Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, Volume: 27, Issue: 1, Published: 1985
  • Cell mediated immune response in canine antirabies vaccination Artigos Originais

    Timenetsky, Jorge; Chamelet, Esther Luiza Bocato; Mendes, Nelson F.; Pereira, Octavio Augusto de Carvalho

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Os Autores estudaram a resposta imune celular e os níveis de anticorpos na vacinação e re-vacinação canina. A vacina utilizada foi a Fuenzalida & Palacios, empregada rotineiramente na imunização humana e canina, no Brasil. A avaliação da resposta mediada por células foi feita por testes de inibição de migração de leucócitos periféricos. Os níveis de anticorpos foram determinados por provas de soro-neutralização e fixação do complemento. Os cinco cães envolvidos no experimento receberam um esquema inicial de 5 doses e uma dose de reforço 210 dias após. Todos os animais exibiram níveis moderados de anticorpos após o esquema inicial e uma nítida resposta secundária após o reforço. A resposta imune celular, contudo, ocorreu apenas após a imunização inicial, não sendo detectada em resposta à dose de reforço. Concluem os Autores que a resposta imune celular ocorre na primo-vacinação anti-rábica canina nas condições experimentais empregadas e que embora a resposta secundária não tenha sido obtida neste estudo sua existência não pode ser descartada e deve ser reestudada em outras condições.

    Abstract in English:

    The Authors studied the cell mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral antibody levels raised in response to canine antirabies vaccination and revaccination. The vaccine used was the FUENZALIDA & PALACIOS which is routinelly utilized in human and canine vaccination in Brazil. The evaluation of CMI was done by inhibition of peripheral leukocyte migration and antibody levels were measured by serum neutralization and complement fixation tests. Five dogs were used and each animal received one daily dose of 1 ml of the vaccine for five days and one booster 210 days after the initial schedule. All animals showed moderate antibody levels after the initial immunization and a clear secondary immune response following the booster dose. Cell mediated immune response however occurred only following the initial immunization and could not be detected after the booster dose. The Authors concluded that CMI occurred in canine antirabies primo-vaccination under the experimental conditions employed and that although a secondary cell mediated immune response was not detected in this study its existence cannot be rulled out but remains to be studied by means of other immunization experiments.
  • Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila "hybrids" to the strain LE (BH) of Schistosoma mansoni Artigos Originais

    Freitas, José Rabelo de; Boschi, Maria Beatriz; Santos, Mairy Barbosa Loureiro dos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    "Híbridos" de Biomphalaria tenagophila provenientes dos cruzamentos de linhagens albinas de Belo Horizonte (BH) ou de Joinvile (SC), com melânicos de Cabo Frio (CF), do Taim (Ta) ou de Curitiba (PR), submetidos à infecção pela cepa do Schistosoma mansoni de Belo Horizonte (=LE), apresentaram os seguintes resultados: em F1, os "híbridos" TaSC, PRSC e CFTa exibiram taxas de 4,5%, 12,5% e 11,2% de suscetibilidade; em F2, todos os "híbridos" foram negativos e em F3, um exemplar albino, filho de (CFBH) ². TaBH se infectou com a LE. Dentre os controles, a B. glabrata apresentou taxas de 66,7 a 93,6% de suscetibilidade à LE e a B. tenagophila de Joinvile exibiu taxas de infecção de 17,1 e 33,3% pela cepa SJ; e os "híbridos" BHTa e BHCF, taxas de 6,0 a 53,8% também pela cepa SJ. Houve grande influência da linhagem materna nas taxas de suscetibilidade. Devido ao fato de descendentes do cruzamento de linhagens refratárias a LE (CF, Ta e BH), terem se infectado, é recomendado o uso de "híbridos" para a detecção de gens de suscetibilidade em tais linhagens. São ainda discutidas, a necessidade do uso de maior número de miracídios nos testes de infecção e a falta de relação entre a freqüência de contatos parasitas-hospedeiros e as taxas de infectividade. Considerando que estas dependem de características genéticas preexistentes na população, a cepa LE seria uma variedade genética (ou raça) distinta da cepa SJ, dotada de pouca aptidão em infectar as diversas populações de B. tenagophila, exceto a de Joinvile (SC).

