Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Mitsuda test is a skin test based on the individual’s immune response through late and highly specific hypersensitivity reaction to the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus. A negative reaction identifies individuals who present a higher risk of becoming ill if exposed to M. leprae and, if they become ill, to develop the virchowian form of disease. The Mitsuda test reading is performed by means of a millimeter ruler. The dermatoscopy is a method that has not been used in the evaluation of cutaneous tests, although its use has increased in several areas. The study aimed to compare the results between the standardized reading and the total area of the Mitsuda test obtained by a computerized method which was structured by the association of digital dermatoscopy, the Dermatology Web system and the Image Tool 3.0 software. Data collection was performed at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic of the Eduardo de Menezes Hospital, in Belo Horizonte, from November 2015 to August 2016. The sample consisted of 100 leprosy domiciliary contacts. There was an excellent agreement between the Mitsuda test (diameter and area), with a coefficient greater than 80%, and an excellent correlation with the Spearman’s correlation coefficient (0.936). The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated a low (0.219) but significant agreement between the two measurements. In conclusion, there is a significant correlation between the standardized reading and the total area of the Mitsuda test. Digital dermoscopy can be an alternative instrument of evaluation, allowing the computerization and recording of the Mitsuda test.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is often silent and can lead to long-term reproductive complications in women. In this study, we determined the prevalence of CT infection and possible associations between the presence of the infection and clinical-epidemiological variables in pregnant women attended at the Basic Health Units of the Coari city, Amazonas, Brazil. From July 2016 to March 2017, 164 pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were recruited. One hundred of these women were tested for CT infection using two types of samples: cervico-vaginal and urine. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR with primers specific for the omp1 gene of CT chromosomal DNA. Of the 100 pregnant women, 18 (18%) had CT infection, 8 (8%) of which were positive in both samples, 7 (7%) only in the urine sample and 3 (3%) only in cervical-vaginal sample. There was moderate agreement (Kappa=0.55) and no statistically significant difference between sample types (p = 0.400). The mean age of infected women was 21.1 years (SD = 4.6). Of the clinical-epidemiological variables analyzed, “more than 2 partners in the last 12 months” (p = 0.022) and gynecological complaint of “pain after intercourse” (p = 0.020) were associated with CT infection. This study showed a high prevalence (18%) of CT infection among pregnant women in Coari / Amazonas. Urine sampales were as good as cervical-vaginal ones for the screening of CT infection during the prenatal period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Trypanosoma cruzi and Helicobacter pylori (HP) are pathogens that cause chronic diseases and have been associated with hypergastrinemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fasting gastrin levels in patients with different clinical forms of Chagas disease (CD), coinfected or not by HP. The enrolled individuals were outpatients attending at the university hospital. HP infection was assessed by serology and 13 C-urea breath test. Fasting serum gastrin concentration was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Gastric endoscopic and histological features were also evaluated. Associations between CD and serum gastrin level were evaluated in a logistical model, adjusting for age, gender and HP status. A total of 113 patients were evaluated (45 with Chagas disease and 68 controls). In the multivariate analysis, increasing serum gastrin levels (OR= 1.02; 95% CI= 1.01-1.12), increasing age (OR= 1.05; 95% CI= 1.02 - 1.09) and HP-positive status (OR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.10 - 7.51) remained independently associated with CD. The serum gastrin levels were significantly higher in the group of patients with the cardiodigestive form ( P = 0.03) as well as with digestive form ( P = <0.001) of Chagas disease than in the controls. In conclusion, patients with cardiodigestive and digestive clinical forms of CD have increased basal serum gastrin levels in comparison with controls. Moreover, we also demonstrated that H. pylori coinfection contributes to the hypergastrinemia shown in CD.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mixed infection by Histoplasma capsulatum isolates with different mating types, in AIDS-patients are described in this study. Morphological, mating type-specific PCR assay and multilocus sequencing type analysis of H. capsulatum isolates recovered from two Brazilian AIDS-patients were performed. Five H. capsulatum isolates were recovered at different times from the two patients. Three isolates were obtained from bone marrow (day 1 – CE0411) and buffy coat cultures (day 1 – CE0311; day 2 – CE0511) of patient 1, and two isolates were isolated from buffy coat cultures (day 3 – CE2813; day 12 – CE2513) of patient 2. The mycelial colonies depicted different textures and pigmentation features. Dimorphic conversion to the yeast-phase in ML-Gema medium was achieved in all isolates. MAT1-1 idiomorph was identified in CE0311, CE0411 and CE2813 isolates; MAT1-2 idiomorph was found in CE0511 and CE2513 isolates. These H. capsulatum isolates were grouped within LAm A clade, highlighting that CE0311 and CE0411 isolates formed a subgroup supported by a high bootstrap value. The CE0511, CE2513, and CE2813 isolates clustered together with a Brazilian H151 isolate. This research reports mixed infections caused by H. capsulatum isolates with different mating types in Brazilian AIDS-patients for the first time in the literature.