Accessibility / Report Error

When academic displacement and internationalization intersect, different approaches for inclusion in Higher Education: contributions from the Welcoming Program for Ukrainian Scientists, Paraná - Brazil

Quando o deslocamento acadêmico e a internacionalização se intersectam, diferentes abordagens para inclusão no Ensino Superior: contribuições do Programa de Acolhida a Cientistas Ucranianas, Paraná - Brasil.

Abstract:

Universities have a unique role in facilitating the integration of displaced scientists into the academic community, thus promoting inclusion. Concurrently, institutions of higher education worldwide are increasingly emphasizing internationalization, aiming to attract and support a diverse faculty and student body. This paper aims to discuss how initiatives focused on integrating displaced scientists into Brazilian higher education relate to institutional internationalization efforts. We examine the Welcoming Program for Ukrainian Scientists, Paraná, Brazil. By combining literature/document analysis and interviews with key actors, we examine the initial motivation for universities and participants and the externalities resulting from implementation to provide some insights. The study reveals that the program has the potential to make a significant contribution to the internationalization and diversity in higher education and, concurrently, address social justice concerns.

Keywords:
displaced academics; internationalization; science diplomacy; Ukraine; armed conflicts

Resumo:

As universidades possuem um papel único em facilitar a integração de cientistas deslocados na comunidade acadêmica, promovendo a inclusão. Simultaneamente, instituições de ensino superior ao redor do mundo estão cada vez mais enfatizando a internacionalização, visando atrair e apoiar um corpo docente e discente diverso. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir como as iniciativas focadas na integração de cientistas deslocados no ensino superior brasileiro se relacionam com os esforços de internacionalização institucional. Examinamos o Programa de Acolhida a Cientistas Ucranianas, Paraná, Brasil. Ao combinar análise de literatura/documentos e entrevistas com atores-chave, examinamos a motivação inicial das universidades e participantes, e as externalidades resultantes da implementação para fornecer algumas reflexões. O estudo revela que o programa tem o potencial de fazer uma contribuição significativa para a internacionalização e diversidade no ensino superior, e simultaneamente, abordar questões de justiça social.

Palavras-chave:
acadêmicos deslocados; internacionalização; diplomacia científica; Ucrânia; conflitos armados

Introduction

The world today faces unprecedented numbers of refugees and displaced persons, reaching the highest levels since World War II, according to The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR, 2022UNHCR. Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2021. Copenhagen: UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2022. Available at: <https://www.unhcr.org/62a9d1494/global-trends-report-2021>.
https://www.unhcr.org/62a9d1494/global-t...
). The "Global Trends: Forced Displacement" report (2023)______. Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2022. Copenhagen: UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2023. Available at: <https://www.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/2023-06/global-trends-report-2022.pdf>.
https://www.unhcr.org/sites/default/file...
shows that the number of forcibly displaced reached 108.4 million worldwide at the end of 2022. This worrying situation is due to vulnerability and violation of fundamental rights, as is the case in Venezuela, as well as the increase in conflicts, as seen in Somalia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, South Sudan, and Ukraine, to name a few.

In the context of the conflict in Ukraine, an estimated 12,4 million Ukrainians have left their homes and fled to other countries (UNHCR, 2023______. Ukraine Refugee Situation. Operational Data Portal. 2023. Available at: <https://data.unhcr.org/en/situations/ukraine>.
https://data.unhcr.org/en/situations/ukr...
). Of these, approximately 22,000 are researchers and scientists (Mcgrath, Lempinen, 2021McGRATH, Peter F.; LEMPINEN, Edward W. The integration of refugee and displaced scientists creates a win-win situation. UNESCO Science Report, 2021, p. 20-23. Available at: < https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c008>.
https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c0...
). Inna Sovsun, a member of the Ukrainian Parliament and former First Deputy Minister of Education and Science, reports that 2,528 educational institutions were attacked, including 147 colleges and universities, of which 285 were completely destroyed (Dukhovych, Lubov, 2022DUKHOVYCH, Svitlana; LUBOV, Deborah Castellano. Ukraine faces “an education crisis and long-term brain drain”. Vatican News, 2022. Available at: <Available at: https://www.vaticannews.va/en/church/news/2022-09/ukrainian-parliamentarian-warns-of-education-brain-drain.html >. Accessed on: 09.03.2023.
https://www.vaticannews.va/en/church/new...
). As a result, many of these scientists were forced to give up their positions in research and higher education to protect their lives and those of their families or to defend their country.

The term "displaced academics" emerged in the context of forced migrations in Nazi-occupied Europe and was revived after the Russian annexation of Crimea and the invasion of the Donbass in 2014 (Oleksiyenko et al., 2021OLEKSIYENKO, Anatoly; TEREPYSHCHYI, Serhii; GOMILKO, Olga; SVYRYDENKO, Denys. ‘What Do You Mean, You Are a Refugee in Your Own Country?’: Displaced Scholars and Identities in Embattled Ukraine. European Journal of Higher Education, v. 11, n. 2, p. 101-118, 2021. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2020.1777446>.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2020.17...
). Academic displacement refers to scholars who have been forced to leave their home country due to war, conflict, or other political instability, whether or not they have been internally displaced. In these circumstances, they are unable to return to their country and require urgent resettlement in another country (Fierros-Pesqueira, Castillo-Federico, 2022FIERROS-PESQUEIRA, Emma; CASTILLO-FEDERICO, Diana. Forced Migration of Displaced Scholars in the 20th Century and Its Impact in the Circulation of Knowledge and Ideas. Ágora de heterodoxias, v. 8, n. 2, p. 36-46, 2022. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7682871. Available at: <http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7682871>.
http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7682871...
; Oleksiyenko et al., 2021OLEKSIYENKO, Anatoly; TEREPYSHCHYI, Serhii; GOMILKO, Olga; SVYRYDENKO, Denys. ‘What Do You Mean, You Are a Refugee in Your Own Country?’: Displaced Scholars and Identities in Embattled Ukraine. European Journal of Higher Education, v. 11, n. 2, p. 101-118, 2021. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2020.1777446>.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2020.17...
).

The current challenges faced by displaced academics worldwide arise from a variety of factors, including the interruption of their academic careers, lack of recognition of their qualifications and documents, deskilling, psychological stress, difficulty adjusting to a new society, limited employment with low pay, language barriers, bureaucratic constraints, and isolation from the academic community (Akkad, 2022AKKAD, Ahmad. Displaced Syrian academics: unheard voices in academia. Forced Migration Review, n. 70, p. 55-58, 2022.).

