• Investigation on the possibility of spontaneous cure of mice infected with different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi Parasitology

    Magalhães, Juracy B.; Andrade, Sonia G.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Setenta camundongos Suíços, cronicamente infectados com diferentes cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi, cuja parasitemia se manteve negativa ao exame de rotina do sangue periférico, foram investigados parasitologicamente com o objetivo de verificar se houve cura espontânea dos mesmos. A duração da infecção variava entre 90 e 250 dias quando os camundongos foram inicialmente investigados. Os testes parasitológicos usados foram: pesquisa direta de parasitos no sangue periférico, feita diariamente, durante pelo menos 25 dias, seguida de xenodiagnóstico e subinoculação do sangue em camundongos recém-nascidos. Os camundongos que mostraram resultados negativos foram tratados com uma dose de Ciclofosfamida de 250 mg/Kg peso corporal e submetidos subsequentemente a xenodiagnóstico e subinoculação de sangue em camundongos recém-nascidos. Uma segunda dose de Ciclofosfamida, de 250 mg/Kg peso corporal foi aplicada aos camundongos persistentemente negativos. Com apenas uma exceção, todos os camundongos cronicamente infectados tiveram testes parasitológicos positivos em diferentes etapas da presente investigação. Concluimos que neste grupo representativo da fase crônica da infecção por diferentes cepas do T. cruzi, não ocorreu cura espontânea.

    Abstract in English:

    Seventy Swiss mice chronically infected with different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, with persistently negative parasitemia on routine blood examination were parasitologically investigated to find out whether spontaneous cure occurred. Duration of infection varied from 90 to 250 days in the initial phase of this investigation. Parasitological tests consisted of daily direct blood examination performed during at least 25 days, followed by xenodiagnosis and subinoculation of blood into newborn mice. Mice that persisted negative were treated with Cyclophosphamide with one dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight and then investigated by direct blood examination, xenodiagnosis and subinoculation. A second dose of 250 mg/kg b. w. was given to the persistently negative mice. With one single exception, all mice showed positive parasitological tests in the different stages of the present investigation and we conclude that spontaneous cure did not occur in this group, which is representative of the chronic infection with different strains of T cruzi.
  • Production of Shistosoma mansoni cercariae by Biomphalaria glabrata from a focus in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Parasitology

    Souza, Cecília Pereira de; Araújo, Neusa; Jannotti-Passos, Liana Konovaloff; Guimarães, Carlos Tito

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A densidade planorbídica, as taxas de infecção e a produção mensal de cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni por Biomphalaria glabrata, foram determinadas em foco do Barreiro de Baixo (Belo Horizonte MG, Brasil). Durante 38 meses, de 1984 a 1987, foram capturados 5.366 moluscos dentre os quais 324 (6,03%) estavam infectados com o S. mansoni. O total de cercárias eliminadas foi de 5.667.312. Cada molusco eliminou em média 17.422 cercárias durante sua permanência no laboratório. A maior longevidade dos moluscos infectados foi de 218 dias. Foi observada a cura natural de 42 (12,9%) dos exemplares infectados, após cerca de 130 dias de captura. A densidade planorbídica média, no foco durante esse período foi de 16,3 moluscos por conchada. A eliminação de cercárias pelos moluscos do campo foi comparada com a de exemplares criados no laboratório, infectados em massa com a linhagem LE de S. mansoni de Belo Horizonte. Os moluscos do laboratório eliminaram em média 6.061 cercárias por exemplar, número 2,8 vezes menor do que os moluscos do campo, devido a longevidade menor. A taxa de prevalência da esquistossomose no foco foi de 14,3%.

