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The use of cashew nut shell of caju (Anacardium occidentale) as alternative molluscicide

Bioassays using hexanolic extracts of cashew nut shells, of Anacardium occidentale, collected in Ceará in 1972 (Sample 1) and 1987 (Sample 2) were undertaken with adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea both in the laboratory and in the field. Non extracted shells, 18.5 g, sample 1, were also tested with adult snails and egg masses of the three species. The toxicity of extract was tested with fish (Poecilia reticulata) and tadpoles. The lethal concentration, CL90, of sample 1 was from 2.0 to 2.2 ppm for adult snails of the three species. With sample 2, the CL90 was 2.0, 0.5 and 30.0 ppm for B. glabrata adults, newly hatched snails and egg mass respectively. Non extracted shells caused 40 - 80% mortality of adult snails, 22 - 35% mortality of embryos and 40 - 55% reduction of egg production. The hexanolic extract, sample 2, were inocuous for tadpole and fish at 2 ppm. In the field, in pools of still water treatment with 20 ppm of extract, sample 1, caused a 97.1% mortality of B. straminea and 100% mortality of B. glabrata and B.tenagophila. Using Niclosamide, at 3 ppm, 100% mortality of the three species occured.

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