Several countries and research institutions have taken temporary measures to host these researchers and graduate students and allow them to continue their research in safety and structure and remain part of the international scientific community. These include fellowship programs, mentoring and training opportunities, language courses, and academic networks (Ergin et al., 2019ERGIN, Hakan; DE WIT, Hans; LEASK, Betty. Forced Internationalization of Higher Education: An Emerging Phenomenon. International Higher Education, n. 97, p. 7-9, 2019. DOI: 10.6017/ihe.2019.97.10938. Available at: <https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/10938>.
https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/a...
). Most initiatives to host displaced scientists take place in developed countries, perhaps justified by their long tradition of hosting international researchers and their high attractiveness in a global context. Such actions are still rare in developing countries, with documented cases in Turkey, Malaysia, Lebanon, Jordan, and South Africa (Ergin et al., 2019ERGIN, Hakan; DE WIT, Hans; LEASK, Betty. Forced Internationalization of Higher Education: An Emerging Phenomenon. International Higher Education, n. 97, p. 7-9, 2019. DOI: 10.6017/ihe.2019.97.10938. Available at: <https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/10938>.
https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/a...
; Ghazzoul, 2022GHAZZOUL, Nahed. The unheard voices. At-risk Syrian academics in Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey. In: AXYNIOVA, Vera; KOHSTALL, Florian; RICHTER, Carola (eds.).Academics in Exile. Wetzlar: Majuskel Medienproduktion GmbH, 2022. P. 233-248. DOI: 10.14361/9783839460894-012. Available at: <https://www.transcript-open.de/doi/10.14361/9783839460894-012>.
https://www.transcript-open.de/doi/10.14...
; Mcgrath, Lempinen, 2021McGRATH, Peter F.; LEMPINEN, Edward W. The integration of refugee and displaced scientists creates a win-win situation. UNESCO Science Report, 2021, p. 20-23. Available at: < https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c008>.
https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c0...
).

The situation of scientists fleeing war is urgent, as we can imagine, but the discussion of it is not. The case of displaced scientists is viewed in science diplomacy as a "slow burn" issue, as opposed to urgent "fast burn" problems such as we experienced during the pandemic outbreak (Galazzi, Mcgrath, 2021GALAZZI, Sena; MCGRATH, Peter F. Fast and Slow Issues in Science Diplomacy: Towards an Equitable Global Metis of Science Diplomacy. Science Diplomacy, v. 4, n. 3, p. 13–17, 2021. Available at: <Available at: https://www.interacademies.org/publication/fast-and-slow-issues-science-diplomacy-towards-equitable-global-metis-science-diplomacy >. Accessed on: 23.07.2023.
https://www.interacademies.org/publicati...
). The scientific community has long debated migration initiatives, which are sometimes very sector-specific or need to be better thought through.

Science diplomacy is primarily about facilitating international STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) cooperation, which not only has the potential to make an important contribution to solving global problems, but also acts as a change agent for creating an appropriate governance structure (Turekian, 2012TUREKIAN, Vaughan C. Building a National Science Diplomacy System. Science & Diplomacy, v. 1, n. 4, 2012. Available at: <http://www.sciencediplomacy.org/editorial/2012/building-national-science-diplomacy-system>.
http://www.sciencediplomacy.org/editoria...
). Initiatives to host displaced scientists can be categorized under these efforts.

This paper aims to examine how initiatives focused on integrating displaced academics into Brazilian higher education are related to institutional internationalization efforts. To this end, we examine the “Programa Paranaense de Acolhida a Cientistas Ucranianas” (Welcoming Program for Ukrainian Scientists), implemented by Araucaria Foundation in partnership with Higher Education Institutions in Paraná, Brazil. Through a combination of literature/document analysis and interviews with key actors, we discuss the initial motivations of universities and scientists to take part in the program as well as the externalities resulting from its implementation.

Displaced academics, Science Diplomacy, and Internationalization

During conflict and destruction, the fled of researchers and their potential non-return jeopardizes the future of the country's science, complicates the restoration of international cooperation, and hinders the training of future generations of scientists and professionals. Displaced professionals represent a significant investment from home countries, which ultimately does not benefit from the resulted knowledge (Mcgrath, Lempinen, 2021McGRATH, Peter F.; LEMPINEN, Edward W. The integration of refugee and displaced scientists creates a win-win situation. UNESCO Science Report, 2021, p. 20-23. Available at: < https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c008>.
https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c0...
).

Initiatives to support displaced academics should focus on innovative approached by having a dual purpose and long-term strategic focus to ensure that scientists' skills do not go unused and continue to be updated without severing ties with their home institutions to try to reverse the postwar scientific exodus (Maryl et al., 2022MARYL, Maciej; IVASHCHENKO, Oleksandra V.; REINFELDS, Matiss; REINSONE, Sanita; ROSE, Michael E. Addressing the needs of Ukrainian scholars at risk. Nature Human Behaviour, v. 6, n. 6, p. 746-747, 2022. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-022-01387-7>.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-022-01387...
; OECD, 2022OECD. The future of science in Ukraine: Actions now will affect post-war recovery. Tackling the policy challenges - Browse OECD contributions, 2022.). A viable path to this goal would be the individual mobility of scientists, which has the potential to provide subsidies for future productive partnerships between Ukrainian institutes and universities and their counterparts around the world. This base of scientists is strategic human capital for both sending and receiving countries and ensures important potential in mediation or building partnerships (OECD, 2022OECD. The future of science in Ukraine: Actions now will affect post-war recovery. Tackling the policy challenges - Browse OECD contributions, 2022.).

Science diplomacy uses scientific collaboration and communication to advance knowledge and scientific capability, build positive international relationships, and address global challenges to meet broader national interests (Gluckman et al., 2017GLUCKMAN, Peter D.; TUREKIAN, Vaughan C.; GRIMES, Robin W.; KISHI, Teruo. Science Diplomacy: A Pragmatic Perspective from the Inside. Science & Diplomacy, v. 6, n. 4, p. 1-13, 2017. ). By supporting the work of displaced academics, it helps to connect displaced academics to scientific networks and resources in other countries so they can continue their research and collaborate with colleagues despite the challenges they face.

Activities at the intersection of science and international relations have long existed. However, the use of science as a basis for diplomacy reached its peak during the Cold War, when scientific cooperation was used to secure interests and maintain relationships amid tensions (Turekian, 2018______. The Evolution of Science Diplomacy. Global Policy, v. 9, November, p. 5-7, 2018. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12622>.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12622...
). More recently, the terms "science diplomacy" and "knowledge diplomacy" have attracted considerable attention from both scientists and policymakers (Rungius, Flink, Degelsegger-Márquez, 2018RUNGIUS, Charlotte; FLINK, Tim; DEGELSEGGER-MÁRQUEZ, Alexander. State-of-the-art report: summarizing literature on science diplomacy cases and concepts. 2018. Available at: <https://www.s4d4c.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/S4D4C_State-of-the-Art_Report_DZHW.pdf>.
https://www.s4d4c.eu/wp-content/uploads/...
). Since the concept of the knowledge society began to spread through international organizations in the 1990s, countries faced increasing global competition for talent. They are now trying to attract the best professionals through their soft power, and science is an essential tool for this purpose (National Research Council, 2002NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. Knowledge and Diplomacy: Science Advice in the United Nations System. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2002. DOI: 10.17226/10577. Available at: <http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10577>.
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10577...
).