    Abstract in English:

    The snail density, levels of infection and the monthly production of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by Biomphalaria glabrata were determined in a focus of Barreiro de Baixo (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil). During a period of 38 months (1984 to 1987) 5,366 snails were collected of which 324 (6.03%) were infected with S. mansoni. The total number of cercariae shed was 5,667,312. Each snail shed an average of 17,422 cercariae during the time that it was under study in the laboratory. The greatest longevity of infected snails was 218 days. Natural cure was observed in 42 (12.9%) of the infected specimens about 130 days after collection. The average snail density in the focus during the period of study was 16.3 snails per scoop. The shedding of cercariae by snails collected from the field was compared with laboratory bred specimens infected in mass with the LE strain of S. mansoni from Belo Horizonte. The laboratory infected snails shed an average of 6,061 cercariae each, a value 2.8 times less than the field specimens due to a shorter life span. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in the focus was 14.3%.
  • Bacterial agents isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and neurological complications Microbiology

    Landgraf, Ilka Maria; Palaci, Moisés; Vieira, Maria de Fátima Paiva; Ueki, Sueli Yoko Mizuka; Martins, Maria Conceição; Sato, Daisy Nakamura; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Telles, Maria Alice Silva; Gorla, Maria Cecília Outeiro; Vaz, Tania Mara Ibelli; Lorenço, Rosemarie; Marques, Lilian Regina Macelloni

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) de 2083 pacientes com Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA) e complicações neurológicas foram examinados durante um período de 7 anos (1984-1990). A porcentagem de pacientes que tiveram pelo menos um agente bacteriano cultivado do LCR foi de 6,2%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis foi o mais frequentemente isolado (4,3%), seguido do complexo Mycobacterium avium ou MAC (0,7%), de Pseudomonas spp (0,5%), Enterobacter spp (0,4%), e Staphylococcus aureus (0,3%). Entre 130 pacientes com cultura positiva, de 89 (68,5%) foi isolado M. tuberculosis e de 15 (11,6%) MAC. A frequência de isolamentos bacterianos aumentou de 1988 (5,2%) a 1990 (7,2%), particularmente devido ao maior isolamento de MAC. Os agentes bacterianos foram mais frequentemente isolados de pacientes na faixa etária de 21-30 anos e de mulheres (p<0.05).

    Abstract in English:

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 2083 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and neurological complications were bacteriologically examined during a period of 7 years (1984-1990). The percentage of patients who had at least one bacterial agent cultured from the CSF was 6.2%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was the most frequently isolated agent (4.3%), followed by Mycobacterium avium complex or MAC (0.7%), Pseudomonas spp (0.5%), Enterobacter spp (0.4%), and Staphylococcus aureus (0.3%). Among 130 culture positive patients, 89 (68.5%) had M. tuberculosis and 15 (11.6%) had MAC. The frequency of bacterial isolations increased from 1988 (5.2%) to 1990 (7.2%), partly due to the increase in MAC isolations. Bacterial agents were more frequently isolated from patients in the age group 21-30 years and from women (p<0.05).
  • Chicken as potential contamination source of Campylocacter lari in Iquitos, Peru Microbiology

    Tresierra-Ayala, Alvaro; Bendayan, Maria Elena; Bernuy, Alfonso; Pereyra, Gustavo; Fernandez, Heriberto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Com o objetivo de conhecer a importância dos frangos como reservatório natural de Campylobacter lari na cidade de Iquitos, Perú, foram estudadas amostras cloacais obtidas de 200 aves. Cada amostra foi semeada em meio de enriquecimento semi-sólido e no ágar de Skirrow modificado. C. lari foi isolado em 21 (10,5%) amostras. Destes, 58,8% corresponderam ao biotipo I e 41,2% ao biotipo II do esquema de Lior. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que os frangos podem ser um importante reservatório de C. lari em Iquitos, Perú.

    Abstract in English:

    In order to know the importance of chicken as natural reservoir of Campylobacter lari in Iquitos, Peru; samples were obtained by cloacal swabs from 200 chickens and immediately placed into a semisolid enrichment medium; these were streaked on modified Skirrow Agar. The organism was isolated from 21 (10.5%) samples, corresponding 58.8% to biovar I and 41.2% to biovar II (Lior scheme). The results provide evidence that chicken appear to be prominent reservoirs of Campylobacter lari in Iquitos.
  • Anti-HCV related to HCV PCR and risk factors analysis in a blood donor population of Central Brazil Virology