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was designed to assess whether churches in endemic dengue districts in Merida, Mexico provide suitable breeding habitats for mosquitoes and are potential sites for dengue virus (DENV) transmission. Churches were inspected for immature and adult mosquitoes once every week from November 2015 to October 2016. A total of 10,997 immatures of five species were collected. The most abundant species were Aedes aegypti (6,051) and Culex quinquefasciatus (3,018). The most common source of immature Ae. aegypti were buckets followed by disposable containers. Adult collections yielded 21,226 mosquitoes of nine species. The most common species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (15,215) and Ae. aegypti (3,902). Aedes aegypti were found all year long. Female Ae. aegypti (1,380) were sorted into pools (166) and assayed for flavivirus RNA by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Two pools were positive for DENV (DENV-1 and 2). In conclusion, we demonstrated that some churches in Merida are infested with mosquitoes all year long and they potentially serve as sites for DENV transmission and should therefore be considered for inclusion in mosquito and arboviruses control and surveillance efforts.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study sought to investigate the risk factors for physical disability upon release from multidrug therapy (MDT) in new cases of leprosy, registered at a referral center in Brazil. This is a longitudinal and retrospective study that evaluated 260 patients. Multivariate analyses, using both the ordinal logistic regression, as well as the classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm were performed to determine the factors associated with physical disability upon release from treatment. The prevalence of disability did not differ significantly between diagnosis and release from treatment. Number of affected nerves and sensory impairment upon diagnosis were risk factors for disability at the end of MDT. The analysis using the CART algorithm resulted in the development of a clinical score to predict the risk of disability upon release from MDT. The decision tree may have a direct applicability in clinical practice for professionals dealing with leprosy, as it allows them to identify patients with a higher risk of physical disability through the use of simple and widely available clinical tests. This study also shows that the disability grade upon admission is the main risk factor for disability upon release from MDT. This result draws attention to the importance of early diagnosis in disability prevention.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables is quick, easy and healthy, especially when eaten without cooking. However, they might be a source of foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological and parasitological contamination of fresh RTE vegetables produced in agroindustries in the Federal District of Brazil (FD), and to correlate contamination with good manufacturing practices (GMP). One hundred and three samples of RTE vegetables were collected from six agroindustries for microbiology and parasitology analyses and correlate with GMP; 54 samples were collected from three hypermarkets for parasitological evaluation. None of the samples analyzed were positive for Salmonella sp. and for thermotolerant coliforms, but they were contaminated with total coliforms. All analyzed samples were contaminated with at least one species of enteroparasistes or commensals, which were identified as Ascaris sp., Balantidium coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Hookworm, Strongyloides sp., Trichuris sp., Entamoeba sp., eggs and larvae of Nematoda, insects and fungi. Agroindustries that adopted GMP showed less contamination with helminths. RTE vegetables sold in hypermarkets of the FD are unfit for human consumption. It is important to guide farmers in the FD on the need to adopt good practices in the production and processing of vegetables to reduce the microbial contamination.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are exotic species in the Americas with high epidemiological relevance as they are vectors of many pathogens. This study aimed at understanding the population dynamics of A. aegypti and A. albopictus and the influence of abiotic factors in an endemic area of dengue. The study was conducted in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, over one year. In seven regions of the city, 50 ovitraps were installed in each neighborhood. The development of the larvae was monitored under controlled laboratory conditions until they reached the adult phase. A total of 50,900 eggs of Aedes sp. were collected, 26,073 of which reached adulthood: 25,496 (97.8 %) A. aegypti and 540 (2.1%) A. albopictus. A. aegypti was observed in all months during the study. The highest number of A. albopictus eggs were collected in June, while in August and September, an absence of this species was noted. Abiotic factors such as temperature, humidity and rainfall were responsible for the observed fluctuations in the mosquito population. The presence of A. albopictus in the urban area of the city is concerning because it could become a potential vector for other arboviruses that afflict human populations. The occurrence of these species in Campo Grande reinforces the need for constant entomological and epidemiological surveillance so that informed actions could be taken to decrease potential breeding sites.