Many countries, subnational governments and institutions have taken measures, such as offering job opportunities, scholarships, incentives for international publications, foreign language teaching, to internationalize their education system (Knight, 2020KNIGHT, Jane. Knowledge Diplomacy: What Are the Key Characteristics?, International Higher Education, n. 100, p. 38-39, 2020. Available at: Disponível em: https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/14243 . Accessed on: 15.02.2023.
https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/a...
). Sometimes these measures are used as soft power instruments aimed at cultural rapprochement and the development of social relations, which in turn can evolve into professional relationships that benefit the partner countries economically, politically or socially (Bischoff, 2017BISCHOFF, Viviane. As ações públicas de internacionalização da educação superior no Brasil e o seu alinhamento com a política externa brasileira no Governo Dilma Rousseff 2011-2014. 2017. Available at: <Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10183/158147 />. Accessed on: 14.02.2023.
http://hdl.handle.net/10183/158147...
).

Soft power is the ability to use your cultural resources, values, and policies to influence others in your favor through attraction, influence, and persuasion (Nye, 2008NYE, Joseph S. Public diplomacy and soft power. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, v. 616, n. 1, p. 94-109, 2008. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716207311699.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716207311699...
). According to Nye (2004)______. Soft power: the means to success in world politics. New York, NY: PublicAffairs, 2004., a country's ability to influence others is based on intangibles that rely mainly on three resources: its culture, its political values, and its foreign policy. One of the most important sources of soft power is the values expressed in the culture of a country, which in turn uses them where they are attractive to others. The more universal a culture's values and interests are, the more likely it is to be accepted by others - this is precisely the attraction of science. Of the various types of diplomacy programs, cultural and educational exchanges are considered the most effective in removing cultural barriers and breaking down prejudices and stereotypes (Cull, 2019; Kim, 2016 apud Tam & Ayhan, 2021TAM, Lisa; AYHAN, Kadir Jun. Evaluations of people, affection, and recommendation for a host country: A study of Global Korea Scholarship (GKS) recipients. Politics and Policy, v. 49, n. 6, p. 1292-1307, 2021. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12438.
https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12438...
).

Current debates about the recruitment and retention of highly skilled migrants and the role of the higher education sector are relevant to the question of how universities are responding to the refugee crisis. According to Streitwieser et al. (2016)STREITWIESER, Bernhard; MILLER-IDRISS, Cynthia; WIT, Hans de. Higher Education's Response to the European Refugee Crisis: Challenges, Strategies and Opportunities. Washington: [s. n.], 2016. Available at: Disponível em: https://gsehd.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs4166/files/2021-10/bernhard_streitwieser_working_paper_10.2016_final.pdf . Accessed on: 06.04.2023.
https://gsehd.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxd...
, this competition for an urgent skilled workforce is particularly fierce in the knowledge-based economies of OECD countries. It is driven by declining birth rates and aging populations in some countries (e.g., Germany), ailing economies and a partial brain drain in others (e.g., Spain and Ireland), and a general decline in interest in science and technology (in all countries).

Streitwieser et al. (2017STREITWIESER, Berhard; MILLER-IDRISS, Cynthia; WIT, Hans de. Higher Education’s Response to the European Refugee Crisis. In: WIT, Hans de; GACEL-ÁVILA, Jocelyne; JONES, Elspeth; JOOSTE, Nico (eds.). The Globalization of Internationalization Emerging Voices and Perspectives. London: Routledger, 2017. p. 29-39.) argue that the reception of refugees by universities should be understood within a broader framework of internationalization of higher education and global engagement. The current migration crisis is a global matter that can be addressed through forced internationalization efforts, which in this case are forced. Ergin et al. (2019ERGIN, Hakan; DE WIT, Hans; LEASK, Betty. Forced Internationalization of Higher Education: An Emerging Phenomenon. International Higher Education, n. 97, p. 7-9, 2019. DOI: 10.6017/ihe.2019.97.10938. Available at: <https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/10938>.
https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/a...
) describe forced internationalization as a deliberate and strategic phenomenon that addresses the three core functions of universities and aims to integrate people who have been forcibly displaced due to conflict, violence, or persecution.

Although forced migration and scientific diplomacy may seem unrelated at first glance, there are potential links between the two that underscore the important role that scientific knowledge and expertise can play when universities are a means to the end of addressing global challenges and promoting international cooperation and integration.

Countries Background

According to the Observatory of International Migrations Annual Report (2022)CAVALCANTI, Leonardo; DE OLIVEIRA, Tadeu; SILVA, Bianca G. Relatório Anual OBMigra 2022. Brasilia: OBMigra, 2022., the number of applicants seeking refugee recognition in Brazil increased from 619 people in 2010 to approximately 82,552 in 2019, the highest historical average. In 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of applicants was 29,107. The report also indicates that there were 1.3 million immigrants living in Brazil in 2021 (OBMigra, 2021OBMIGRA. 2011-2020: uma década de desafios para a imigração e refúgio no Brasil. Brasilia: OBMigra, 2021.).

This increase in migration flows to Brazil can be attributed to several factors, including global events that trigger migrations and the recognition of Brazil as an important example of humanitarian reception in the region. In 2017, a legal milestone was the approval of the Brazilian Migration Law (Law No. 13.445/2017) focused on humanitarian reception, ensuring the protection of the human rights of migrants and refugees arriving in the country. In recent years, states and municipalities have become increasingly involved in welcoming policies, particularly in large capitals and metropolitan areas, developing refugee integration policies with the participation of nongovernmental organizations and religious associations (Otero, Lotta, 2020OTERO, Guilherme Arosa Prol; LOTTA, Gabriela Spanghero. International Migration and Federative Co-ordination in Brazil: São Paulo and Porto Alegre Case Studies between 2013 and 2016. Contexto Internacional, v. 42, n. 2, p. 277-301, 2020. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-8529.2019420200004>.
https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-8529.20194...
).

Since 2003, the "Sergio Vieira de Mello" Chair, developed by UNHCR in collaboration with 29 Brazilian universities, has represented a significant breakthrough in the field of public migration policy. The Chair has positioned itself as a public policy tool that disseminates knowledge, raises awareness about refuge and migration, and provides training to various public and private institutions in Brazil (UNHCR, [s.d.]UNHCR. Cátedra Sérgio Vieira de Mello. UNHCR - Brasil. [n.d] Available at: <Available at: https://www.acnur.org/portugues/catedra-sergio-vieira-de-mello/ >. Accessed on: 07.04.2023.
https://www.acnur.org/portugues/catedra-...
). The initiatives offered to migrants and refugees include Portuguese language courses, recognition of undergraduate, master's and doctoral degrees, and specific university admission exams (De Carvalho et al., 2020DE CARVALHO, Elisa; PERELLES, Elisa; FIGUEIREDO GOMES DE MEZA, Maria Lucia. Situação de Refúgio e Ensino Superior nas IFES: um passo em direção à Integração? Revista Territorialidades, v. 1, n. 2, p. 10-24, 2020. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.17648/revistaterritorialidades-v1n2-2>.
https://doi.org/10.17648/revistaterritor...
; Ferreira et al., 2021FERREIRA, Alisson Vinícius Silva; LODETTI, Mariá Boeira; BORGES, Lucienne Martins. Recomeço: O sofrimento psíquico na imigração involuntária e a política de inclusão nas universidades brasileiras. REMHU, Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, v. 29, n. 63, p. 141-158, 2021. DOI: 10.1590/1980-85852503880006309. Available at: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852021000300141&tlng=pt>.
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=s...
).

