Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The SR 0.501-17 grape hybrid developed for wine making purposes, is characterized for producing white grapes and small berries with seeds. The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenology, thermal requirements and must physicochemical characteristics of the hybrid, in contrasting climatic conditions due to altitude at Jundiaí (715m) and Votuporanga (483m) respectively located at east and northwest of the São Paulo State-Brazil. Evaluations were performed from 2012 to 2016 and observations during the vine growth period and data of phenology and must soluble solids content and acidity measurements at harvest were taken. Average duration of the pruning-harvest period was 146 and 131 days and grape maturation period was 29 and 27 days, respectively for Jundiaí and Votuporanga. Thermal requirement expressed in degree days for the hybrid growth cycle was 1663 and 1923, respectively for Jundiaí and Votuporanga. Rainfall during the maturation period showed negative correlation with total soluble solids and maturation index and positive correlation with titratable acidity. The effect of temperature on vine growth cycle were more pronounced in Jundiaí in comparison to Votuporanga while the effect of rainfall on the maturation characteristics were more effective in Votuporanga when compared to Jundiaí.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the post-harvest quality and the final storage time of the hydroponic crisp lettuce ‘Brida’, conditioned in different types of plastic packaging and environments. The statistical design was a completely randomized 3x2 factorial design, with 3 types of packages (control (without plastic packaging), perforated plastic packaging and closed plastic packaging) and 2 types of environments refrigerated (± 5 °C) and non-refrigerated (± 23 °C). Fresh leaf weight loss, relative SPAD content, total soluble solids content (TSS), pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and final storage time were measured. There was a decrease in the parameters of fresh mass, acidity, total soluble solids, and relative content of SPAD chlorophyll in refrigerated lettuce compared to uncooled. The use of packages also influenced post-harvest quality and closed packs resulted in lower values. It is concluded that the post-harvest quality of lettuce is better when they are refrigerated and packed in sealed packages.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of Crisphead lettuce as a function of production seasons under different forms of protected environment. Two experiments were carried out in the field at different times: September to December 2017 and June to August 2018, in a randomizaed blocks desing, in a 4 x 7 factorial scheme, the first one being production environments under shade nets: red screen, chromatinet® screen, black screen and full sun, and the second, lettuce cultivars: Winslow, Irene, Balsamo, Rafaela, Iron Wood, Great Lakes and Delícia. The harvest was carried out at forty-two days after transplanting, where the following variables were analyzed: stem length (cm), total production and commercial productivity (t ha-1). The data were submitted to analysis of variance, and a joint analysis was performed to analyze the treatments effect, then the means were compared by the Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability. The microclimate was altered in the shaded beds, which affected the cultivars development. The cultivation in protected environment provides higher productivity of Crisphead lettuce from September to December, at that time the cultivars Balsamo and Delicia were highlighted under chromatinet®. In the period of mild temperatures, a better performance was observed for cv. Balsamo in full sun.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The purpose this study was to evaluate the vegetative development, yield and quality of strawberry cultivars of short and neutral days as a function of soil cover. Two experiments were carried out in a protected environment. The experimental design used in both experiments consisted of randomized blocks, with subdivided plots. Harvests were carried out every two days, when the berries presented 75% of the red coloration of the epidermis, with evaluation of yield, number of fruits/plant, and fresh biomass of the fruits. For fruit quality, the pH, SS, titratable acidity, SS/TA ratio and fruit staining were evaluated. The contents of chlorophyll a and b, chlorophyll a + b and the chlorophyll a/b ratio in the leaves were also measured. At the end of the productive cycle, destructive evaluations of leaf number, leaf area and dry biomass of shoot were carried out. Cultivation on white plastic soil coverage presented plants with lower vegetative development, higher yield, and fruit size. Among the cultivars of short days, Camino Real presented bigger and more attractive fruits regarding the appearance of color of epidermis. For neutral day cultivars, Aromas obtained higher yield.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In Coffea canephora, the number of orthotropic shoots is directly related to plant yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative and yield performance of Coffea canephora, from the botanical variety Conilon, under different management systems for early emission of orthotropic shoots. The experiment was carried out in Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, between November 2011 and May 2014. Three types of management techniques were tested for early induction of orthotropic shoots in coffee trees (T1 = bending of the orthotropic shoot; T2 = apical pruning of the orthotropic shoot, T3 = free growing). The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 20 replicates. Each block consisted of a clonal genotype (clone) from the Embrapa Coffee Breeding Program. The techniques pruning and apical pruning were efficient to induce early growth of orthotropic shoots in Coffea canephora, resulting in higher yield in the first commercial bean production.