Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a parasitic disease caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a metastrongylid nematode with wide geographic distribution, occurring from the United States to Argentina. In Brazil, the disease has been reported from the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Federal District of Brasilia and Minas Gerais. We report here a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a 9-year-old girl, from Itatiba, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, submitted to exploratory laparotomy for acute abdomen. Extensive inflammatory lesions of terminal ileum and cecum, with perforations of the first, were present, and ileocecal resection was performed. The pathological picture was characterized by transmural inflammatory granulomatous reaction, extensive eosinophilic infiltration, eosinophilic vasculitis and the presence of worms within a mesenteric artery branch, with histological features of metastrongylid nematodes. This case report contributes to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of this parasite in Brazil, suggesting that abdominal angiostrongyliasis may represent a disease of medical importance, more than a rarity of academic interest.
Angiostrongylus costaricensis; Abdominal angiostrongyliasis; Geographic distribution