Universities can create safe and welcoming spaces for refugees and migrants to connect with peers, build supportive networks, and access resources. In this context, they play a critical role in advocating for displaced population rights, providing them with opportunities to learn and grow (Streitwieser et al., 2018STREITWIESER, Bernhard; ROCHE, Jane; DUFFY-JAEGER, Kathryn; DOUMAN, Bronwyn. Universities as Global Advocates: Empowering Educators to Help Refugees and Migrants. The University Alliance for Refugees and At-Risk Migrants, 2018.). Additionally, Higher Education Institutions can engage in interdisciplinary research and innovation that explore the social, economic, and political dimensions of migration and displacement, develop solutions to the challenges refugees and migrants face, and advocate for policies that promote their integration and empowerment.

Before the conflict, there was a notable transition in Ukrainian science and research. Ukraine had long been scientifically linked with countries from the former URSS, primarily with Russia. Gradually, however, this shifted toward neighboring countries to the west, particularly Poland, which emerged as a preferred destination for scientists fleeing the recent war (OECD, 2022OECD. The future of science in Ukraine: Actions now will affect post-war recovery. Tackling the policy challenges - Browse OECD contributions, 2022.). This reorientation of scientific cooperation has led to a surge in the production of scientific publications that meet international standards.

This scenario of scientific renewal was abruptly interrupted by the Russian invasion, which caused many scientists to flee the country. Initially, international support was focused on short-term solutions offered mainly by European countries. However, as the conflict lasted more than a year, preventing the exodus of scientists became impractical. It is possible that Ukrainian scientists will be tempted to stay in their new professional positions rather than return to their old institutions if they have not been destroyed. However, revitalizing Ukrainian science is a critical step toward rebuilding the innovation ecosystem and developing evidence-based policy as part of a broader recovery effort once the war is over (OECD, 2022OECD. The future of science in Ukraine: Actions now will affect post-war recovery. Tackling the policy challenges - Browse OECD contributions, 2022.).

Welcoming Program for Ukrainian Scientists

The immigration of Ukrainians to Paraná began in the late 1890s with the arrival of the first immigrants (Calsavara, 2023CALSAVARA, Fabio. Como o Paraná ganhou a maior comunidade ucraniana no país e como sua cultura foi preservada. Gazeta do Povo - Sociedade, 2023. Available at: <Available at: https://www.gazetadopovo.com.br/Paraná/como-o-Paraná-ganhou-a-maior-comunidade-ucraniana-no-pais-e-como-sua-cultura-foi-preservada />. Accessed on: 07.04.2023.
https://www.gazetadopovo.com.br/Paraná/c...
). The impact of Ukrainian immigration on the culture and economy of the state was significant, as it was an important factor in the history and ethnic formation of the state (Dolinski, 2022DOLINSKI, Ivo. Os 131 anos da imigração ucraniana e a importância da etnia para o Brasil e para a nossa região. Jornal Comércio, 2022. Available at: <Available at: https://www.vvale.com.br/jornalocomercio/uma-visita-ao-passado/os-131-anos-da-imigracao-ucraniana-e-a-importancia-da-etnia-para-o-brasil-e-para-a-nossa-regiao/ >. Accessed on: 07.04.2023.
https://www.vvale.com.br/jornalocomercio...
). Nowadays, 500,000 Ukrainian immigrants and their descendants live in Brazil, 400,000 of them in Paraná, mainly in the central and southern regions of the state (Dionísio, 2011DIONÍSIO, Bibiana. Comunidade ucraniana comemora 120 anos de imigração para o Brasil. G1 - Paraná, 2011. Available at: <Available at: https://g1.globo.com/pr/Paraná/noticia/2011/05/comunidade-ucraniana-comemora-120-anos-de-imigracao-para-o-brasil.html >. Accessed on: 07.04.2023.
https://g1.globo.com/pr/Paraná/noticia/2...
). According to the Central Brazilian Ukrainian Representation, the state of Paraná is the third largest Ukrainian community outside Ukraine. In some cases, as in the city of Prudentópolis, about 80% of the population has Ukrainian ties (Dolinski, 2022DOLINSKI, Ivo. Os 131 anos da imigração ucraniana e a importância da etnia para o Brasil e para a nossa região. Jornal Comércio, 2022. Available at: <Available at: https://www.vvale.com.br/jornalocomercio/uma-visita-ao-passado/os-131-anos-da-imigracao-ucraniana-e-a-importancia-da-etnia-para-o-brasil-e-para-a-nossa-regiao/ >. Accessed on: 07.04.2023.
https://www.vvale.com.br/jornalocomercio...
).

Less than a month after the outbreak of the conflict between Ukraine and Russia, on March 15, 2022, the government of Paraná State, through the Araucaria Foundation, with the support of the General Directorate of Science, Technology, and Higher Education (SETI), launched a program to host Ukrainian scientists. Initially, only Ukrainian female researchers were recruited due to martial law, but later the scope was expanded. The goal is to provide emergency humanitarian assistance by hosting them in scientific, technological, and innovative institutions (ICTs) in the state of Paraná for a period of up to two years. This will allow them to continue their work and promote joint collaborations in the future for the reconstruction and strengthening of the Ukrainian economy through science and innovation (Fundacao Araucaria, 2022aFUNDACAO ARAUCARIA. Chamada Pública 09/2022 - Programa de Acolhida a Cientistas Ucranianas - Fluxo Contínuo. 2022a. ).

Financial support is divided into two grants, with researchers with more than five years of experience receiving the Category 1 Visiting Professor Grant of R$10,000 and those with less than five years of experience receiving the Category 2 Visiting Professor Grant of R$5,500. The program also provides an additional aid of R$1,000 for each dependent under 18 and/or over 60 years of age, with a maximum of three additional grants per selected researcher. It also covers round-trip airfare to Brazil and offers free Portuguese language courses for the researchers and their dependents through the Paraná Speaks Languages program (Fundacao Araucaria, 2022aFUNDACAO ARAUCARIA. Chamada Pública 09/2022 - Programa de Acolhida a Cientistas Ucranianas - Fluxo Contínuo. 2022a. ).

Also, there is an outreach program called Friendly Universities (Programa Institucional Universidades Amig@s: Acolhimento Extensionista aos Cientistas), which gives day-to-day support to the scientists and their families. Fellows are selected from the community to help newcomers with a range of services, such as housing, furnishing, registering with health insurance, visa documents, enrolling children in school, etc. The goal is to help Ukrainian scholars settle into their new environment and feel welcomed and supported in their new academic communities (Fundacao Araucaria, 2022b______. Chamada Pública 10/2022 - Programa Institucional Universidades Amig@s: Acolhimento extensionista aos cientistas ucranianos - Fluxo Contínuo. 2022b.).

