Etiology and severity of community acquired pneumonia in children from Uruguay: a 4-year study

Etiologia e severidade de pneumonia adquirida comunitariamente em crianças uruguaias: um estudo de 4 anos

Maria Hortal Adela Suarez Cristina Deleon Miguel Estevan Maria Cristina Mogdasy José Carlos Russi Myriam Contera Miguel Meny About the authors

Abstracts

The 4-year study (1987-1990) covered the major clinical-epidemiological characteristics of pneumonia in children as diagnosed at the emergency service of the Children's Hospital, as well as etiologies, and factors involved in the most severe cases. Etiology was determined in 47.7% of the 541 pneumonia cases, involving 283 pathogens of which 38.6% were viruses and 12.6% bacteria. Viral and mixed etiologies were more frequent in children under 12 months of age. Bacteria predominated in ages between 6 and 23 months. Among the viruses, respiratory syncytial virus predominated (66%). The bacterial pneumonias accounted for 12.2% of the recognized etiologies. The most important bacterial agents were S. pneumoniae (64%) and H. influenzae (19%). H. influenzae and mixed infections had a relevant participation during the 1988 season, pointing to annual variations in the relative participation of pathogens and its possible implication in severity of diseases. Correlation of severity and increased percentage of etiological diagnosis was assessed: patients with respiratory rates over 70 rpm, or pleural effusion and/or extensive pulmonary parenchyma compromise yielded higher positive laboratory results. Various individual and family risk factors were recognized when comparing pneumonia children with healthy controls.

Pneumonia; Hemophilus influenzae; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Viral pneumonia


O estudo de quatro anos de duração (1987-1990) abarcou as principais características clínico-epidemiológicas de pneumonia em crianças, tal como foi diagnosticado no serviço de emergência do Hospital Infantil, e também as etiologias e fatores implicados nos casos mais severos. Determinou-se a etiologia em 47.7% dos 541 casos de pneumonia, que incluíam 283 patógenos, dos quais 38.6% eram virus e 12.6% bactérias. Observou-se etiologia viral e mista mais freqüentemente nas crianças de menos de 12 meses. A etiologia bacteriana prevaleceu nas idades entre 6 e 23 meses. Com relação aos virus, a predominância foi de RSV com prevalência de 66% do total de virus. Os mais importantes agentes bacterianos foram S. pneumoniae (64%) e H. influenzae (19%). O H. influenzae e as infecções mistas incidiram significativamente durante 1988 assinalando variações anuais na severidade das doenças. Observou-se correlação entre a gravidade dos casos e a alta porcentagem de diagnóstico etiológico: pacientes com ritmos respiratórios mais altos que 70rpm, derrame pleural ou com comprometimento extenso de parênquima pulmonar, apresentaram maior índice de positividade laboratorial. Reconheceu-se vários fatores de risco individuais e familiares ao comparar crianças com pneumonia com controles sadios.


EPIDEMIOLOGY

Etiology and severity of community acquired pneumonia in children from Uruguay: a 4-year study

Etiologia e severidade de pneumonia adquirida comunitariamente em crianças uruguaias: um estudo de 4 anos

Maria HortalI; Adela SuarezII; Cristina DeleonII; Miguel EstevanII; Maria Cristina MogdasyIII; José Carlos RussiI; Myriam ConteraIII; Miguel MenyIII

ICentral Public Health Laboratory

IIChildren's Hospital

IIIARI Program, Div. Epidemiology, Ministry of P. Health

Address for correspondence

SUMMARY

The 4-year study (1987-1990) covered the major clinical-epidemiological characteristics of pneumonia in children as diagnosed at the emergency service of the Children's Hospital, as well as etiologies, and factors involved in the most severe cases.

Etiology was determined in 47.7% of the 541 pneumonia cases, involving 283 pathogens of which 38.6% were viruses and 12.6% bacteria. Viral and mixed etiologies were more frequent in children under 12 months of age. Bacteria predominated in ages between 6 and 23 months. Among the viruses, respiratory syncytial virus predominated (66%). The bacterial pneumonias accounted for 12.2% of the recognized etiologies. The most important bacterial agents were S. pneumoniae (64%) and H. influenzae (19%). H. influenzae and mixed infections had a relevant participation during the 1988 season, pointing to annual variations in the relative participation of pathogens and its possible implication in severity of diseases. Correlation of severity and increased percentage of etiological diagnosis was assessed: patients with respiratory rates over 70 rpm, or pleural effusion and/or extensive pulmonary parenchyma compromise yielded higher positive laboratory results. Various individual and family risk factors were recognized when comparing pneumonia children with healthy controls.

Keywords: Pneumonia; Hemophilus influenzae; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Viral pneumonia.

RESUMO

O estudo de quatro anos de duração (1987-1990) abarcou as principais características clínico-epidemiológicas de pneumonia em crianças, tal como foi diagnosticado no serviço de emergência do Hospital Infantil, e também as etiologias e fatores implicados nos casos mais severos.

Determinou-se a etiologia em 47.7% dos 541 casos de pneumonia, que incluíam 283 patógenos, dos quais 38.6% eram virus e 12.6% bactérias. Observou-se etiologia viral e mista mais freqüentemente nas crianças de menos de 12 meses. A etiologia bacteriana prevaleceu nas idades entre 6 e 23 meses. Com relação aos virus, a predominância foi de RSV com prevalência de 66% do total de virus.

Os mais importantes agentes bacterianos foram S. pneumoniae (64%) e H. influenzae (19%).

O H. influenzae e as infecções mistas incidiram significativamente durante 1988 assinalando variações anuais na severidade das doenças.

Observou-se correlação entre a gravidade dos casos e a alta porcentagem de diagnóstico etiológico: pacientes com ritmos respiratórios mais altos que 70rpm, derrame pleural ou com comprometimento extenso de parênquima pulmonar, apresentaram maior índice de positividade laboratorial.

Reconheceu-se vários fatores de risco individuais e familiares ao comparar crianças com pneumonia com controles sadios.

Full text available only in PDF format.

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank the U. S. National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council for financial support by means of a grant from the U. S. Agency for International Development, and to Swedish Agency for Reseach Cooperation with Developing Countries for their financial support during the 4th year of the study. We also thank to Dr. J. Bale for her very comprehensive support and to Dr. P. Charache for her thoughtful suggestions about this manuscript.

  • Address for correspondence:
    M. Hortal, M.D., M.P.H.
    Av. 8 de Octubre 2720
    Montevideo 11.600, URUGUAY
    FAX: (598) 2 807014
  • Recebido para publicação em 06/07/1993.

    Aceito para publicação em 10/03/1994.

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    Address for correspondence: M. Hortal, M.D., M.P.H. Av. 8 de Octubre 2720 Montevideo 11.600, URUGUAY FAX: (598) 2 807014

    Publication Dates

    • Publication in this collection
      20 Sept 2006
    • Date of issue
      June 1994

    History

    • Accepted
      10 Mar 1994
    • Received
      06 July 1993
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