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) clinical presentation and frequency/duration of shedding need further clarification. Symptomatic ZIKV-infected individuals identified in two hospitals in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were investigated regarding clinical characteristics, shedding in body fluids, and serodynamics. Ninety-four of 235 symptomatic patients (Site A: 58%; Site B: 16%) had Real-Time PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection; fever, headache and gastrointestinal symptoms were less frequent, and rash was more frequent compared to ZIKV-negative patients. Real-Time PCR in serum had worse performance compared to plasma, while urine had the highest sensitivity. Shedding in genital fluids and saliva was rare. IgM positivity was the highest <14 days after the symptoms onset (86%), decreasing >28 days (24%); IgG positivity increased >14 days (96%) remaining positive in 94% of patients >28 days. ZIKV prevalence varied importantly in two neighboring cities during the same transmission season. Urine Real-Time PCR can improve diagnostic sensitivity; serum testing is less useful. Accurate serological tests are needed to improve diagnosis and surveillance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Multidrug resistance (MDR), virulence and transferable elements potentiate Pseudomonas aeruginosa's role as an opportunistic pathogen creating a high risk for public health. In this study, we evaluated the possible association of multidrug resistance, virulence factors and integrons with intrahospital P. aeruginosa strains isolated from patients at Cumana hospital, Venezuela. Relevant clinical-epidemiological data were collected to study 176 strains (2009-2016) isolated from different hospital units. Bacterial resistance was classified as susceptible, low-level resistant (LDR), multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR). Most strains produced pyoverdine, DNase, gelatinase and hemolysin. Around 73% of the strains showed some type of movement. MDR and XDR strains increased from 2009 (24.2% and 4.8%, respectively) to 2016 (53.1% and 18.8%); while LDR decreased from 64.5% to 6.3%. The exoU and exoS genes were found in a significant number of strains (38.1 and 7.4%, respectively). Class I integrons were detected in 35.8% of the strains and the frequency was associated with resistance (42.9, 22.4, 41.4 and 61.9%, for susceptible, LDR, MDR and XDR, respectively). The MDR/XDR strains were positively associated with hemolysins and exoU, but negatively associated with bacterial twitching. MDR/XDR phenotypes were also associated with the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), septicemia, bronchial infection and diabetic foot ulcers, as well as long hospital stay (≥10 days) and previous antimicrobial treatment. High frequency of MDR/XDR strains and their association with class I integrons and virulence factors can increase the infection potential, as well as morbidity and mortality of patients attending this hospital and could spread infection to the community, creating a health risk for the region.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize the cases of tuberculosis (TB) co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, after the notification sheet modification, and to verify the association between the new variables and the treatment outcome. It is an analytical cross-sectional study with TB/HIV cases notified in the year 2016 to the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and multiple correspondence analysis were performed to verify the association between the outcome, ageand associated diseases. Of the 180 cases, most were male (75.6%) between 30 and 49 years old (63.3%), mixed ethnicity (black and white) (49.4%), 94.4% had the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and 60.6% had pulmonary TB. The molecular test was not performed at the time of diagnosis in 70.5% of the cases. Homeless people (4.4%) and prisoners (3.9%) featured prominently among the special populations. People between 40 and 49 years old without concurrent diseases were cured in 40.0% of the cases; 18.9% abandoned the treatment due to smoking, drug abuse and mental illness in the age group between 20 and 29 years old. The deaths were associated with the age group between 30 and 39 years old and the occurrence of AIDS. The results have shown that the groups considered vulnerable (drug users, smokers and people with mental illness) abandoned the treatment, the notification upon death from AIDS in adults was late and some treatments were inadequate. The epidemiological surveillance, prevention and assistance strategies towards cases of TB/HIV must be improved in order to achieve the goal of the Brazilian National Plan to end Tuberculosis as a Public Health Problem until 2035 in the state.