Overall, the program to host Ukrainian scientists is an effort to promote international cooperation in science and innovation while providing humanitarian assistance to scientists affected by armed conflict in their home country. The program has already hosted 13 Ukrainian professors at 10 universities in 09 cities in Paraná and aims to host 50 researchers on a permanent basis. By integrating displaced scholars into new academic communities, the program brings significant benefits to the individual, the home country, and the host country. As Dryden-Peterson (2016)DRYDEN-PETERSON, Sarah. Refugee Education: The Crossroads of Globalization. Educational Researcher, v. 45, n. 9, p. 473-482, 2016. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X16683398>.
https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X16683398...
discusses, returning to or beginning studies at the University in the host society provides a sense of stability that can be a powerful counterbalance to the trauma of forced migration.

Methodology

The study employs a comprehensive research methodology that includes a bibliographic review, document analysis, and semi-structured interviews with professors responsible for implementing the program. The participant universities are the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUC-PR), the Federal Institute of Paraná (IFPR), the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR), the State University of Londrina (UEL), the State University of Maringa (UEM), the State University of North Paraná (UENP), the State University of Ponta Grossa (UEPG), the State University of West-Central Paraná (UNICENTRO) and the State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE). Two are federally funded, six are state funded, and one is privately funded.

Interviews were semi-structured, recorded, transcribed, organized, and analyzed. From February to April 2023, nine professors who serve as coordinators of graduate programs that host Ukrainian scientists were interviewed. It was an ethical decision not to formally interview the Ukrainian scholars themselves in order to avoid revisiting their migration journey and associated trauma. The information provided here about the Ukrainian scientists comes from introductory meetings hosted by Araucaria Foundation, informal conversations, their application materials, and third-party sources (professors).

These interviews were then coded using Atlas.Ti, according to two different categories: the initial motivation for universities and scientists participating in the program and secondly, the externalities1 1 Meaning a side effect or consequence of activity that affects other parties. of the program. This methodology allowed for a detailed analysis of the above dimensions and allowed us to explore the potential benefits that may accrue to program participants and participating universities.

It is important to note, however, that the article is a result of a more extensive study aimed at analyzing the policy in question. It should be emphasized that the interviews were not specifically designed to assess internationalization. During the interviews, the topic of internationalization was spontaneously mentioned by the interviewees as the immediate effect they perceived. Rather, internationalization emerged as a collateral effect of the policy under scrutiny, with some instances showing it as the immediate primary effect observed.

Results and Discussions

Considering the categories of analysis, we can provide some insights into this specific program and contribute to integration measures.

The initial motivation for the universities

The humanitarian aspect was the most frequently cited motivation, with a ratio of 8/9. Respondents mentioned words such as "war," "lost," "help," and "welcome" as factors that triggered the project. A confessional university also stated that the project was in line with their institutional values and contributed to regional development and social inclusion. Ergin et al. (2019ERGIN, Hakan; DE WIT, Hans; LEASK, Betty. Forced Internationalization of Higher Education: An Emerging Phenomenon. International Higher Education, n. 97, p. 7-9, 2019. DOI: 10.6017/ihe.2019.97.10938. Available at: <https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/10938>.
https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/a...
) identified a "humanitarian rationale" in the forced internationalization of Turkish universities. It stems from the recognition of higher education as a public good at the personal level (for the benefit of individuals in need), at the national level (for the benefit of societies and communities within a country), and at the international level (for the benefit of the world).

Regarding internationalization, 7 out of 9 participants mentioned some aspect of it. Respondents mentioned terms such as "partnership," "collaboration," and "exchange" as motivations for taking part in the initiative, although they were not clearly mentioned in the policy documents. As Ergin et al. (2019ERGIN, Hakan; DE WIT, Hans; LEASK, Betty. Forced Internationalization of Higher Education: An Emerging Phenomenon. International Higher Education, n. 97, p. 7-9, 2019. DOI: 10.6017/ihe.2019.97.10938. Available at: <https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/10938>.
https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/a...
) have previously shown, universities benefit academically from the diversity and brain gain that refugees bring, which enhances the quality of learning, teaching, research, and other forms of internationalization.

The expected outcomes of this project for graduate programs include promoting diversity and multiculturalism, facilitating the exchange of knowledge and expertise, and fostering international cooperation through joint publications, access to funding for international projects, sharing scientific networks, and new perspectives on teaching and research. This will potentially improve the quality of their education and research.

Through the interactions between Ukrainian and Brazilian scholars, they had a more realistic approach in terms of internationalization, with future mobility opportunities, such as cooperation agreements and exchange programs, in a long-term partnership when they return to Ukraine. Now both parties hope to contribute to the recovery and reconstruction of Ukraine. It corelates to the rationale seen by Ergin et al.'s (2019ERGIN, Hakan; DE WIT, Hans; LEASK, Betty. Forced Internationalization of Higher Education: An Emerging Phenomenon. International Higher Education, n. 97, p. 7-9, 2019. DOI: 10.6017/ihe.2019.97.10938. Available at: <https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/10938>.
https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/a...
) argument that forced internationalization can be an important soft power investment that leads to future diplomatic relations between the host country and the home countries of forced academics.

Initial motivation for the Ukrainian scientists

For the Ukrainian scientists, the first motivation to apply for the program was physical security and stability for themselves and their families, since many of them have school-age children. Understandabl, since in times of war the first priority for civilians is to seek protection. The researchers also emphasize the fact that they can continue their research for two years while the conflict is still going on, and that they can maintain their academic activities for what they consider a reasonable amount of time.

They also mentioned that they wanted to have a different experience in a 'tropical' country, as they say. This shows that they are curious about Brazilian culture and environment and open to a multicultural experience.

Externalities

In terms of research capacity, some graduate programs have received international scholars for the first time through this project. This represents an opportunity for these programs to internationalize. In the Capes evaluation2 2 Capes (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) is the Brazilian agency responsible for evaluating graduate programs every four years. Grades range from 1 to 7, with 6 and 7 awarded only to internationalized programs. , 11 of the 12 graduate programs were rated between 3 and 5, which means that they have achieved a lower level in terms of internationalization. As discussed by Saes and Invernizzi (2023SAES, Klarissa Valero Ribeiro; INVERNIZZI, Noela. A política de internacionalização na pós-graduação brasileira: efetividade da mobilidade acadêmica para internacionalizar a produção científica e a colaboração internacional. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación Superior, no prelo, 2023.), the internationalization policy has become more explicit and systematic over the past decade, and the level of internationalization of graduate programs has become a specific item in the four-year evaluation, recognized as a criterion for academic excellence and a requirement for awarding grades 6 and 7. Those with lower scores are less likely to receive the most research funding in Brazil. A program coordinator mentioned that access to funding to promote the internationalization of the program is very limited for those with lower grades, leading to a vicious cycle. Therefore, the presence of an international professor in a less internationalized program may have a greater impact than in other programs with better results.

In addition, the project provides an opportunity to promote internationalization at home by encouraging the use of languages and offering new research perspectives. It also gives Brazilians access to the international community that Ukrainians have, especially in Europe. Most importantly, it develops new interpersonal skills that ultimately contribute to internationalization, which carries significant weight in Capes' evaluations of graduate programs.

