars and advanced selections of strawberry on productive performance and fruit quality, under the conditions of South Plateau of Santa Catarina State. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Lages, in the 2016/2017 growing season. The cultivation system used was in the soil, in beds covered with black polyethylene film. The cultivars Camino Real, Benicia and Pircinque, and the selection CE 56 obtained the highest yields, above to 30 t ha-1. Benicia, Camino Real and Monterey, in turn, obtained the fruits with higher average fresh weight, around 24 g fruit-1. In the selections CE 51, CE 56, FRF 57.6, LAM 119.1, FRF 104.1, FRF PA 109.2 and the cultivars Benicia and Monterey the fruits of better quality were achieved, expressed by values of soluble solids / titratable acidity ratio above to 13. The cultivars Camino Real, Benicia and Pircinque, and the selection CE 56 performed as the most adapted to the region of study, among the genotypes evaluated.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aims to evaluate the growth and yield of the sugarcane plant cultivars, and their correlation to soil mechanical penetration resistance in a Dystroferric Red Oxisol submitted to reduced tillage and, no-tillage systems. Eight sugarcane plant cultivars (RB965902, RB985476, RB966928, RB855156, RB975201, RB975242, RB036066 and RB855536) were in each soil preparation system, and the trial was conducted in a completely randomized design and eight treatments and four replications. The trial evaluated: number of tillers per meter, stalks height and diameter, and stalks yield and sugar content. Additionally, were evaluated the soil mechanical penetration resistance (PR) and soil moisture. The highest rates of daily elongation, yield of stalks and sugar content were observed under no - tillage, due to the lower soil mechanical penetration resistance and higher soil moisture. The cultivar RB966928 presented higher values for growth, yield of stalks and sugar content, while RB855536 and the medium to late maturity cultivars RB975201, RB975242, RB036066, which had either a lower stalk growth rate or presented lower number at the end of the cycle in both soil tillage.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different lengths of EM-9 interstock, on the production and fruit characteristics of Imperial Gala apples more than eight years old. This experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard located in Vacaria-RS, Brazil, situated at an altitude of 955 m , during seasons 2005/06, 2007/08, 2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13. The treatments consisted of five lengths of EM-9 interstock (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm) connecting the Marubakaido rootstock to the Imperial Gala scion. For production efficiency a positive correlation between increased efficiency and the length of interstock was observed. Likewise a positive correlation was also noted for quality parameters of the fruit; firmness and classification (Category 1). From this study we conclude that a EM-9 interstock of 30 cm on Marubakaido rootstock is the most suitable for the vigor control of Imperial Gala apples, it ensures greater production efficiency and firmer fruit.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The sunlight and heating effects on leaves and grapes are directly influenced by row orientation in vineyards. Row orientation studies have not been addressed under double pruning management, a technique used to transfer the wine grape harvest from wet summer to dry winter season in Brazilian Southeast. Effects of grapevine row orientation (north/south - NS and east/west - EW) of vertically trellised and shoot positioned Vitis vinifera L. Syrah grafted onto 1103 Paulsen were investigated in the South of Minas Gerais State. The vegetative vigor was increased in NS oriented vines, probably due to high photosynthesis as suggested by the highest leaf starch accumulation. The leaf and stem water potential were slight affected by row orientation. NS orientation increased the cluster weight, but cluster number and yield per vine were not affected by treatments. Berries from NS oriented vines also showed the highest values of anthocyanins and total phenols. Under NS orientation there was a reduction on tartaric acid and soluble sugar in berries probably diluted by increased cluster weight. This study showed that vineyard under NS orientation improved grapevine vigor and promoted better phenolic maturity in wine grapes harvested during the winter season than EW orientation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to define an empirical model to calculate the leaf area in rice from linear leaf measure in genotypes used by farmers in Brazil. Through the leaf dimensions it is possible to identify the final crop yield from the LAI. Therefore, the leaves shape is closely related to the production of photoassimilates that will be converted into grain yield. Field experiments were carried out in four counties of Rio Grande do Sul with twelve-three varieties of rice in four growing seasons. We measured the length and width of leaves to construct the model. The relationship between leaf area and linear dimensions was shaped using a linear model for each genotype, and general model grouping all genotypes. The model accuracy was measure following statistics: Root Mean Square Error, BIAS, modified index of agreement and coefficient r. The non-destructive method for individual leaves was appropriate for estimating the leaf area in rice. Moreover, the general equation was estimated and can be used for all modern genotypes of rice in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study had as the main objective the documentation and characterization of the different phenological stages, as well as the definition of the thermal requirements, of the atemoya tree for two agronomic seasons. From shoot development to senescence and beginning of the rest period eight main stages were described (shoot development, leaf development, shoot/bud growth, inflorescence appearance, flowering, fruit development, fruit maturity and senescence and the beginning of the rest period). The number of days and the thermal requirements for completing each phenological stage were different between the two agronomic seasons of the atemoya. The first and second agronomic season presented a period of 217 and 206 days, with thermal requirements of 2469 and 2302 degree days, respectively.