    Abstract in English:

    Biomphalaria tenagophila "hybrids" originating from the crossing of albino strains from Belo Horizonte (BH) or from Joinvile (SC with melanic specimens from Cabo Frio (CF), Taim (Ta) or from Curitiba (PR), submitted to infection with Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain, Belo Horizonte, MG), presented the following results: in F1, TaSC, PRSC and CFTa "hybrids" showed susceptibility rates of 4.5%, 12.5%, and 11.2%, respectively; in F2, all "hybrids" were shown negative, and in F3, only one albino specimen (CFBH)². TaBH offspring was infected with LE strain. As far as controls were concerned, B. glabrata showed susceptibility rates of 66.7% and 93.6% to LE strain; B. tenagophila from Joinvile presented 17.1% and 33.3% to SJ strain, and BHTa and BHCF hybrids showed 6.0% to 53.8% to SJ strain too. It was noted a great influence of mother strain on susceptibility rates. Since the offsprings originating from crossing of unsusceptible strains to LE (CF, Ta and BH) were infected, the use of hybrids to defect susceptibility gens in such strains is discussed. Further, the necessity of the use of a greater number of miracidia in infection tests, and the lack of correlation between the frequency of host-parasite contacts and infectivity rates are discussed. Considering the fact that those infectivity rates are dependent on genetic characteristics, previously existing in the population, and not on the frequency of contacts, LE strain could be a genetic variety (or race) different from SJ strain, endowed with little ability to infect different populations of B. tenagophila, except for that from Joinvile (SC).
  • Epidemiological studies among amerindians of Rondônia: I — Pioderma and assymptomatic carriers of Staphylococcus sp. in the mouth and nose among the Suruí and Karitiana Indians Artigos Originais

    Coimbra Jr, Carlos E. A.; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Tanus, Ronan

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Foram realizadas culturas bacteriológicas a partir de material colhido na boca e nariz entre 38 pacientes indígenas Suruí e 58 Karitiana, no Estado de Rondônia. Entre os Suruí, foi isolado S. aureus em 10 (26,3%) indivíduos e S. epidermidis em 25 (65,8%). Na população Karitiana, S. aureus foi isolado em 21 (36,2%) pacientes e S. epidermidis em 42 (72,4%). Testes de sensibilidade as drogas foram realizados com todas as cepas de S. aureus isoladas. É discutido o papel de portadores inaparentes desta bactéria nas cavidades oral e nasal, assim como alguns aspectos relacionados à sua transmissão e prevalência de piodermites entre populações indígenas.

    Abstract in English:

    Bacteriological examinations were done with 38 Indian patients from the Suruí and 58 patients from the Karitiana groups, in the State of Rondônia, Brazil. Among the Suruí, S. aureus was isolated in 10 (26.3%) individuals and S. epidermidis in 25 (65,8%). In the Karitiana population, S. aureus was recorded from 21 (36.2%) patients and S. epidermidis from 42 (72.4%). Sensibility tests to different drugs were done with all strains of S. aureus isolated. The Authors discuss the role of assymptomatic carriers of these bacteria in the oral and nasal cavities, as well as some aspects related to its transmission and the prevalence of pyoderma infections within Indian population.
  • Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals from the Botucatu area (São Paulo, Brazil) Artigos Originais

    Salata, Ednir; Yoshida, Elizaide L. A.; Pereira, Elói A.; Corrêa, Fernando M. A.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Os Autores analisaram soros de 47 Cannis familiaris, de 9 Felis cattus, de 64 Didelphis marsupialis aurita, de 9 Dasypus novemcinctus, de 4 Cabassous tatouay e de 29 Rattus rattus, através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta, para pesquisar a presença de anticorpos anti Toxoplasma gondii. Estes foram encontrados apenas em C. familiaris (63,8%) e em D. m. aurita (4,7%). Frente aos resultados obtidos, os Autores sugerem que novas pesquisas nesta área sejam realizadas, para que se conheça melhor a importância epidemiológica de várias espécies animais na disseminação da toxoplasmose.

