Abstract in English:Abstract This article presents a study of the factors that influence the mechanism of soil-structure interaction with a pilot building having concrete walls and their impact on their performance. To illustrate the studies carried out, a numerical modeling of a four-floor concrete wall pilot building was performed, subjected to vertical actions, supported by a slab-on-ground foundation, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), together with specific 3D software for analysis and structural dimensioning in reinforced concrete. For the consideration of the geotechnical and structural system (foundation structure), the discrete spring model (Winkler model) coupled to the superstructure was used and the slab foundation thickness was varied by 16 cm, 25 cm and 40 cm. The local geotechnical formation was represented by a soft clay (SPT = 5) from the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region, Brazil. The influential factors of the SSI analyzed in this research were: relative stiffness of the foundation structure, requesting stresses, settlements in the foundation of the building and steel reinforcement bar ratio. For a better visualization of the influence of these various factors, an analysis was made of the distribution of normal stresses and stresses at the base of the walls of this building, in the form of graphs. Finally, it was concluded that the change in slab foundation, stiffness influences the distribution of stresses and stresses in the foundation, with a tendency to uniformity as the slab foundation thickness increases. However, this relationship is not linear.
Abstract in English:Abstract The granulometric range used has a direct influence on the life of the ballast layer when subjected to the load generated by rail traffic. However, in Brazil, we have only two size ranges to be used. The publications related to the subject matter under study express the need for a continuous grain size strip, different from the ones usually used in our railways. This more continuous band would provide less deformation and a reduction of degradation, granting a longer ballast life. To verify the influence of granulometry, a Dynamic Ballast Test Equipment was used to simulate railway traffic. The results show that if we use a more uniform granulometry, a direct influence on the deformation and the breakage index is evidenced, and consequently, a shorter useful life. The study highlights the need to study continuous granulometric bands for the rail ballast.
Abstract in English:Abstract The concrete structures present several geometric deviations, some of them considered indirectly in the safety factors of the design. However, the imperfections of the element axes, especially columns, should be explicitly considered in the structural analysis because they have great influence over the building stability. The NBR 6118:2014, Brazilian standard code for the design of concrete structures, defines a global geometric inclination to the columns, also called “out-of-plumb columns”, that causes additional forces not presented in the “perfect” structure, which must be considered as a permanent action. The code also sets the design equations, as well as the load combination criteria. Although the expressions for the out-of-plumb angle calculation are used in the designs, they are not well understood by the technical community or even really explained in Brazilian publications. This paper discusses the theoretical basis that supports such expressions and compares what is presented in NBR 6118:2014 to other international codes. Structural analysis results are discussed, considering buildings with different heights and loadings, to evaluate how the global out-of-plumb effect seems to be relevant. The main objective is to contribute to a better understanding of the concrete building design principles and, specifically, fill a gap in national technical literature about this global imperfection.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study is to present the formulation and applications of the optimization problem of steel-concrete composite alveolar beams. In addition to presenting the formulation, a comparative analysis of the predominant collapse modes is performed numerically via the finite element method. The optimization program was developed with the GUI platform available in Matlab 2016. Since this is a discrete problem, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) was used to solve the optimization model, implemented with the Matlab optimization toolbox. Numerical examples using finite elements model are presented to validate the solution and analyze its effectiveness, along with an assesment of the predominant collapse modes for a group of 12 beams. The results show that more efficient designs are obtained when optimization tools are applied.