The Russian revolution succumbed to the Stalinist Termidor, but the revolution can not be mixed-until 1927-with the counter-revolution thereafter. This article attempts to insert the Russian revolution in its historical context in the context of the unequal and combined development between the advance of the Russian backwardness in 1917 and the consolidation of German social democracy in the 1920s. The article begins by debating the impact of World War I and resistance to it, and then dialogues with the historiographical production of the last two decades, with the opening of the Soviet archives. We will argue here that everything was open in the twenties of twentieth-century Europe, the germs of the dictatorship that was consolidated, the restoration of capitalism that followed it, but also the seed of an equal and free society - and it remains open today, or Historical.
First world war; Russian revolution; Socialism; Labor movement