Fanconi Anemia is a recessive and rare genetic disorder, characterized by chromosomal instability that induces congenital alterations in individuals. Aplastic anemia due to the progressive failure of the bone marrow, malignant neoplasias such as acute myeloid leukemia, liver tumors and squamous cell carcinoma are some of the possible evolutions of Fanconi Anemia. Some of these diseases develop mainly after bone marrow transplantation. The aim of this critical review of the literature was to discourse about the main oral manifestations and their involvement in the health of individuals who are ill with Fanconi Anemia. The clinical oral findings described in the literature include periodontal changes, such as gingivitis and aggressive periodontitis, recurrent aphthous ulcers and traumatic lesions. Papillary atrophy, macroglossia, melanic pigmentation and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common oral manifestations on the tongue. An increased risk for the development of malignant neoplasias in individuals with Fanconi Anemia has been reported, and this is progressive after bone marrow transplantation. In radiographs, dental anomalies such as the presence of supernumerary teeth, tooth agenesis, tooth rotation and transposition of teeth are observed. Salivary flow and some salivary components are also altered. Due to the increased susceptibility to the development of cancer in this specific population, it is important for the dentist to know the common oral manifestations and potentially cancerous lesions, in order to make an early diagnosis in individuals with Fanconi Anemia.
Bone marrow transplant; Fanconi Anemia; Oral manifestations; Oral mucosa; Squamous cell carcinoma