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article presents a procedure for the reliability assessment of cold-formed steel beams based on the Direct Strength Method (DSM) and the Effective Section Method (ESM). Using a comprehensive database, a statistical analysis of the test results was performed to determine the statistical properties of the professional factor random variable. The statistical parameters related to material strength, geometric properties and load effects were obtained from established references for reliability analysis. Safety levels compatible with the North American and the Brazilian codes relating to structural design of cold-formed steel members have been established. The first-order reliability method (FORM) was used to calculate resistance factors φ for usual nominal live-dead ratios. The results of the reliability analysis showed that the DSM and ESM design methods have similar levels of reliability. The same resistance factor as the DSM can be used for the ESM, without compromising the minimum level of reliability established. The results obtained with the LRFD calibration data, presented a good approximation with the load factor φ = 0.90, except for the distortional mode. With the LSD calibration data, values well below the specified were required in order to achieve the required level of reliability. It was also found that the load factor γ = 1.25, in the format of the Brazilian standard, could reach the safety requirements established for all buckling modes.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Chalupas Caldera is a rhyolitic volcano located in the Eastern Cordillera to the Southeast of the Cotopaxi Volcano in the Ecuadorian Andes. It is supposedly fed by a huge magmatic chamber below the caldera. For studying the Chalupas magmatic chamber, the tomographic models obtained by a Tarantola-Valette inversion and studied previously in the entire Ecuadorian region were used. The theoretical basis of the tomography method based on a Bayesian solution of the inverse problem is introduced. The process of the inverse problem regularization is obtained by an L-curve scheme to achieve an optimal solution. The seismic tomography images zoomed in the Chalupas region are well correlated with the main geological terranes and faults documented for the basement of Eastern Cordillera. Based on the tomographic images obtained, it can be assumed that there is not a magmatic chamber of considerable magnitude placed close to the surface underneath the Chalupas Caldera, since it does not present seismic and tomographic evidence to be able to assume a possible volcanic eruption before long. Furthermore, the images allow identifying that the seismic and thermal activity is located beneath the Cotopaxi Volcano as a vertical anomaly beneath the Northeast of Cotopaxi Volcano that corresponds to the phreatomagmatic activity observed in 2015.
Abstract in English:Abstract Non-linear geostatistical methods are known to deal appropriately with the geological and geometrical complexity of gold deposits. This article reports the results related to an investigation to improve the gold content estimate based on restricted ore modeling to honor the structural aspects that control the mineralization. The grade domains are defined by using structural measurements to guide the indicator kriging (IK) estimator. Relevant grade intervals are chosen as indicators. Kriging the indicators provides a measure of the grade uncertainty at the sample support. The probability indicator modeling relies on thresholding the estimates which are represented by cumulative distribution functions (cdf) at the unsampled locations. The implicit concept of probability means that the chance of an estimated node belonging to a given grade domain is as big as the estimated IK value. The geological consistency of IK models requires a proper definition of some key parameters: The probability thresholds and indicator variogram models must honor the structural features and stationarity conditions of grade intervals. The geological representativeness of these models depends heavily on thresholding the estimates. For instance, extremely permissive estimates may produce overrepresented ore domains. The decision of the optimal indicator probability for defining the ore boundaries is made by iterative comparison. Several thresholds were applied to kriged maps and the results reconciled to the most sampled areas until achieving reasonable geological adherence. The mineralization continuity often varies according to local structural features and so dynamic anisotropy is used to control the variogram direction and search ellipse to consider the significant scale trend and small-scale fold geometries. A case study based on a real gold deposit dataset was performed and the method was discussed. The IK models can define precisely the mineralization bounds in the most detailed areas. However, the results presented some limitations on reproducing the geological expectation in regions of wide drilling spacing. The lack of information in some areas led to an excessive number of small sub-zones. The method allows a faster and efficient modeling of structurally complex geometries and provides an uncertainty assessment which may be useful to support exploratory and short-term decisions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The geophysical diagnosis of mineral deposits can