    Martins, R. M. B.; Vanderborght, B. O. M.; Rouzere, C. D.; Santana, C. L.; Santos, C. O.; Mori, D. N.; Ferreira, R. G.; Yoshida, C. F. T.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Ainda são raros os dados sobre a infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) na região central do Brasil. Neste estudo, 2.350 doadores voluntários de sangue foram avaliados, resultando em prevalências para o anti-HCV de 2,2%, pelo ELISA de segunda geração, e de 1,4%, após o ensaio confirmatório "line immunoassay". Anticorpos contra os antígenos "core", NS4 e NS5 do HCV foram detectados em 81,8%, 72,7% e 57,5% das amostras positivas no "line immunoassay", respectivamente. A viremia do HCV foi observada em 76,6% dos doadores anti-HCV positivos. A positividade na reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) mostrou-se relacionada a reatividade aos diferentes antígenos do HCV no "line immunoassay". A maioria dos doadores positivos tiveram história prévia de exposição parenteral. A combinação de ALT> 50 UI/l e positividade ao anti-HBc parece não ser eficaz como marcadores indiretos para a infecção pelo HCV, entretanto a dosagem do ALT e a detecção de anti-HCV são indicadas na triagem de doadores de sangue brasileiros.

    Abstract in English:

    Data concerning HCV infection in Central Brazil are rare. Upon testing 2,350 voluntary blood donors from this region, we found anti-HCV prevalence rates of 2.2% by a second generation ELISA and 1.4% after confirmation by a line immunoassay. Antibodies against core, NS4, and NS5 antigens of HCV were detected in 81.8%, 72.7%, and 57.5%, respectively, of the positive samples in the line immunoassay. HCV viremia was present in 76.6% of the anti-HCV-positive blood donors. A relation was observed between PCR positivity and serum reactivity in recognizing different HCV antigens in the line immunoassay. The majority of the positive donors had history of previous parenteral exposure. While the combination of ALT>50 IU/l and anti-HBc positivity do not appear to be good surrogate markers for HCV infection, the use of both ALT anti-HCV tests is indicated in the screening of Brazilian blood donors.
  • Erythema nodosum: prospective study of 32 cases Dermatology

    Fernandes, Nurimar C.; Maceira, Juan; Muniz, Mauro de Medeiros

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O estudo de 32 casos de eritema nodoso permite concluir que a rotina de investigação é extremamente importante já que em nosso estudo retrospectivo, o percentual de etiologia indeterminada foi de 69,4% e neste estudo prospectivo é de 21,8%. Em 10 casos (31,2%) mais de um agente causal foi suspeitado. Infecções (bacteriana, helmíntica, fúngica e por protozoário) foram diagnosticadas em 26 casos, tendo predominado a infecção estreptocócica com 12 casos. As drogas de suspeição foram dipirona, aspirina e anovulatório em 12 casos. A associação de eritema nodoso e histoplasmose capsulata é descrita pela primeira vez no Brasil. O eritema nodoso é síndrome complexa e deveria ser considerado sempre como manifestação de doença subjacente. A amostra de 32 pacientes exclusivamente do sexo feminino sendo que 26 em idade fértil sugere que vários processos (infecções e drogas) podem atuar em meio hormonal, particular e favorecedor, precipitando o quadro de eritema nodoso.

    Abstract in English:

    The results of 32 cases studied lead us to the conclusion that erythema nodosum's investigation routine is very important, once in our retrospective study, the percentage of cases of unknown etiology was 69.4%, and in this prospective study it is 21.8%. In 10 cases (31.2%), more than one causing agent was suspected. Infections (bacterial, helminthic, fungal, by protozoa) were diagnosed in 26 cases, streptococcal infection having predominated (12 cases). Drugs-dipirone, aspirin, anovulatory - were suspected as causing agents in 13 cases. The association of erythema nodosum and histoplasmosis capsulata is described for the first time in Brazil. We consider erythema nodosum to be a complex syndrome which should be regarded as a manifestation of underlying diseases. The fact that all 32 subjects were women, 26 of them during menacme, suggests that particular hormonal media may favor the action of various processes (infections and drugs), precipitating erythema nodosum's clinical picture.
  • Chagas' infection in university students of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. A serologic-electrocardiographic study Epidemiology