The involvement of Ukrainians in academic activities is not a problem. They teach classes, supervise students, give lectures and workshops, participate in research groups and outreach activities. This contributes to the development of science and technology in smaller cities, and thus to the capillarization of the technical-scientific system of the state of Paraná. This finding illustrates the argument of Fierros-Pesqueira and Castillo-Federico (2022FIERROS-PESQUEIRA, Emma; CASTILLO-FEDERICO, Diana. Forced Migration of Displaced Scholars in the 20th Century and Its Impact in the Circulation of Knowledge and Ideas. Ágora de heterodoxias, v. 8, n. 2, p. 36-46, 2022. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7682871. Available at: <http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7682871>.
http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7682871...
) and Oleksiyenko (2021OLEKSIYENKO, Anatoly; TEREPYSHCHYI, Serhii; GOMILKO, Olga; SVYRYDENKO, Denys. ‘What Do You Mean, You Are a Refugee in Your Own Country?’: Displaced Scholars and Identities in Embattled Ukraine. European Journal of Higher Education, v. 11, n. 2, p. 101-118, 2021. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2020.1777446>.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2020.17...
) that these academics have expertise in specific areas of study and, if they can contribute to the dissemination and production of knowledge, they can help strengthen local research capacity and thus promote regional development.

Some Ukrainian scientists and their families have already started to develop activities with local communities in partnership with city halls and other local institutions, such as readings with incarcerated people, visits to elementary schools to disseminate science and teach checkers-game, volunteer work in children's orphanages and so on. This supports Ergin et al.'s (2019ERGIN, Hakan; DE WIT, Hans; LEASK, Betty. Forced Internationalization of Higher Education: An Emerging Phenomenon. International Higher Education, n. 97, p. 7-9, 2019. DOI: 10.6017/ihe.2019.97.10938. Available at: <https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/10938>.
https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/a...
) argument that forced migrants have the potential to enrich and strengthen the host society socially and culturally.

From the grantees' perspective, their stay in Paraná will broaden their research domains, expand their scientific and personal networks, and enhance their academic and professional skills, which they plan to use in rebuilding Ukraine and restoring their research environment. It is noteworthy that some of the scientists are trying to continue their activities in Ukraine by involving Ukrainian universities in joint activities as much as possible. Given this preliminary systematic analysis of the program, hosting displaced academics seems to be a mutually beneficial arrangement, as McGrath and Lempinen (2021McGRATH, Peter F.; LEMPINEN, Edward W. The integration of refugee and displaced scientists creates a win-win situation. UNESCO Science Report, 2021, p. 20-23. Available at: < https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c008>.
https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c0...
) point out.

As the conflict persists some academics endure distress. Most of them have left their Ukrainian family members, others their husbands due to martial law. It is understandable that some academics face greater obstacles in their adjustment process than others. Despite the fact that the state of Paraná has many Ukrainian descendants, the language barrier is still a problem in some cases, as not all Ukrainians are fluent in English. They do attend Portuguese courses, but it takes about eight months for them to reach a minimum level of proficiency. According to Smaili (2015SMAILI, Soraya S. Migrants, post-colonialism and fundamentalism: Links between East and West and the issue of Islam. Psicologia USP, v. 26, n. 2, p. 145-151, 2015. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6564D20150002>.
https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6564D201500...
), newcomers often encounter difficulties related to their identity and cultural conflicts, primarily due to cultural dissimilarities.

Trivial tasks are always forgotten in settlement contexts and it was no different with the Ukrainians. Even if they had jobs and economic resources, it took a lot of work to rent a house. Moreover, in the first three months they constantly need assistance in setting up the house, using public transport, registering their children in school, applying for legal papers and so on. In this context, universities that already had an international office and/or policies in place to welcome international people had an easier time dealing with external factors because they already had experience and knew how to identify potential constraints. For those that did not, it was an opportunity to learn from forced internationalization.

The initial implementation of the program involved both successes and challenges, which were not solely the result of institutional or internal factors. Brazil, as a host country, poses various difficulties, including unclear procedures, websites available only in Portuguese, and the requirement of housing guarantors, among others. It is crucial to highlight that individual willingness played a fundamental role in overcoming these limitations throughout the program's implementation. Many professors, for instance, utilized their personal and professional networks to facilitate access to education, healthcare, and housing for Ukrainian researchers and their families. This underscores the potential underestimation of the complexities associated with receiving foreign individuals, particularly those affected by conflict or war.

The participating universities exhibited varying levels of expertise in internationalization, which appeared to impact the settlement process for the researchers. Recognizing that universities require additional support and resources beyond their academic expertise is vital in effectively addressing the challenges of hosting foreign individuals. Despite the obstacles, this situation also presented an opportunity for universities to develop new capacities and adapt to emerging demands (forced internationalization). However, it is important to acknowledge that the process of adaptation and cultural assimilation for Ukrainian researchers and their families is an ongoing journey, given the recent nature of this phenomenon. This aspect warrants further research in the future.

In general, the immediate positive effects mentioned were related to inclusiveness and internationalization, while negative aspects encompassed concerns about housing, schooling, medical services, and language. It is noteworthy that personnel from the International Relations (IR) sector were not interviewed, as the policy model allowed each Higher Education Institution (HEI) to decide on its implementation methods, without specific focus on IR areas.

The presence of Ukrainian researchers in Paraná has the potential to enhance the soft power of the state in Ukraine and to establish a bridge for scientific and technological collaboration, driving not only academic research but also the Ukrainian economy, particularly in a post-war context. As argued by Gluckman et al. (2017GLUCKMAN, Peter D.; TUREKIAN, Vaughan C.; GRIMES, Robin W.; KISHI, Teruo. Science Diplomacy: A Pragmatic Perspective from the Inside. Science & Diplomacy, v. 6, n. 4, p. 1-13, 2017. ), science diplomacy can be used to achieve various domestic objectives of a country, such as exercising soft power and acting in economic dimensions.

Conclusions

In response to increasing migration flows, universities have become key players in developing programs and initiatives to welcome displaced populations by supporting to researchers who have been forced to flee their home countries due to conflict, persecution, or other reasons. By offering refuge, academic support, and other resources, universities can enable displaced scholars to continue their research and teaching while contributing to the academic communities of their host countries and advocating for conflict resolution.

As Streitwieser et al. (2017STREITWIESER, Berhard; MILLER-IDRISS, Cynthia; WIT, Hans de. Higher Education’s Response to the European Refugee Crisis. In: WIT, Hans de; GACEL-ÁVILA, Jocelyne; JONES, Elspeth; JOOSTE, Nico (eds.). The Globalization of Internationalization Emerging Voices and Perspectives. London: Routledger, 2017. p. 29-39.) point out, hosting refugees requires a unique combination of thoughtful policy, governmental and institutional funding, and societal tolerance and patience. The Welcoming Program for Ukrainian Scientists in Paraná, Brazil, serves as a compelling case study for the intersection of academic displacement and internationalization and illustrates the potential of universities to promote inclusion and diversity in higher education. Through a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach, host initiatives can also foster deeper intercultural dialog, increase understanding and mutual respect, and contribute to the development of more resilient and inclusive communities. Future studies should assess both the initial and subsequent outcomes of these programs.

