Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize solar brightness, photoperiod, phenology and productivity of Chinook, Columbus, Cascade and Yakima Gold hop cultivars grown in the municipalities of Lages and São Joaquim in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The phenological stages evaluated were: beginning of sprouting, emission of lateral branches, beginning of flowering, formation of cones and beginning of harvest in the 2018/2019 production cycle. Photoperiod and solar brightness were calculated with data obtained from the Environmental Resources and Hydrometeorology Information Center of Santa Catarina State, in Lages and São Joaquim. The observed results demonstrate hops develops at latitude 27º South, there was a difference in behavior in the phenological cycle of the cultivars, characterizing Yakima Gold as early, with 143 days and Columbus with 191 days, late. Since the first agricultural harvest, there is the production of cones. With 5.87 hours per day solar brightness average, in Lages, 3,300 kg of fresh hops were produced per hectare. In São Joaquim, with a 5.53 hour per day solar brightness average, 6,000 kg of fresh hops were produced per hectare.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mozambique is a country located in the southwest of the African continent. The country has great climatic diversity. The tropical monsoon (Am), tropical savanna (Aw), hot semiarid (BSh), and humid subtropical (Cwa and Cfa) and subtropical highland (Cwb) climates stand out. The regions classified a subtropical have climatic potential for the rational exploitation low and medium chill requirement of peach trees. There are already technologies for the cultivation of peach trees in subtropical regions in Brazil. The objective of this study was to identify the zoning of suitable areas and provide bases for the establishment and expansion of peach cultivation in Mozambique. Meteorological data from 108 stations and the geotechnological tool ArcGIS 10.1 were used to spatialize temperature, rainfall, and humidity data and then reclassify them for the generation of maps using the Geostatistical Analyst extension. In parallel, maps of mean annual temperatures and climate classification were used. Regions in the subtropical areas of Mozambique with suitable temperature and rainfall are viable for peach plantations. The results showed the Northwest, Central and South regions is more suitable for the economic exploitation of peaches trees.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The geostatistics technique is widely used to identify the variability of soil attributes, although being expensive due to the large number of samples that it requires. In this sense, magnetic susceptibility has been an alternative to assess landscape variation, a fact that can assist in sampling planning. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of magnetic susceptibility in identifying specific soil management zones and its relationship with soil attributes that can assist in the management of correction and fertilization in an area cultivated with banana with limestone application modes. In a banana orchard, 42 soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.00 to 0.20 m, with a 30 x 35 m sampling grid. The attributes evaluated were magnetic susceptibility, pH, organic matter, aluminum, H + Al, base saturation and cation exchange capacity, clay, sand, and silt. A descriptive and geostatistical analysis of the data was performed. Spearman correlation analysis was used to identify which attributes are associated with magnetic susceptibility. Magnetic susceptibility correlates with chemical and granulometric attributes in the Entisols. Magnetic susceptibility proved to be an efficient attribute in identifying specific management zones, assisting in the sampling planning of soils cultivated with banana.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Along the line that health-beneficial foods must also be accompanied by sustainable agricultural practices, the red alga Lithothamnium sp. (Rhodophyta), frequently used for animal and human nutrition, it was shown that it could be a biofertilizer, regarding their bioactive humic acid content, released by micronization. Also, onions present well-known benefits to health and are among the main vegetable crops grown worldwide. Thus, the objective this work was to evaluate the effects of foliar sprays with micronized Lithothamniun sp. on yield, mineral nutrients, flavonoids, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity before and after storage of bulbs of two organically grown onion cultivars. The yield, mineral content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic and flavonoid content in onion bulbs were improved through sprays, highlighting the dose of 1.5 g L-1 of Lithothamnium sp. in solution. Genotype interactions and storage effects were observed. The benefits with the use of Lithothamnium sp. as biofertilizer were towards the biofortification of organically grown onions by improving mineral nutrient acquisition as it was followed by upgrading antioxidant capacity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In the initial phase of the coffee crop, the control of weeds and water availability for the establishment of the plants is a concern. The polyethylene cover can positively influence the chemical and biological characteristics of the soil and, consequently, the root system. The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphology of the root system of coffee plants using polyethylene mulching of different widths and colors. Coffee was planted in December 2016 using the cultivar Topázio MG-1190. A randomized repetitions design was used, with four blocks and five treatments, as follows: 1.20-m wide white/black mulching, 1.40-m white/black mulching, 1.20-m silver/black mulching, 1.40-m silver /black mulching, and no mulching. Total root dry matter per soil volume, total root length per soil volume, total root volume per soil volume, total root area per soil volume, specific root surface, specific root length, and mean root diameter were all evaluated. Roots with smaller diameters were concentrated in the 0-0.20 m depth layer, while in the 0.20-0.40 m depth layer, roots with larger diameters were found. Plants grown in 1.20-m silver/black mulching showed a greater surface area and a specific length of the roots.