    Gianella, A.; Von Poser, B.; Zamora, P.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Desde una población de 4600 nuevos estudiantes de la Universidad Estatal de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, se tomó una muestra aleatoria de 372 estudiantes a los que se les realizó un test de hemaglutinación indirecta (HAI) para enfermedad de Chagas y un electrocardiograma (ECG) convencional. El 17.2% (64/373) tenían el test HAI positivo y de estos el 16.5% (10/64) tenían algún trastorno electrocardiográfico. En el grupo con HAI negativa el 10% (31/308) presentó alguna anormalidad electrocardiográfica. No se observó asociación entre serología positiva para la enfermedad de Chagas y alteración del ECG en general (X2=1.67 p=0.2). Se observó una asociación positiva entre serología para Chagas y trastornos de conducción intraventricular (TCIV) y ésta parece intensificarse entre los menores de 19 años con un odds ratio de 10.4 (p<0.05).

    Abstract in English:

    In order to learn the prevalence of Chagas' infection among students from Santa Cruz de la Sierra's universities, a random sample of 372 new students was drawn. All participants have had electrocardiograms (EKG) and serologic analysis (IHAT). 64/372 (17.2%) had serologic evidence of Chagas' infection, and from those, 10/64 (15.6%) had some EKG alterations. Among students presenting negative serologic test, 31/308 (10.1%) had EKG alterations. There was no statistical association between Chagas' infection and EKG alterations (X2=1.67, p=0.2). There was a positive association between Chagas' infection and intraventricular conduction defects and this association was higher among the students of 19 years of age or less (O.R. 10.4, p<0.05).
  • Prevalence and pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica in three different regions of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil Epidemiology

    Aca, Ivanize da Silva; Kobayashi, Seiki; Carvalho Jr., Luiz Bezerra; Tateno, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Exames parasitológicos foram realizados em amostras fecais de 663 indivíduos residindo em três cidades do estado de Pernambuco, Nordeste brasileiro: Recife, Palmares e Bodocó. A população de Bodocó, situada na região do semi-árido de Pernambuco, foi investigada para amebíase e comparada com a do Recife, cidade metropolitana com cerca de 1,3 milhões de habitantes, e com outra da zona de plantação de cana-de-açucar do estado, Palmares. Não foi observada evidência da presença de cêpas invasivas de E. histolytica nesses habitantes desde que aquelas isoladas das amostras fecais, com zimodomas dos tipos I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XVII e XVIII, são reconhecidas como não patogênicas. Ademais, a prevalência de helmintos intestinais e de infecções por protozoários mostrou que esses indivíduos são infectados por outros agentes responsáveis por quadros diarréicos.

    Abstract in English:

    Parasitological examinations were carried out on 663 individuals of three different cities of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil: Recife, Palmares and Bodocó. The population from a drought area of Pernambuco State, Bodocó, was investigated for amoebiasis and compared with Recife, metropolitan city (about 1.3 million of inhabitants) and another inland community, Palmares, located inside of the sugar-cane plantation region of the State. No evidence of invasive strains of E. histolytica were found in these inhabitants, provided that the isolated zymodemes I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XVII and XVIII are recognized as nonpathogenic strains of E. histolytica. Furthermore, the prevalence of intestinal helminths and other protozoan infections showed that these individuals are infected by other agents responsible for diarrhoeal diseases.
  • Usefulness of the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antigens in AIDS patients Immunology

    Fachado, Alberto; Fonte, Luis; Alberti, Esteban; Hadad, Pablo; Fonseca, Lisset; Machin, Rodolfo; Finlay, Carlos

    Abstract in Spanish:

    La Encefalitis Toxoplásmica (ET) es la más importante complicación infecciosa del Sistema Nervioso Central en pacientes de SIDA. Anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii fueron detectados en 57 de 79 pacientes de SIDA (71%). De estos seropositivos, desarrollaron la enfermedad (ET) 14 (25%), en los que coincidentemente se detectó la presencia de antígeno del parásito en orina y por tanto fueron objeto de una terapia efectiva, con la subsecuente desaparición de los sintomas y de los antígenos excretados. Por los resultados del presente trabajo, consideramos lo útil de monitorear en estos pacientes la presencia de antígenos de T. gondii con el objetivo de aplicar oportunamente métodos quimoprofilácticos que eviten el surgimiento de manifestaciones neurológicas en estos pacientes.