Hosting displaced academics can bring new perspectives, innovative solutions, and novel approaches to complex societal issues, help diversify research, and enhance the global reputation of host institutions. It also allows host universities to establish themselves as players in global academic affairs and increase their institutional visibility and relevance in the international academic arena.

Finally, it is essential to provide displaced academics with a platform to tell their stories and advocate for the needs of displaced populations. They have a unique perspective and expertise that gives them access to decision-making processes and influential arenas where they can contribute to debates and academic production and bring new insights and perspectives. Creating spaces where these voices can be heard can also help challenge dominant narratives about displacement and inspire greater empathy and understanding for the struggles of displaced populations.

References

  • AKKAD, Ahmad. Displaced Syrian academics: unheard voices in academia. Forced Migration Review, n. 70, p. 55-58, 2022.
  • BISCHOFF, Viviane. As ações públicas de internacionalização da educação superior no Brasil e o seu alinhamento com a política externa brasileira no Governo Dilma Rousseff 2011-2014 2017. Available at: <Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10183/158147 />. Accessed on: 14.02.2023.
    » http://hdl.handle.net/10183/158147
  • CALSAVARA, Fabio. Como o Paraná ganhou a maior comunidade ucraniana no país e como sua cultura foi preservada. Gazeta do Povo - Sociedade, 2023. Available at: <Available at: https://www.gazetadopovo.com.br/Paraná/como-o-Paraná-ganhou-a-maior-comunidade-ucraniana-no-pais-e-como-sua-cultura-foi-preservada />. Accessed on: 07.04.2023.
    » https://www.gazetadopovo.com.br/Paraná/como-o-Paraná-ganhou-a-maior-comunidade-ucraniana-no-pais-e-como-sua-cultura-foi-preservada
  • CAVALCANTI, Leonardo; DE OLIVEIRA, Tadeu; SILVA, Bianca G. Relatório Anual OBMigra 2022 Brasilia: OBMigra, 2022.
  • DE CARVALHO, Elisa; PERELLES, Elisa; FIGUEIREDO GOMES DE MEZA, Maria Lucia. Situação de Refúgio e Ensino Superior nas IFES: um passo em direção à Integração? Revista Territorialidades, v. 1, n. 2, p. 10-24, 2020. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.17648/revistaterritorialidades-v1n2-2>.
    » https://doi.org/10.17648/revistaterritorialidades-v1n2-2
  • DIONÍSIO, Bibiana. Comunidade ucraniana comemora 120 anos de imigração para o Brasil. G1 - Paraná, 2011. Available at: <Available at: https://g1.globo.com/pr/Paraná/noticia/2011/05/comunidade-ucraniana-comemora-120-anos-de-imigracao-para-o-brasil.html >. Accessed on: 07.04.2023.
    » https://g1.globo.com/pr/Paraná/noticia/2011/05/comunidade-ucraniana-comemora-120-anos-de-imigracao-para-o-brasil.html
  • DOLINSKI, Ivo. Os 131 anos da imigração ucraniana e a importância da etnia para o Brasil e para a nossa região. Jornal Comércio, 2022. Available at: <Available at: https://www.vvale.com.br/jornalocomercio/uma-visita-ao-passado/os-131-anos-da-imigracao-ucraniana-e-a-importancia-da-etnia-para-o-brasil-e-para-a-nossa-regiao/ >. Accessed on: 07.04.2023.
    » https://www.vvale.com.br/jornalocomercio/uma-visita-ao-passado/os-131-anos-da-imigracao-ucraniana-e-a-importancia-da-etnia-para-o-brasil-e-para-a-nossa-regiao/
  • DRYDEN-PETERSON, Sarah. Refugee Education: The Crossroads of Globalization. Educational Researcher, v. 45, n. 9, p. 473-482, 2016. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X16683398>.
    » https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X16683398
  • DUKHOVYCH, Svitlana; LUBOV, Deborah Castellano. Ukraine faces “an education crisis and long-term brain drain”. Vatican News, 2022. Available at: <Available at: https://www.vaticannews.va/en/church/news/2022-09/ukrainian-parliamentarian-warns-of-education-brain-drain.html >. Accessed on: 09.03.2023.
    » https://www.vaticannews.va/en/church/news/2022-09/ukrainian-parliamentarian-warns-of-education-brain-drain.html
  • ERGIN, Hakan; DE WIT, Hans; LEASK, Betty. Forced Internationalization of Higher Education: An Emerging Phenomenon. International Higher Education, n. 97, p. 7-9, 2019. DOI: 10.6017/ihe.2019.97.10938. Available at: <https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/10938>.
    » https://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2019.97.10938» https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/10938
  • FERREIRA, Alisson Vinícius Silva; LODETTI, Mariá Boeira; BORGES, Lucienne Martins. Recomeço: O sofrimento psíquico na imigração involuntária e a política de inclusão nas universidades brasileiras. REMHU, Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, v. 29, n. 63, p. 141-158, 2021. DOI: 10.1590/1980-85852503880006309. Available at: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852021000300141&tlng=pt>.
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-85852503880006309» http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-85852021000300141&tlng=pt
  • FIERROS-PESQUEIRA, Emma; CASTILLO-FEDERICO, Diana. Forced Migration of Displaced Scholars in the 20th Century and Its Impact in the Circulation of Knowledge and Ideas. Ágora de heterodoxias, v. 8, n. 2, p. 36-46, 2022. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7682871. Available at: <http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7682871>.
    » https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7682871» http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7682871
  • FUNDACAO ARAUCARIA. Chamada Pública 09/2022 - Programa de Acolhida a Cientistas Ucranianas - Fluxo Contínuo 2022a.
  • ______. Chamada Pública 10/2022 - Programa Institucional Universidades Amig@s: Acolhimento extensionista aos cientistas ucranianos - Fluxo Contínuo 2022b.
  • GALAZZI, Sena; MCGRATH, Peter F. Fast and Slow Issues in Science Diplomacy: Towards an Equitable Global Metis of Science Diplomacy. Science Diplomacy, v. 4, n. 3, p. 13–17, 2021. Available at: <Available at: https://www.interacademies.org/publication/fast-and-slow-issues-science-diplomacy-towards-equitable-global-metis-science-diplomacy >. Accessed on: 23.07.2023.
    » https://www.interacademies.org/publication/fast-and-slow-issues-science-diplomacy-towards-equitable-global-metis-science-diplomacy
  • GHAZZOUL, Nahed. The unheard voices. At-risk Syrian academics in Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey. In: AXYNIOVA, Vera; KOHSTALL, Florian; RICHTER, Carola (eds.).Academics in Exile Wetzlar: Majuskel Medienproduktion GmbH, 2022. P. 233-248. DOI: 10.14361/9783839460894-012. Available at: <https://www.transcript-open.de/doi/10.14361/9783839460894-012>.
    » https://doi.org/10.14361/9783839460894-012» https://www.transcript-open.de/doi/10.14361/9783839460894-012
  • GLUCKMAN, Peter D.; TUREKIAN, Vaughan C.; GRIMES, Robin W.; KISHI, Teruo. Science Diplomacy: A Pragmatic Perspective from the Inside. Science & Diplomacy, v. 6, n. 4, p. 1-13, 2017.
  • KNIGHT, Jane. Knowledge Diplomacy: What Are the Key Characteristics?, International Higher Education, n. 100, p. 38-39, 2020. Available at: Disponível em: https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/14243 Accessed on: 15.02.2023.
    » https://ejournals.bc.edu/index.php/ihe/article/view/14243