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Tifton 85 bermudagrass has been widely used in tropical and subtropical regions. Owing to its high forage yield, the fertilizer requirement of Tifton 85 is also high. Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense is an alternative to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers and decrease their environmental impact. However, the effects of inoculation in tropical grasses remain poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the productivity, pasture characteristics, and nutritive value of Tifton 85 bermudagrass inoculated with A. brasilense in association with nitrogen fertilization. The study evaluated four nitrogen levels (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 ), inoculated and uninoculated, under cutting conditions. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial arrangement, with two qualitative (inoculated with A. brasilense or uninoculated) and four quantitative levels (nitrogen doses) with three replications (24 plots). Botanical composition and morphological characteristics, leaf blade/stem+sheath ratio, nutritive value, and forage yield were evaluated. The inoculation increased the leaf blade/stem+sheath ratio and forage yield of Tifton 85, but did not affect crude protein concentration, neutral detergent fiber content, and total digestible nutrient content of the forage constituted by Tifton 85 leaf blades. The protein concentration and forage production corresponded linearly to the nitrogen dose increase.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Salinity is one of the main challenges in agriculture, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Salicylic acid application may be a strategy to mitigate the harmful effects of salt stress on plant growth. Basil (Ocimum basilicum ) is a medicinal, spice, and ornamental plant grown around the world that has its growth reduced by salt stress. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate salicylic acid in mitigating the damage caused by salt stress in ‘Cinnamon’ basil. Growth was evaluated at 90 days after the start of irrigation with saline water. Salicylic acid application attenuates the harmful effects of salt stress on the number of leaves, number of inflorescences, leaf dry mass, inflorescence dry mass, root dry mass, seed mass, leaf area, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, leaf mass ratio, root mass ratio, inflorescence mass ratio, Dickson quality index, sclerophilia index, robustness quotient and shoot root ratio. Salt stress decreased plant height, stem diameter, stem dry mass, and stem mass ratio of basil ‘Cinnamon’. Salicylic acid can be used to lessen the harmful effects of salt stress on basil ‘Cinnamon’.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soybean and corn succession system widely adopt in different agricultural regions from Brazil. However, different species incorporation, especially in the autumn/winter season, can influence the soybeans profitability in succession system and farm economic return, providing benefits for the agricultural sector. The objective this work was to analyze the development of different species in the autumn-winter crop and the influence on soybean yield and the economic return of farm in Midwest of Paraná, Brazil. The study was conducted during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 crop. A completely randomized design adopted, with eight treatments (autumn/winter season) and four replications. In autumn/winter season were composed of five crops in single system (black oat, brachiaria ruziziensis, oilseed radish, corn and wheat), two in intercropped systems (black oat with oilseed radish and corn with brachiaria) and fallow area (spontaneous plants). In the spring/summer season, soybean was cultivated. The biomass produced in the autumn/winter season varies with the species and cultivation system adopted. Soybean yield is higher when cultivated in succession to brachiaria, while the worst performance is obtained in succession to spontaneous plants. The cultivation of wheat in the winter and soybeans in the summer presents superior economic performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was developed to carry out selection, estimate genetic parameters and predict individual genetic values of 55 genotypes from S2 families as well as estimate genetic dissimilarity based on physiological seed attributes. All S2 genotypes evaluated were obtained from self-pollination of S1 genotypes from the guava breeding program. The experiment was laid out in blocks with 55 S2 genotypes and four blocks. Genetic parameters were estimated and the best genotypes were selected based on the genetic value, using the statistical method of mixed models. In addition, genetic divergence was estimated based on the mean Euclidean distance. Although heritability values were considered medium to high magnitude for germination (0.22) and germination speed index (0.35), genetic gains were obtained for all traits. Based on the evaluation of individual BLUPs, the S2 genotypes that contributed to most of the evaluated traits were: 5, 31, 85, 214, 369, 393, 398, 442, 443, 444, 449 and 529, suggesting potential to generate vigorous. Through genetic dissimilarity, it was possible to verify the formation of five distinct groups. Therefore, the selection of divergent genotypes with high average for germination is recommended for the advancement of generation in the guava breeding plant.