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to estimate the varietal and heterotic effects related to grain yield, popping expansion and resistance of popcorn against fall armyworm. Twelve open-pollinated varieties were intercrossed in a complete diallel mating scheme. The 66 experimental hybrids, together with their parents and controls Zapalote Chico, BRS 1030 and IAC 125, resulted in a total of 81 treatments, evaluated in an experiment in a 9x9 triple-square lattice design, in Maringá-PR and Araruna-PR. The data were analyzed according to the diallel model of Gardner and Eberhart (1966). The following traits were evaluated: grain yield (GR); mean plant height (PH) and insertion height of the highest ear in the stem (EI); silking (SIL); final plant density (FD) and popping expansion (PE). Variety PR 023 is indicated for intrapopulation improvement for grain yield. Regarding popping expansion, the results indicated cross SAM x UNB 2U C5 for recurrent reciprocal selection. In relation to resistance to fall armyworm, the varieties PARA 172, PA 091, PR 023, and SE 013 were selected for intrapopulation improvement. On the other hand, the crosses PARA 172 x BOZM 260, PA 091 x BOYA 462 and SAM x UNB 2U C5 can be indicated for interpopulation improvement.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Endophytic fungi, in addition to improving plant development, may produce antimicrobial substances that can inhibit pathogens. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic fungi of Bambusa oldhamii and evaluate in vitro antagonism to Pyricularia oryzae. Fungal isolates of B. oldhamii shoots were purified and identified by nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) including internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS4). These isolates were then confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences and morphological analysis. The isolates were evaluated in in vitro experiments of direct and indirect antagonism (volatile production). Five fungal isolates were identified and named as follows: isolate 27 (Arthrinium sp.); isolate 29 (Acrocalymma sp.); isolate 122 (Botryobambusa fusicoccum); isolate 711 (Phoma sp.) and isolate 712 (Phoma sp.). We found that the area of the P. oryzae colony was reduced by more than 80% by all endophytic isolates in this study, with emphasis on isolate 122, with a 96% reduction in area of the P. oryzae. These results were considered promising and will serve as a foundation for future studies on induction of resistance to P. oryzae.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is a pseudocereal with seeds that are a rich source of vitamins and minerals. However, there are few studies on quinoa seed quality, especially for the Colombian germplasm. So, the objective of this research was to determine the quality of 22 quinoa materials from the Department of Boyacá by evaluating the physical (color, shape and diameter) and physiological (tetrazolium test) quality of the seeds. It was found that 36% of the materials had a white grain color, 80% cylindrical shape, 65% smooth edges and diameters smaller than 2mm, desirable characteristics for post-harvest processes. The evaluated physical characteristics presented high variability between the evaluated materials, which is desirable for elite breeding processes. The imbibition rate showed that germination was rapid (at 4 hours, the weight of the seeds doubled), that is, the materials were not dormant. Finally, it was determined that storage conditions, such as temperature and relative humidity, are essential for preventing deterioration in quinoa seeds; these factors can also affect germination and long-term vigor.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Oleuropein is one of the most abundant phenolic compounds present in olive leaves, and many studies have shown that this compound has important biological properties (anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anticancer, antimicrobial and antiviral) and that is why it has been gaining prominence in research. Oleuropein can be extracted from different sources using standard and unconventional methods, and can be recovered and purified (mainly by chromatographic techniques), for later use in several areas. The literature presents information about oleuropein alone in scientific research with different objectives, however, it was observed by the authors that studies that compile the existing information on these secoiridoides are very scarce and, therefore, this review was developed with the aim of providing current information to the scientific community, about the different techniques of extraction and purification of oleuropein, as well as the opportunities for applications and uses of this compound.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Applying the upcoming technologies in agriculture has been a major economic, environmental and social challenge for scientists and farmers. In order to overcome such challenge, this study evaluated the advantages and limitations of using geostatistics and machine learning for soil mapping in agricultural practices and soil surveys. The study occurred in Tocantins State, Brazil, and consisted into seven areas with a total extension of 17.24 km2, 222 meters regular gridded resulting in one-point sampling per 0.0493 km2 of five randomly sampled cores within a 1 m circle radius. It was collected 332 georeferenced soil samples at 0-20 cm depth using an auger and then, soil laboratory analyses performed. Afterward, liming rate maps were originated from the predicted soil attributes clay, cation exchange capacity and base saturation comparing four methods: ordinary kriging, random forest, cubist, support vector machine and the best model results of each soil attribute. Evaluating the methods, the Pearson’s index presented strong results for soil attributes predicted by random forest and ordinary kriging. Machine learning methods can be successfully applied for soil mapping in agricultural practices and soil surveys using less soil samples rather than geostatistical framework.