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is one of the most important but neglected infectious diseases, and can cause severe deformities. ATL incidence remains high in forest regions, such as in the Amazonas State, Brazil. However, differences within the State and over time have been observed, since infection patterns are not homogeneous, and these aspects need to be clarified. This study aimed to identify the epidemiological profile of ATL and its spatial and temporal distribution in the Brazilian Amazon, from 2010 to 2014. Data were extracted from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, which descriptively evaluates the incidence rate, as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease. The highest prevalence of ATL was found in men and in the age group of 20-40 years. Approximately 95% of the cases were of cutaneous ATL and they were identified through direct examination. The spatial analysis has shown that ATL was widely distributed, both in rural and urban areas, and more concentrated in the Southern part of the State. Moreover, although there was an expansion in the spatial distribution and an increasing incidence of ATL in Amazonas, the epidemiological profile remained unchanged, suggesting that other factors must be responsible for its widespread distribution and increasing incidence.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was genotypically characterize Leptospira sp. clinical isolates from Mexico which were previously identified as Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (POM) by phenotypic methods. The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used for DNA amplification with five oligonucleotides. A dendrogram was constructed using the Unweighted Pair Group Method Analysis (UPGMA). During the genotypic characterization, the studied isolates constituted a group which was associated with the reference strain L. interrogans serovar Pomona. The Minimum Spanning Networks (MST) analysis revealed the same cluster between Mexican isolates and the reference strain POM. Clinical isolates identified as L. interrogans serovar POM have a clonal reproduction type, suggesting that this clone is distributed in different regions of Mexico.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Increased resistance to polymyxin in Klebsiella pneumoniae (ColRKP) has been observed. Molecular epidemiology, as well as the clinical impact of these difficult to treat pathogens need to be better characterized. We present the clinical outcomes of 28 patients infected by ColRKP in a tertiary hospital. Isolates with MIC >2 by Vitek 2 were confirmed by the microdilution broth test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for blaKPC, blaNDM, blaOXA-48 and blamcr-1 genes in the isolates, and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was performed in six isolates. Seventeen (61%) patients were female and the mean age was 50 years old. In-hospital and 30-day mortality were 64% (18/28) and 53% (15/28), respectively. Central line-associated bloodstream infection in addition to bacteremia episodes due to other sources were the most frequent (61%). Mean APACHE and Charlson comorbidity index were 16 and 5, respectively. Twenty patients (71%) received at least one active drug and ten (35%) received two drugs: tigecycline 46% (13/28); amikacin 21% (6/28) and fosfomycin 3% (1 case). Twenty-six out of 28 tested cases were positive for blaKPC. Eight different clusters were identified. Four STs were detected (ST11, ST23, ST340, and ST437). Mutations on pmrA, arnB, udg, and yciM genes were present in all six isolates submitted to WGS; lpxMand mgrB mutations were also detected in all but one isolate. In conclusion, we observed resistance to polymyxin in severely ill patients mostly from intensive care units and/or immunosuppressed patients with high mortality rates in whom a diversity of ColRKP clusters was identified and might indicate selective pressure.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii can cross the placental barrier, causing fetal infection with potentially severe sequelae. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the serological screening for toxoplasmosis should be included in the basic neonatal heel prick test in order to establish criteria for the confirmation and/or exclusion of the diagnosis of congenital infection in newborns treated at three public health units in the metropolitan region of Goiania, Goias State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from newborns and later, peripheral blood samples from the mothers and their respective children were obtained to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of suspected congenital infection, by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM and IgG) and a polymerase chain reaction assay. From a total of 1,159 blood samples collected on filter paper, 43.92% were reactive to IgG and 0.17% to anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG. One hundred and twenty-seven paired samples (mother and child) were collected following consensual protocols for peripheral blood collection. Results obtained from the filter paper and peripheral blood of the newborns were 90.55% concordant. A comparison of the mother and child blood test results showed agreement regarding the detection of IgG in 90.48% of the samples. The parasite DNA was detected in the peripheral blood of one child. In view of the results obtained in this study, the inclusion of the serological screening for toxoplasmosis in the newborn heel prick test proved to be effective for the early detection of congenital T. gondii infection.