be extremely useful in detailing mineralized zones and is a strategy for direct sampling by probing holes for content analysis. This study involves the combined use of Electrical geophysical methods (DC resistivity and Induced Polarization), geological recognition and structural field analysis, with a study of the mineralized occurrence of copper, previously described in a systematic geochemical survey carried out by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM), located in the north of the Camaquã Basin, extreme south of Brazil. The mineral occurrence is partially outcropped and consists of quartz vein shafts with malachite and relic structures of sulfides, contained in schist. Structural data obtained in the field revealed the existence of a system of fracture pairs in the directions N40-50W and N70-80E. Such information is presented in the programming of the geophysical data acquisition scheme, which consisted of 6 lines of electrical tomography with 410m each, in azimuthal disposition and Schlumberger arrangement, where all lines cross a single center and are separated according to an angle of 30°, in an attempt to cover fractures in various orientations. The 2D results reveal the existence of high chargeability zones (>40mV/V) positioned below the 40m depth. These data were interpolated in 3D visualization models and generated resistivity and chargeability maps for several depths, which integrated with previous structural data, and indicate the existence of zones with potential sulfide concentration with strong structural control, in addition to clear target recognition for direct and objective probing evaluation, with rationalization of costs.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present research is dedicated to analyzing the addition of sawdust biomass, which is a carbonaceous raw material that may be used in coal blends for the production of metallurgical coke, preserving the required quality, with lower cost. The quality of metallurgical coke may be determined by the efficiency of its chemical, physical and thermal functions inside the blast furnace. For the production of hot metal, any modification in the constituents of the raw materials may have a direct influence on the blast furnace productivity and in the final quality of steel. From the thermal degradation analyzes such as coke reactivity index (CRI) and coke strength reaction (CSR), cold resistance (DI) and immediate analyzes, it may define the quality of metallurgical coke produced with biomass aiming at relating the parameters that interfere in the particularities of the material function in the blast furnace. Some results show that it is possible to use 2% of eucalyptus sawdust in the coal mixture.
Abstract in English:Abstract The accelerated artificial aging with ultraviolet radiation, viscosity, density, no-pick-up time, flexibility, and abrasion resistance of lignin-modified road marking paint were evaluated. The addition of lignin did not cause significant changes in the physical chemistry, flexibility and no-pick-time test compared to the precursor paint. The addition of 1.00 wt. % of lignin increased the abrasion resistance by 36%. The Fourier Transform Infrared technique performed before and after exposure to Weather-o-meter aging chamber has shown the cleavage of ester groups that are present in acrylic-based resin. The incorporation of 0.10 wt.%, 0.25 wt.%, and 1.00 wt.% increased the photodegradation resistance of the road marking paint inhibiting the ester group and side-chain scissions, since the C-O and C=O band intensity increased after irradiation. The introduction of lignin delayed the yellowing of the aged samples and improved mechanical and photophysical properties besides being a good strategy for the biomass waste utilization of the paper industry.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article deals with the rheology of tailings deposits related to dam break analysis. The material used was a fine tailings from iron ore processing. Geotechnical and rheological characterization of these tailings were performed. The rheological characterization consisted of rotational and oscillatory tests. It was observed that the rheological properties depend on material solids content and sample preparation method. Furthermore, the material showed viscous or viscoplastic fluid behavior, depending on the solids content. The results of the rheological tests were used as input in numerical flow simulations using Flow-3D® software. Failure of a hypothetical tailings deposit was simulated, with different scenarios. Relationships between traveled distance (range, spreading), speed, and time of arrival of the flow wave versus rheological properties were determined. It was found that tailings runs are also strongly influenced by the solids content and deposit stress history (formation), resulting in different flow types ranging from mudflood, through mudflow, and even landslide. A major finding was that in the Flow-3D® analyses, the deposit volume mobilized, and the output hydrograph are parts of the solution, and not premises or a model to follow (e.g. design breach).