    Abstract in English:

    Sera from 47 Cannis familiaris, 9 Felis cattus, 64 Didelphis marsupialis, 9 Dasypus novemcinctus, 4 Cabassous tatouay and 29 Rattus rat- tus were examined for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescence reaction. Only two species were positives: C. familiaris (63.8%) and D.m. aurita (4.7%). For a better knowledge of the importance of the various animals species in toxoplasmosis dissemination the Authors suggest further researchs on this subject.
  • Natural infection of Ptychophallus tristani (Crustacea: Decapoda) by metacercariae of Paragonimus mexicanus (Trematoda) in Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica Artigos Originais

    Monge, Eduardo; Brenes, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Guillermo

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Se determinó el grado de infección de los crustáceos Ptychophallus tristani presentes en una área endémica de Paragonimus mexicanus, encontrándose que de un total de 182 cangrejos, 161 resultaron positivos (88,5%) por metacercarias. Al comparar la infección entre machos y hembras no se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas y en relación a su tamaño se observó una relación directa entre tamaño y porcentaje y grado de infección. Se estableció que no existen diferencias significativas en relación a la época del año en que los cangrejos fueron capturados lo que epidemiológicamente es importante pues indica que las fuentes de infección permanecen potencialmente activas durante todo el año.

    Abstract in English:

    The degree of infection with Paragonimus mexicanus of the crustacean Ptychophallus tristani was determined in an endemic area of paragonimiasis. Metacercariae were found in 161 (88.5%) out of 182 crabs. Comparing the infection in male or female crustacea, we did not observe any significant differences between both sexes. Size of the intermediate host was an important factor, since the infection was higher (94.4%) in bigger crabs; furthermore, the number of metacercariae was 2.1 ± 1.1 in smaller animals, while in big ones that number was 9.0±6.3 (P < 0.01). The infection of the crabs was season independent which indicates that infection sources are present through the year.
  • Attempt at erradicating hymenolepiasis within a close community using praziquantel Ensaios Terapêuticos

    Castro, Maria de Lourdes Magalhães de; Machado e Silva, José Roberto; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Duas semanas após o insucesso da terapêutica com mebendazol — 400 mg diários durante quatro dias consecutivos —, 101 indivíduos de uma comunidade semifechada, 50,5% infectados por Hymenolepis nana, em sua maioria crianças entre dois e seis anos de idade, foram tratados com praziquantel (*) em duas doses orais de 20 a 25 mg/kg, administradas com dez dias de intervalo. O diagnóstico da himenolepíase, bem como os controles de cura parasitológica realizados nos 7.º, 14.°, 21°, 30.°, 60.° e 90.° dias depois da administração da segunda dose de praziquantel, basearam-se em exames de fezes pelo método quantitativo de KATO/KATZ. A tolerância ao medicamento foi excelente e a negativação dos exames ocorreu independentemente da intensidade do parasitismo. Nos 7.° e 14° dias pós-tratamento encontraram-se ovos de H. nana, respectivamente em nove e em dois pacientes, mas esses ovos apresentavam-se distorcidos. No controle do 21.° dia todos os resultados mostraram-se negativos, traduzindo um índice de cura de 100%. A partir do 30.° dia verificou-se em três crianças a eliminação de ovos normais do parasita. Tendo em vista serem essas as únicas que viviam em regime de semi-internação nessa comunidade e a positividade tardia dos exames, esses casos foram considerados como reinfecção. Conclui-se, pelos resultados alcançados, que o esquema posológico empregado, fundamentado nas investigações experimentais conduzidas por CAMPOS & col. (1983), é eficaz e seguro para o tratamento da himenolepíase, em especial, quando se pretende tentar erradicá-la numa comunidade fechada.

    Abstract in English:

    Two weeks after the unsuccessful treatment with mebendazole — 400 mg daily during four consecutive days —, 101 persons living at a semi-close community, 50.5% infected with Hymenolepis nana, mostly children from 2 to 6 years old, were treated with praziquantel, two single oral doses of 20 to 25 mg/kg administered ten days apart. The diagnosis of hymenolepiasis as well as the parasitological controls of cure performed on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 30th, 60th and 90th days after the second dose administration, were ba- sed on stool examinations according to the quantitative Kato/Katz method. The drug tolerance was excellent and the negativation of the stool examinations occurred independently from the initial worm burden. H. nana eggs were found on the 7th and 14th days post-treatment in nine and in two patients, respectively. However, these eggs were distorted. In the control made on the 21st day all results were negative indicating a 100% cure rate. From the 30th day on normal eggs were detected in three children. Considering the late positivity of their examinations and that they were the only persons living part-time outside the community, such cases were classified as reinfection. By virtue of these results it was concluded that this dose schedule, based on the experimental investigations undertook by CAMPOS et al. (1983), is safe and 100% efficacious for treating hymenolepiasis, particularly envisageing its erradication in close communities.
  • Therapeutic efficacy of oral oxamniquine in the treatment of prolonged septicemic salmonellosis Ensaios Terapêuticos