    Abstract in English:

    Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is a mayor cause of central nervous system infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 56 of 79 patients with AIDS (71%), in the present study. Fourteen out of 57 seropositive patients developed TF (25%) and had Toxoplasma gondii antigen detected in their urine. For this, most of them received an effective therapy, with the subsequent disappearance of the symptoms and discontinuity of excretion of the T. gondii antigens. Our results suggest that the monitoring of T. gondii antigen in the urine of AIDS patients may be useful to decide on the proper time for therapy, as well as to avoid the beginning of neurologic signs in these patients.
  • Dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) for detection of pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens in pleural fluid effusion samples.: Comparison with bacterial culture, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and latex agglutination Immunology

    Requejo, Henry I.Z.; Alkmin, Maria das Graças A.; Almeida, Regina G.; Casagrande, Silvana T.; Cocozza, Ana Maria; Lotufo, João Paulo B.; Waetge, Aurora R.P.; Rodrigues, Joaquim C.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Dot-ELISA para detecção de antígenos polissacarídicos de pneumococos foi padronizado em vista da necessidade de se ter um diagnóstico rápido e eficaz para pneumonia pneumocócica aguda. Um total de 480 amostras de líquido pleural sendo 442 de crianças com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de pneumonia bacteriana e 38 de pacientes com tuberculose, mais 20 amostras de soros sanguíneos de crianças sadias foram avaliadas no Dot-ELISA. As amostras foram tratadas previamente a 90°C por 10 min com EDTA 0,1 M de pH 7,5 e aplicadas sobre membrana de nitrocelulose. Para a detecção de antígeno pneumocócico foi empregado omniserum pneumocócico diluído a 1:200. Os resultados de Dot-ELISA avaliados em comparação com os resultados de cultura bacteriana, contra-imunoeletroforese e látex-aglutinação apresentaram índices de 0,940 para sensibilidade, 0,830 para especificidade e 0,760 para concordância. Omniserum pneumocócico mostrou ser um ótimo soro polivalente para a detecção de antígenos pneumocócicos em Dot-ELISA e, essa técnica provou ser uma alternativa prática e eficaz para o diagnóstico de pneumonias pneumocócicas.

    Abstract in English:

    A dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) for pneumococcal antigen detection was standardized in view of the need for a rapid and accurate immunodiagnosis of acute pneumococcal pneumonia. A total of 442 pleural fluid effusion samples (PFES) from children with clinical and laboratory diagnoses of acute bacterial pneumonia, plus 38 control PFES from tuberculosis patients and 20 negative control serum samples from healthy children were evaluated by Dot-ELISA. The samples were previously treated with 0.1 M EDTA pH 7.5 at 90°C for 10 min and dotted on nitrocellulose membrane. Pneumococcal omniserum diluted at 1:200 was employed in this assay for antigen detection. When compared with standard bacterial culture, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and latex agglutination techniques, the Dot-ELISA results showed relative indices of 0.940 to sensitivity, 0.830 to specificity and 0.760 to agreement. Pneumococcal omniserum proved to be an optimal polyvalent antiserum for the detection of pneumococcal antigen by Dot-ELISA. Dot-ELISA proved to be a practical alternative technique for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia.
  • Entamoeba histolytica: detection of coproantigens by purified antibody in the capture sandwich ELISA Immunology