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection. Itraconazole and terbinaﬁne are the most recommended antifungal drugs for chromoblastomycosis, while amphotericin B is not usually recommended. A patient with chromoblastomycosis in our hospital showed poor clinical responses to itraconazole and terbinaﬁne. The fungus isolated from the lesions of this patient was identified as Fonsecaea nubica and numbered zssy0803. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of F. nubica zssy0803 to terbinaﬁne, amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were evaluated, as well as the combinations of terbinaﬁne with the other four antifungals. The combined effect of terbinaﬁne and amphotericin B on other 20 clinical F. nubica strains was also evaluated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of terbinaﬁne, amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin on F. nubica zssy0803 were 0.25 μg/mL, 2 μg/mL, 1 μg/mL, 4 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL, respectively. The combination of terbinaﬁne and amphotericin B showed the lowest fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.28 to F. nubica zssy0803 in comparison with combinations of terbinaﬁne and the other four antifungal drugs. The combination of terbinaﬁne and amphotericin B was also synergistic for all the other 20 F. nubica strains. Then, the combination of oral terbinaﬁne (500 mg/day) and intralesional injections of amphotericin B (1 mg/mL) was used to treat this patient. After this combined therapy for 25 weeks and terbinaﬁne monotherapy for additional 12 weeks, the patient was cured. These findings indicate for the first time that terbinaﬁne and amphotericin B are synergistic in killing F. nubica both in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a disease that affects millions of people and it is an important public health problem. The drugs currently used for the treatment of leishmaniasis present undesirable side effects and low efficacy. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of Melampodium divaricatum (MD-EO) and Casearia sylvestris (CS-EO) essential oils (EO) against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Sesquiterpenes E-caryophyllene (56.0%), germacrene D (12.7%) and bicyclogermacrene (9.2%) were identified as the main components of MD-EO, whereas E-caryophyllene (22.2%), germacrene D (19.6%) and bicyclogermacrene (12.2%) were the main constituents of CS-EO. CS-EO and E-caryophyllene were active against promastigote forms of L. amazonensis (IC50 24.2, 29.8 and 49.9 µg/mL, respectively). However, MD-EO, CS-EO and E-caryophyllene were more active against amastigote forms, with IC50 values of 10.7, 14.0, and 10.7 µg/mL, respectively. E-caryophyllene presented lower cytotoxicity against macrophages J774-A1 (CC50 of 62.1 µg/mL) than the EO. The EOs and E-caryophyllene should be further studied for the development of new antileishmanial drugs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT After the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, the number of rotavirus-associated deaths and the predicted annual rotavirus detection rate had slightly declined worldwide. Taking in account that in Colombia, Rotarix vaccine was introduced in 2009, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of rotavirus A in children under five years who were treated for acute diarrhoea in Bucaramanga, Colombia and, moreover, to determine the genotypes of rotavirus present in those children. We performed an analytical cross-sectional study of rotavirus A in faecal samples from children up to five years of age. Stool samples were screened for rotavirus A using a lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay and confirmed using a VP6 sandwich ELISA. Genotyping of rotavirus A-positive samples was performed by PCR and sequencing of VP7 and VP4 genes. The overall prevalence of rotavirus was 30.53% (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2 - 39.7). Most of the children with rotavirus (86.2%) had received two doses of the rotavirus vaccine. G3 strains accounted for the vast majority of cases (82.8%), followed by G12 strains (13.8%) and G3/G9 coinfections (3.4%). Among the P genotypes, P was the most prevalent (69%), followed by P (31%). The most common G[P] genotype combination was G3P, followed by G3P. The main finding in this study was that rotavirus, in a Colombian region, is still an important pathogen in children under five years old, previously vaccinated. The results showed that different factors, such as kindergarten attendance, could explain the epidemiology and transmission of rotavirus in Bucaramanga.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT During the last years, Brazilian government control programs have detected an increase of Salmonella Heidelberg in poultry slaughterhouses a condition that poses a threat to human health However, the reasons remain unclear. Differences in genetic virulence profiles may be a possible justification. In addition, effective control of Salmonella is related to an efficient epidemiological surveillance system through genotyping techniques. In this context, the aim of this study was the detection of 24 virulence-associated genes in 126 S. Heidelberg isolates. We classified the isolates into 56 different genetic profiles. None of the isolates presented all the virulence genes. The prevalence of these genes was high in all tested samples as the lowest number of genes detected in one isolate was 10/24. The lpfA and csgA (fimbriae), invA and sivH (TTSS), and msgA and tolC (intracellular survival) genes were present in 100% of the isolates analyzed. Genes encoding effector proteins were detected in the majority of SH isolates. No single isolate had the sefA gene. The pefA gene was found in only four isolates. We have also performed a screening of genes associated with iron metabolism: 88.9% of isolates had the iroN geneand 79.4% the sitC gene . Although all the isolates belong to the same serotype, several genotypic profiles were observed. These findings suggest that there is a diversity of S. Heidelberg isolates in poultry products. The fact that a single predominant profile was not found in this study indicates the presence of variable sources of contamination caused by SH. The detection of genetic profiles of Salmonella strains can be used to determine the virulence patterns of SH isolates.