    Lambertucci, José Roberto; Marinho, Roberto Pedercini; Ferreira, Maria das Dores; Neves, Jayme; Pedroso, Ênio Roberto Pietra

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Trinta e cinco pacientes com salmonelose septicêmica prolongada (SSP) foram selecionados para o estudo. Vinte (Grupo 1), foram tratados com a oxamniquine oral (15-20mg/kg de peso, dose única) e 15 (Grupo 2) com o cloranfenicol (50mg/kg de peso/15-20 dias). Realizaram-se exames clínico, laboratorial e radiológico antes e após o tratamento. Oito pacientes do Grupo 1 (40%) exibiram uma ou mais queixas após o tratamento. Exceção feita a um paciente que apresentou crise convulsiva, uma hora após a ingestão do medicamento, os demais efeitos colaterais foram de pouca importância. Não se observou efeito tóxico da oxamniquine à luz dos exames complementares realizados após o tratamento. Os pacientes do Grupo 2, não apresentaram qualquer manifestação que pudesse ser imputada ao cloranfenicol. No Grupo 1, 90% dos pacientes foram considerados curados e no Grupo 2, 93% também o foram. Os Autores concluem pela boa eficácia e baixa toxicidade da oxamniquine no tratamento da SSP.

    Abstract in English:

    Thirty-five patients with Prolonged Septicemic Salmonellosis were selected for this trial. Twenty patients (Group 1) were treated with a single oral dose of oxamniquine (15-20mg/kg body weight) and 15 (Group 2) were treated with cloramphenicol (50mg/kg body weight, for 15-20 days). Clinical, laboratory and radiological examinations were performed before and after treatment. Eight Group 1 patients (40%) presented one or more complaints after treatment. With the exception of one patient With seizures, one hour after taking oxamniquine, the others symptoms were unimportant. No toxic effects of oxamniquine were observed on laboratorial tests done after treatment. Group 2 patients did not present complaints related to cloramphenicol. In Group 1, 90% of the patients were cured, and in Group 2, 93% also were considered as cured. The Authors conclude that oral oxamniquine in the prescribed dosage has low toxicity and good therapeutic efficacy in patients with Prolonged Septicemic Salmonellosis.
  • Investigation of the therapeutical efficacy and the morphological alterations induced on the Hymenolepis nana eggs, administering praziquantel in two dose schedules Ensaios Terapêuticos

    Castro, Maria de Lourdes M. de; Rezende, Getúlio Leonel de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Foram selecionadas, numa comunidade fechada, 20 crianças com himenolepíase, apresentando carga parasitária acima de 1 000 ovos/g de fezes, visando a averiguar a eficácia terapêutica do praziquantel e as alterações morfológicas induzidas nos ovos de H. nana por sua administração oral, em dois esquemas posológicos. Os pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos com igual número de casos. O grupo "A" foi tratado com uma única dose de 25 mg/kg de peso corporal e o grupo "B" com a mesma dose, porém repetida 10 dias depois. A partir do terceiro dia até o 19.°, verificou-se, em ambos os grupos, o surgimento, com um pico em torno do sétimo dia, de ovos distorcidos do parasita. Os ovos normais decresceram gradativamente, desaparecendo em 100% dos casos do grupo "B", do 19° dia em diante, mas mantendo-se presentes em 20% dos casos no grupo "A". A tolerância ao medicamento mostrou-se igualmente excelente com as duas posologias empregadas. Conclui-se pela elevada eficácia terapêutica do praziquantel na himenolepíase, sugerindo-se administrá-lo em duas doses de 25 mg/kg, com um intervalo de dez dias, nos pacientes intensamente parasitados e que convivam em comunidades fechadas.