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The use of resistant cultivars is the main strategy to control Fusarium wilt on tomato, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici . This study aimed to quantify the incidence and distribution of this disease in the region of Nova Friburgo, RJ, as well as the type of resistance of tomato cultivars to the three FOL races. Samples of healthy and wilted plants from 40 properties were evaluated for the presence of vascular discouloration. Seventeen tomato cultivars were evaluated for resistance to the three FOL races using a grading scale. Classification for resistance/susceptibility, incidence and percentage of infection of the vascular system, fresh weight accumulation and seedling length were determined. All the cultivars analysed behaved as similar to immune (SI) to race 1 of FOL and similar to immune or partial resistance to race 2. Only Aguamiel cultivar presented a SI reaction to FOL race 3. None of the cultivars presented a SI reaction to the three races. It can be concluded that failures on the control of the disease in this region can be attributed to the majority use of cultivars with incomplete resistance to the three FOL races. The seed packages also contain incomplete information about FOL resistance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Crop-Livestock Integration system has sustainable potential. But pests such as the defoliating caterpillar Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can reduce the productivity of this system. The objective was to report transgenic maize and Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich.) (Poaceae) plants attacked by S. frugiperda in the Crop-Livestock Integration system. Feroz VIP3 ® transgenic maize (SYN8A98 TLTG Viptera) and B. brizantha MG-5 Xaraés plants attacked by S. frugiperda were evaluated 20 days after planting, weekly and for 28 days. The transgenic maize plants were less attacked by S. frugiperda than those of B. brizantha. The negative impact of this pest on B. brizantha suggests the planning and adopting strategies for its control, such as the use of traps, resistant cultivars, and biological or chemical products, minimizing losses in animal production and, consequently, in human food.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted in a commercial apple orchard (Malus domestica) with high woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) incidence, which is highly harmful to apple culture and infects the trunk, branch, roots, shoot, and fruit. Although the fungus Beauveria bassiana is widely reported as a control agent, there is no evidence of its control action against this pest. This case study was conducted under natural infestation conditions to evaluate the effective action of B. bassiana in E. lanigerum nymph mortality and aimed to evaluate the control potential of E. lanigerum treated with different formulation doses based on B. bassiana strain ICBBb252. The experimental unit consisted of ten plants in four randomized blocks, where one colony per plant was previously marked in an orchard (2500 plants/ha). The treatments consisted of applying the formulate in 100, 200, and 300 mL/ha dosages at a 109 spore/mL concentration and one control group; 10, 20, 30, and 40 days after application, the treatments were evaluated by counting the number of colonies alive. The control of woolly apple aphids by B. bassiana strain ICBBb252 was more effective at 200 and 300 mL/ha dosages and has no phytotoxic effects on plants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Little is understood about the nutritional status of manganese (Mn) in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), further research is needed to provide technological support for greater productivity, especially on the dynamics of accumulation, recycling, immobilization and export. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of accumulation, immobilization, recycling, exportation and the efficiency of Mn use in oil palm plants at different ages. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with seven treatments (plant age: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 years of planting) and four replicates. The leaflets and male inflorescence were, the vegetative and reproductive organs with the highest Mn concentration, respectively. The accumulation of this nutrient in the tree crown predominated in the stipe through all years. The bunch exported the highest amount of Mn, especially in older plants. The oil palm immobilizes and recycles, more than exports, a large amount of Mn. The Mn use efficiency is increased as a function of the age of the crops in all the oil palm organs. In conclusion, the nutritional demand of oil palm is altered as a function of age, altering the dynamics of immobilization, recycling and exportation of Mn.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The fertilization management can contribute to a better agronomic performance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants in upland conditions. Thus, the objective in this study was to evaluate the development of rice plants fertilized with different doses of nitrogen and phosphorus in upland soil. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using pots containing soil collected in the soil top layer of a plinthic alitic Haplic Cambisol. The design was completely randomized with a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, corresponding to 0 (zero), 150, 300 and 450 kg ha-1 of phosphorus and 0 (zero), 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Plant height, shoot dry matter, grain weight and number of tillers were evaluated. Fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus positively affects the growth and development of rice plants in Humaitá, Amazonas state, grown in upland soil up to doses between 200 and 300 kg ha-1 of N and around 300 kg ha-1 of P2O5, in a plinthic alitic Haplic Cambisol.