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Candida glabrata complex includes three species identified through molecular biology methods: C. glabrata sensu stricto , C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis . In Mexico, the phenotypic methods are still used in the diagnosis; therefore, the presence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis among clinical isolates is still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a multiplex PCR for the identification of the C. glabrata species complex. DNA samples from 92 clinical isolates that were previously identified through phenotypic characteristics as C. glabrata were amplified by four oligonucleotides (UNI-5.8S, GLA-f, BRA-f, and NIV-f) that generate amplicons of 397, 293 and 223-bp corresponding to C. glabrata sensu stricto , C. nivariensis , and C. bracarensis , respectively. The amplicon sequences were used to perform a phylogenetic analysis through the Maximum Likelihood method (MEGA6), including strains and reference sequences of species belonging to C. glabrata complex. In addition, recombination and linkage disequilibrium were estimated (DnaSP version 5.0) for C. glabrata sensu stricto isolate s . Eighty-eight isolates generated a 397-bp fragment and only in one isolate a 223-bp amplicon was observed. In the phylogenetic tree, the sequences of 397-bp were grouped with C. glabrata reference sequences , and the sequence of 223-bp was grouped with C. bracarensis reference sequences, corroborating the PCR identification. The number of recombination events for the isolates of C. glabrata sensu stricto was zero, suggesting a clonal population structure. Three isolates that did not amplify any of the expected fragments were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain region within the 28S rDNA gene. The multiplex PCR is a fast, cost-effective and reliable tool that can be used in clinical laboratories to identify C. glabrata complex species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The triatomine insect Panstrongylus megistus , one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in Brazil, presents salivary molecules pharmacologically active to counteract homeostatic responses from the host, including inhibitors of the human complement system, a major effector of immune responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of P. megistus salivary gland extract (SGE) on the complement system from different host species and characterize the inhibitory effect of SGE and intestinal contents on human complement. Glands and midguts from fourth instar nymphs were used. Hemolytic assays were performed with sheep erythrocytes as complement activators by using human, rats and chickens sera in the presence or absence of SGE. An ELISA assay was carried out detect deposition of the C3b component on IgG- or agarose-sensitized microplates, in the presence or absence of SGE or midgut contents. P. megistus SGE was able to significantly inhibit the complement of the three studied species (human, rat and chiken). Both, SGE and midgut contents inhibited C3b deposition in either the classical or the alternative pathways. As conclusions, SGE and midgut from P. megistus possess anti-complement activity. The inhibitors are effective against different host species and act on the initial steps of the complement system cascade. These inhibitors may have a role in blood feeding and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission by the vector.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Several arboviruses have emerged and/or re-emerged in North, Central and South-American countries. Viruses from some regions of Africa and Asia, such as the Zika and Chikungunya virus have been introduced in new continents causing major public health problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of RNA from Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses in symptomatic patients from Rondonia, where the epidemiological profile is still little known, by one-step real-time RT-PCR. The main clinical signs and symtoms were fever (51.2%), headache (78%), chills (6.1%), pruritus (12.2%), exanthema (20.1%), arthralgia (35.3%), myalgia (26.8%) and retro-orbital pain (19.5%). Serum from 164 symptomatic patients were collected and tested for RNA of Zika, Dengue types 1 to 4 and Chikungunya viruses, in addition to antibodies against Dengue NS1 antigen. Direct microscopy for Malaria was also performed. Only ZIKV RNA was detected in 4.3% of the patients, and in the remaining 95.7% of the patients RNA for Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses were not detected. This finding is intriguing as the region has been endemic for Dengue for a long time and more recently for Chikungunya virus as well. The results indicated that medical and molecular parameters obtained were suitable to describe the first report of symptomatic Zika infections in this region. Furthermore, the low rate of detection, compared to clinical signs and symptoms as the solely diagnosis criteria, suggests that molecular assays for detection of viruses or other pathogens that cause similar symptoms should be used and the corresponding diseases could be included in the compulsory notification list.