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Corn kernels or seeds that remain after harvest can germinate and become a troublesome volunteer plant where bean crops are grown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of time of emergence of volunteer corn on growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in bean plants, competition for soil and light and light resources. The study was conducted in completely randomised experimental design, in 2×2×2+2 factorial scheme with four replications, involving two bean cultivars in competition with volunteer corn, emerging seven days before and simultaneously with beans, besides the partitioning of the competition by soil and light, just light and two controls without competition. We measured the levels of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids, parameters related to chlorophyll fluorescence and bean growth variables. Volunteer corn was more competitive when it emerged seven days before the beans. When competition was established by light resource, there was a reduction in photosynthetic pigments and morphological variables of the bean plants. When competition by soil and light resources occurred, there was a reduction not only in photosynthetic pigments and morphological characteristics, but also in the chlorophyll fluorescence variables. There were significant correlations between the growth variables of the bean plants and chlorophyll fluorescence, which makes it an important analytical tool for quantifying the stress caused by weeds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are associated with soybean cultivation, unknown the reaction of cultivars. The objective of this work was to determine the reaction of soybean cultivars to M. javanica and M. incognita. Twenty-seven soybean cultivars were sown in plastic pots, in a completely randomized experimental design with eight replicates. Ten days after emergence of the seedlings, in a separate experiment, M. javanica and M. incognita were inoculated. For M. javanica, cultivars classified as susceptible were BMX Lança IPRO, AMS Tibagi RR, BMX Vanguarda IPRO, NS 6700 IPRO, BMX Ativa RR, FPS Solimões RR, TEC 6702 IPRO, NS 5909 RR, NS 5445 IPRO, 54i52 RSF IPRO, M 6410 IPRO and NS 5959 IPRO and BMX Elite IPRO, NA 6211 RR, BMX Valente RR, FPS Júpter RR, FPS Iguaçú RR, BMX Tornado RR, GMX Cancheiro RR, TMG 7161 IPRO, TMG 7062 IPRO, FPS Solar RR, M 5730 IPRO, DM5958 RSF IPRO, NS 6006 IPRO, SYN 1163 RR and M 5947 IPRO were resistant. Regarding M. incognita, the resistant cultivars were FPS Iguaçú RR, FPS Solar IPRO, SYN 1163 RR and TMG 7062 IPRO. The cutlivars FPS Júpter RR, SYN 1163 RR e TMG 7062 IPRO were resistant to both nematodes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The diversification of plants, as an association between trees and the warm-season grasses, supports soil biodiversity and thus, soil quality. However, based on the prevailing climatic conditions, management techniques employed and because of the several combinations possible in such associations, variations may be observed in this type of response. This study aimed at assessing the microbiological attributes of the soil in two systems (full sunlight, FS, vs. a naturally shaded system composed of Eucalyptus dunnii trees), with two N fertilization levels (zero vs. 300 kg N ha-1year-1) and five perennial warm-season grasses. Soil and root samples were drawn from a depth of 0 to 20 cm when the growing period began. The N fertilization increased the mycorrhizal colonization and the acid phosphatase activity, whereas lowered the soil microbial biomass. A rise in the mycorrhizal colonization and sporulation and C microbial biomass concentration were observed in the soil cultivated with Axonopus catharinensis. The association with trees favored the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities, boosting both colonization and sporulation. However, compared with the FS, the soil microbial biomass and activity of the acid phosphatase enzyme were reduced under the trees. Silvicultural interventions could be intensified to enhance soil quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Rock powder and boiler ash are residues with a high potential for the fertilization of substrates to produce forestry seedlings. They are the source of macro and micronutrients, besides having an effect on soil pH. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the isolated application of rock power, boiler ash, dolomitic limestone and calcium carbonate on the reaction of soils with a sandy and clayey texture in the Cerrado Piauiense and on the growth and quality of ipê-amarelo seedlings. For this purpose, the pH values of soil in water and CaCl2 solution and the following morphophysiological parameters as indicators of the quality of forest seedlings were analyzed: length of the aerial part (LAP), and root (RL), stem diameter (SD), number of leaves (NL), total chlorophyll (TC), fresh mass of the aerial part (FMAP), fresh mass of the root (FMR), dry mass of the aerial part (DMAP), of the root (DMR) and total (TRM), and the DMAP/DMR and LAP/SD ratios and Dickson quality index (DQI). It was found that the rock powder and boiler ash residues change the pH values in clayey and sandy soils, and promote the growth and quality of ipê-amarelo seedlings.