Abstract in English:Abstract The opening of a mining enterprise requires knowledge of the geomechanical characteristics of the mineral deposit, which will be worked according to the use of parameters of stability and/or resistance of the material, as well as the discontinuities present in the rock. In this study, the Rock Mass Rating methodology was used to propose a geomechanical model in a lead and zinc deposit hosted in the sedimentary rocks of Camaquã Basin, Brazil. A geological model was created using the analysis of 50 drill holes with their geological descriptions, grouped into five lithological units, from base to top: rhythmite, lower sandstone, conglomerate, upper sandstone, and ore. The samples were regularized in composites of three meters in length, and then categorized into the five classes of the RMR system. Classes were estimated for each lithological unit using indicator kriging to obtain a model with the probability of each estimated block belonging to each RMR class, and thus the predominant class probabilities of each block. While it was possible to observe a predominance of class II (good rock) in the conglomerate, lower sandstone and ore, in the upper sandstone and rhythmite class III predominates (fair rock), and a few blocks were classified in class IV (poor rock) and V (very poor rock). Although the geomechanical model demonstrates the quality of the rock mass in general, being indispensable to more detailed studies, it is believed that the model allows greater safety in the classification of the rock mass and later use for slope stability and pit design.
Abstract in English:Abstract Waste management and environmental aspects are progressively gathering attention in the mining industry. Mine planners must deal with increasingly complex tasks to balance between ore block schedules, waste disposal, operational cost and environmental reclamation. The mine incomes are generally related to mining and processing of the ore, thus most optimization researches regarding strategic mining usually focus mainly on ore extraction. Nevertheless, waste sequencing and disposal play an important role given that, in several situations in open pit mining, waste volumes are generally larger than ore volumes and must be moved to reach the buried and deeper ore bodies. In some cases, a significant percentage of operational costs is represented by waste haulage and disposal. Thus a careful planning strategy must be considered to minimize unnecessary expenses. Selecting locations for waste dumps is also a challenge. Many operational and technical aspects must be considered, not to mention the increasingly limiting environmental constraints. This definition can be very time consuming, and if it is not properly studied, may negatively impact the mine operation during its lifetime. This article investigates a new approach for mine waste management called the multi-stage dumping sequence (MSDS), suggesting the use of temporary waste dumps along the way to the final dump destination. Although this method requires material re-handling, which is considered a paradigm in mine industry, it certainly provides additional time to design and permit the final waste dump site and, if well planned, might even result in profit increases by reducing haulage distances in the first years of operation.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article presents a guide to be followed by mining companies willing to open a dimension stone quarry in Brazilian territory. It highlights the main technical documents required by Federal legislation to obtain mining authorization. These documents and their singularities were compiled based on a study of Brazilian mining laws, other normative instruments and scientific literature. The Brazilian mining law describes five Federal authorizations, in which two could be obtained for the dimension stone mining purpose: authorization/concession and licensing regimes. To obtainment the main mining permission may extend for many years. However, it is possible to acquire a kind of provisional permission in much less time, so that the quarry activities can begin before the acquisition of the main permission, which has no deadline. In general, the required technical mining dossier shows a wide range of information. For these reasons, one of the best ways to reduce the time spent through legal procedures is based upon paying special attention at the quality and level of proper instruction of the documents delivered to National Mining Agency (ANM). The author’s experience reveals that knowledge of the technical documents provides legal safety for the company, in a context where the miner has to deal with economic, regulatory, environmental and occupational risks.
Abstract in English:Abstract Most mining decisions are based on models estimated/simulated given the information obtained from samples. During the exploration stage, samples are commonly taken using diamond drill holes which are accurate and precise. These samples are considered hard data. In the production stage, new samples are added. These last are cheaper and more abundant than the drill hole samples, but imprecise and are here named as soft data. Usually hard and soft data are not sampled at the same locations, they form a heterotopic dataset. This article proposes a framework for geostatistical simulation with completely heterotopic soft data. The simulation proceeds in two steps. First, the variable of interest at the locations where soft data are available is simulated. The local conditional distributions built at these locations consider both hard and soft data and are obtained using simple cokriging with the intrinsic coregionalization model. Second, the variable of interest in the entire simulation grid using the original and previously simulated values at soft data locations is simulated. The results show that the information from soft data improved both the accuracy and precision of the simulated models. The proposed framework is illustrated by a case study with data obtained from an underground copper mine.