    Urdaneta, Haidee; Guimarães, Semíramis; Silva, Edward F.; Tavares, Carlos A. P.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Foi desenvolvido um teste de ELISA de Captura usando anticorpos policlonais purificados obtidos em coelhos contra três diferentes cepas axênicas de Entamoeba histolytica (ICB-CSP and ICB-462 do Brasil e HM1 do México) para detecção de coproantígenos em amostras de fezes de indivíduos: a) sintomáticos, b) assintomáticos, c) com outros parasitos intestinais, e d) sadios. Imunoglobulina G (IgG) contra E. histolytica foi isolada de imune soro de coelho, em duas etapas: cromatografia de afinidade em uma coluna contendo antígenos de E. histolytica unidos à Sepharose 4B, seguido por outra cromatografía em Sepharose 4B Proteína A. O teste de ELISA usando anticorpos purificados, foi capaz de detectar até um só trofozoíto por lâmina ou 70 ng de proteína de ameba por orifício, apresentando uma sensibilidade de 93% e uma especificidade de 94%. A combinação do exame microscópico com o método de ELISA de Captura teve uma concordância e discordância de 93,25% e 6,75%, respectivamente. Pode-se concluir que o teste de ELISA de Captura utilizando anticorpo purificado é altamente específico para a detecção de coproantígenos de E. histolytica em fezes de pacientes infectados, rápido, fácil e mais sensível que o exame microscópico.

    Abstract in English:

    A sensitive and specific Capture Sandwich ELISA (CSE) was developed using polyclonal purified rabbit antibodies against three different axenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica: CSP from Brazil and HM1 - IMSS from Mexico, for the detection of coproantigens in fecal samples. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) againstis E. histolytica was isolated from rabbits immunized with throphozoites whole extract in two stages: affinity chromatography in a column containing E. histolytica antigens bound to Sepharose 4B was followed by another chromatography in Sepharose antibodies 4B-Protein A. A Capture Sandwich ELISA using purified antibodies was able to detect 70ng of amebae protein, showing a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 94%. The combination of microscopic examination and CSE gave a concordance and discordance of 93.25% and 6.75%, respectively. It was concluded that CSE is highly specific for the detection of coproantigens of E. histolytica in feces of infected patients, is quicker to perform, easier and more sensitive than microscopic examination.
  • Low intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C virus in Central Brazil Brief communication

    Martins, R. M. B.; Vanderborght, B. O. M.; Rouzere, C. D.; Almeida, V. C.; Cardoso, D. D. P.; Yoshida, C. F. T.
  • Flucytosine + fluconazole association in the treatment of a murine experimental model of cryptococcosis Brief communication

    Bava, A. J.; Negroni, R.

    Abstract in English:

    The efficacy of flucytosine (5-FC) and fluconazole (FLU) association in the treatment of a murine experimental model of cryptococcosis, was evaluated. Seven groups of 10 Balb C mice each, were intraperitoneally inoculated with 10(7) cells of Cryptococcus neoformans. Six groups were allocated to receive 5-FC (300 mg/kg) and FLU (16 mg/ kg), either combined and individually, by daily gavage beginning 5 days after the infection, for 2 and 4 weeks. One group received distilled water and was used as control. The evaluation of treatments was based on: survival time; macroscopic examination of brain, lungs, liver and spleen at autopsy; presence of capsulated yeasts in microscopic examination of wet preparations of these organs and cultures of brain homogenate. 5-FC and FLU, individually or combined, significantly prolonged the survival time of the treated animals with respect to the control group (p<0.01). Animals treated for 4 weeks survived significantly longer than those treated for 2 weeks (p<0.01). No significant differences between the animals treated with 5-FC and FLU combined or separately were observed in the survival time and morphological parameters. The association of 5-FC and FLU does not seem to be more effective than 5-FC or FLU alone, in the treatment of this experimental model of cryptococcosis.
  • Ethical guidelines for FAPESP-sponsored research on human populations Bioethics

  • Relación entre la prueba intradérmica de histoplasmina y los niveles de anticuerpos detectables por ELISA e inmunodifusión

    VELÁSQUEZ, Aníbal
  • Parasitic worms of fish Book review

    WILLIAMS, Harford; JONES, Arlene
  • ANNUAL REVIEW OF IMMUNOLOGY Book review

    Barros, Myrthes Toledo
Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 470, 05403-000 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil, Tel. +55 11 3061-7005 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revimtsp@usp.br