    Abstract in English:

    Twenty children with hymenolepiasis, living at a close community and having more than 1000 eggs/g of feces, were selected for the investigation of the therapeutical efficacy and the morphological alterations induced on the H. nana eggs, following the oral administration of praziquantel in two posologies. The patients were allocated into two groups having equal number of cases. Group "A" was treated with a single dose of 25 mg/kg BWT and group "B" with the same dose but repeated 10 days afterwards. From the third day on until the 19th day it was found, in both groups, the uprising, with a peak around the seventh day, of distorted eggs. The normal eggs decreased gradually. They disappeared in 100% of the cases in group "B", from the 19th day on, but remained present in 20% of the cases in group "A". The tolerance to the drug was excellent with either dose schedule. It was concluded that praziquantel is highly efficaceous in the treatment of hymenolepiasis and that this drug should be administered in two doses of 25 mg/kg, 10 days apart, for those patients presenting intense worm burden and living in close communities.
  • A fatal case of pulmonary infection with Lagochilascaris sp., probably Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 Registro de Casos

    Moraes, Mário A. P.; Arnaud, Maria Vanda Catão; Macedo, Roberto Cavalleiro de; Anglada, Antônio Ernesto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    É descrito um caso fatal de infecção por Lagochilascaris sp., — provavelmente Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 —, com localização pulmonar. O paciente, do sexo feminino, oriundo de Curralinho-Estado do Pará, desenvolveu uma pneumonite grave, que lhe acarretou a morte, por insuficiência respiratória, em pouco menos de três meses. À autópsia, numerosas lesões de natureza exsudativa e granulomatosa podiam ser vistas em ambos os pulmões, indicando tuberculose ou infecção micótica pulmonar. Todavia, quando se procedeu ao exame microscópico, ovos, larvas e até uma fêmea grávida do verme foram encontrados nos tecidos, como causa da doença — sempre no interior de granulomas ou de extensas áreas de necrose. Em quase todos os casos, até agora conhecidos, de lagoquilascaríase humana — cerca de 25 —, o parasito se localizava nos tecidos do pescoço, nos seios da face ou sobre a apófise mastóide. Neste caso, pela primeira vez, um representante do gênero Lagochilascaris é referido em sítio bem distinto do habitual, no hospedeiro humano. O achado, por outro lado, dos diferentes estádios evolutivos do helminto, dispersos pelo parênquima pulmonar, além de mostrar a natureza errática do parasitismo, sugere fortemente a existência de um ciclo pulmonar na lagoquilascaríase humana.

    Abstract in English:

    A fatal case of pulmonary infection with Lagochilascaris sp. — probably Lagochilascaris minor — is presented. A 18-year-old girl from Curralinho — State of Para developed a severe pneumonitis of unknown origin, and died less than three months after the onset of the illness, She was admitted to the Hospital, in Belem-Pará, on 16 June 1983, with fever, productive cough, dyspnea and, eventually, cyanosis. At that time, she had been sick for at least four or five weeks. A chest X-ray film taken shortly after admission disclosed extensive bilateral infiltrates, predominantly on the right lung. Acid-fast bacilli and fungi, however, could not be demonstrated in the sputum. The leucocyte count was low (3.900), with 60% neutrophils and 40% lymphocytes. In spite of several therapeutic schedules (no definite cause for the disease could be found) the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated. She persisted with fever, cough, expectoration of thick sputum, dyspnea and cyanosis, but other symptoms also came forth: hoarseness, fatigue, weight loss and labored breathing. On 13 July she developed respiratory insufficiency and died. At autopsy, the lungs appeared distended with numerous areas of consolidation; the cut surface, when exposed, revealed disseminated foci, both nodular and diffuse, of granulomatous and exsudative inflammation. Microscopically, sections of eggs and round worms were found in the preparations, always surrounded by granulomas or large areas of necrotic tissue. The worms were recognized as evolutive stages — larvae, adult males and a gravid female — of a nematode belonging to the genus Lagochilascaris, probably Lagochilascaris minor. The identification was based, mainly, on the aspect of the eggs, which exhibited the irregular-shaped, saucerlike depressions or pits, characteristic of the genus. The female worm had lateral alae and the uterus full with similar eggs. In all 25 cases of human lagochilascariasis so far described, the location of the lesions was in the region of neck, ear, mastoid process, orbit, paranasal sinuses and retropharyngeal tissues. For the first time, the present case, a member of the genus Lagochilascaris is referred to in a different site of the host. Besides that, the finding of eggs, larvae and adult worms in the lung tissues strongly suggests the existence of a pulmonary cycle in human lagochilascariasis.
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