  • MARYL, Maciej; IVASHCHENKO, Oleksandra V.; REINFELDS, Matiss; REINSONE, Sanita; ROSE, Michael E. Addressing the needs of Ukrainian scholars at risk. Nature Human Behaviour, v. 6, n. 6, p. 746-747, 2022. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-022-01387-7>.
    » https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-022-01387-7
  • McGRATH, Peter F.; LEMPINEN, Edward W. The integration of refugee and displaced scientists creates a win-win situation. UNESCO Science Report, 2021, p. 20-23. Available at: < https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c008>.
    » https://doi.org/10.18356/9789210058575c008
  • NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. Knowledge and Diplomacy: Science Advice in the United Nations System Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2002. DOI: 10.17226/10577. Available at: <http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10577>.
    » https://doi.org/10.17226/10577» http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10577
  • NYE, Joseph S. Public diplomacy and soft power. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, v. 616, n. 1, p. 94-109, 2008. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716207311699
    » https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716207311699
  • ______. Soft power: the means to success in world politics New York, NY: PublicAffairs, 2004.
  • OBMIGRA. 2011-2020: uma década de desafios para a imigração e refúgio no Brasil Brasilia: OBMigra, 2021.
  • OECD. The future of science in Ukraine: Actions now will affect post-war recovery. Tackling the policy challenges - Browse OECD contributions, 2022.
  • OLEKSIYENKO, Anatoly; TEREPYSHCHYI, Serhii; GOMILKO, Olga; SVYRYDENKO, Denys. ‘What Do You Mean, You Are a Refugee in Your Own Country?’: Displaced Scholars and Identities in Embattled Ukraine. European Journal of Higher Education, v. 11, n. 2, p. 101-118, 2021. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2020.1777446>.
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2020.1777446
  • OTERO, Guilherme Arosa Prol; LOTTA, Gabriela Spanghero. International Migration and Federative Co-ordination in Brazil: São Paulo and Porto Alegre Case Studies between 2013 and 2016. Contexto Internacional, v. 42, n. 2, p. 277-301, 2020. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-8529.2019420200004>.
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-8529.2019420200004
  • RUNGIUS, Charlotte; FLINK, Tim; DEGELSEGGER-MÁRQUEZ, Alexander. State-of-the-art report: summarizing literature on science diplomacy cases and concepts. 2018. Available at: <https://www.s4d4c.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/S4D4C_State-of-the-Art_Report_DZHW.pdf>.
    » https://www.s4d4c.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/S4D4C_State-of-the-Art_Report_DZHW.pdf
  • SAES, Klarissa Valero Ribeiro; INVERNIZZI, Noela. A política de internacionalização na pós-graduação brasileira: efetividade da mobilidade acadêmica para internacionalizar a produção científica e a colaboração internacional. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación Superior, no prelo, 2023.
  • SMAILI, Soraya S. Migrants, post-colonialism and fundamentalism: Links between East and West and the issue of Islam. Psicologia USP, v. 26, n. 2, p. 145-151, 2015. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6564D20150002>.
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6564D20150002
  • STREITWIESER, Berhard; MILLER-IDRISS, Cynthia; WIT, Hans de. Higher Education’s Response to the European Refugee Crisis. In: WIT, Hans de; GACEL-ÁVILA, Jocelyne; JONES, Elspeth; JOOSTE, Nico (eds.). The Globalization of Internationalization Emerging Voices and Perspectives London: Routledger, 2017. p. 29-39.
  • STREITWIESER, Bernhard; MILLER-IDRISS, Cynthia; WIT, Hans de. Higher Education's Response to the European Refugee Crisis: Challenges, Strategies and Opportunities. Washington: [s. n.], 2016. Available at: Disponível em: https://gsehd.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs4166/files/2021-10/bernhard_streitwieser_working_paper_10.2016_final.pdf Accessed on: 06.04.2023.
    » https://gsehd.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs4166/files/2021-10/bernhard_streitwieser_working_paper_10.2016_final.pdf
  • STREITWIESER, Bernhard; ROCHE, Jane; DUFFY-JAEGER, Kathryn; DOUMAN, Bronwyn. Universities as Global Advocates: Empowering Educators to Help Refugees and Migrants The University Alliance for Refugees and At-Risk Migrants, 2018.
  • TAM, Lisa; AYHAN, Kadir Jun. Evaluations of people, affection, and recommendation for a host country: A study of Global Korea Scholarship (GKS) recipients. Politics and Policy, v. 49, n. 6, p. 1292-1307, 2021. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12438
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12438
  • TUREKIAN, Vaughan C. Building a National Science Diplomacy System. Science & Diplomacy, v. 1, n. 4, 2012. Available at: <http://www.sciencediplomacy.org/editorial/2012/building-national-science-diplomacy-system>.
    » http://www.sciencediplomacy.org/editorial/2012/building-national-science-diplomacy-system
  • ______. The Evolution of Science Diplomacy. Global Policy, v. 9, November, p. 5-7, 2018. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12622>.
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12622
  • UNHCR. Cátedra Sérgio Vieira de Mello. UNHCR - Brasil [n.d] Available at: <Available at: https://www.acnur.org/portugues/catedra-sergio-vieira-de-mello/ >. Accessed on: 07.04.2023.
    » https://www.acnur.org/portugues/catedra-sergio-vieira-de-mello/
  • UNHCR. Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2021 Copenhagen: UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2022. Available at: <https://www.unhcr.org/62a9d1494/global-trends-report-2021>.
    » https://www.unhcr.org/62a9d1494/global-trends-report-2021
  • ______. Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2022 Copenhagen: UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2023. Available at: <https://www.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/2023-06/global-trends-report-2022.pdf>.
    » https://www.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/2023-06/global-trends-report-2022.pdf
  • ______. Ukraine Refugee Situation Operational Data Portal. 2023. Available at: <https://data.unhcr.org/en/situations/ukraine>.
    » https://data.unhcr.org/en/situations/ukraine
  • 1
    Meaning a side effect or consequence of activity that affects other parties.
  • 2
    Capes (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) is the Brazilian agency responsible for evaluating graduate programs every four years. Grades range from 1 to 7, with 6 and 7 awarded only to internationalized programs.

Section editors

Roberto Marinucci, Barbara Marciano Marques

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    04 Sept 2023
  • Date of issue
    May-Aug 2023

History

  • Received
    13 Apr 2023
  • Accepted
    22 May 2023
Centro Scalabriniano de Estudos Migratórios SRTV/N Edificio Brasília Radio Center , Conj. P - Qd. 702 - Sobrelojas 01/02, CEP 70719-900 Brasília-DF Brasil, Tel./ Fax(55 61) 3327-0669 - Brasília - DF - Brazil
E-mail: remhu@csem.org.br