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT American Tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by several species of Leishmania . Even though the direct detection of parasites has low sensitivity, it is still the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of ATL. Recent studies have shown promising results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays ( ELISAs) using recombinant antigens. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of ELISAs using novel antigens with the standard ELISA based on soluble antigens of Leishmania (SLA) to diagnose ATL. Studies that analyzed patients with ATL and studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of ELISAs using novel antigens and SLA were included. The Fourteen studies from PubMed, Regional Portal of the Virtual Health Library (BVS), Brazilian Society of Dermatology, Virtual Health Library (IBECS), Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Elsevier Embase, Cochrane Library, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were included. The novel ELISA antigens showed a high sensitivity (93.8%-100%) and specificity (82.5-100%), a better diagnostic performance than SLA-based ELISAs (1-97.4% and 57.5-100%, respectively). Only 10 studies analyzed cross-reactions in serum samples from patients with Chagas disease, and only two studies reported a percentage of cross-reactivity. In this systematic review, the novel ELISA antigens showed better sensitivity and specificity with respect to SLA-based ELISAs. However, a meta-analysis should be performed to confirm this finding.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In March 2014, the Quadrivalent human papilloma virus vaccine (4vHPV) was introduced in the female adolescents vaccination schedule of the National Immunization Program (PNI). A school-based vaccination program was implemented. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of the adverse events that took place after HPV vaccination, reported to the Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) Information System in Sao Paulo State, from March 2014 to December 2016. All reports that fit the definitions of the 2014 National Manual on AEFI surveillance were included. AEFI risk was estimated by dividing the number of reports by the number of vaccine doses administered in the period. In the three-year period, 3,390,376 HPV vaccine doses were administered and 465 AEFI reports were registered, with 1,378 signs and symptoms. The reporting rate was 13.72 per 100,000 vaccine doses administered. The reports peaked in the first year of the program. The most frequent AEFI was syncope, with 5.7 reports per 100,000 doses administered, followed by dizziness, malaise, headache and nausea. Overall, 39 AEFI cases (8.4%) were classified as severe , with a reporting rate of 1.15 per 100,000 vaccine doses administered. Most cases were classified as severe because of hospitalization. Among them, there were cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, deep vein thrombosis, seizures and miscarriage. All young women recovered without sequelae. We identified five clusters of AEFI reports in four cities; the larger AEFI cluster occurred in the city of Bertioga, in September 2014, involving 13 female adolescents. Our data are in accordance with those from other countries and corroborate the safety of HPV vaccines.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects between 6 and 12 million people in Latin America, with an incidence rate of 12 thousand cases per year. In the Ceara State, the predominance of the caatinga biome, coupled with a large rural area with precarious human habitations, provides several s shelters for these insects. In this study, we determined the spatiotemporal distribution of triatomine dispersion rates in the Cariri region, Southern Ceara and ascertained the possible association between these rates with socioeconomic and environmental factors. Dispersion rates (number of positive localities/number of searched localities × 100) were analyzed regarding 13 municipalities from the Ceara State, from 2009 to 2013. Socioeconomic and environmental variables collected from national research institutes were associated with the dispersion rates and their local empirical Bayesian estimates. All the municipalities recorded dispersion rates over 10% in all years, and 11 municipalities had average rates over 40% for the period of study. Significant differences were observed among the municipality means. The highest rates were observed in Antonina do Norte and Potengi. According to the correlation analysis, the proportion between the occupied population and the total population showed a significant negative correlation, as well as the percentage of the population who lives under adequate sanitary conditions. Both, the percentage of revenues from external sources and the percentage of urban households in reforested blocks had a significant positive correlation. Our results show that socioeconomic and environmental variables can be factors that contribute to both, the maintenance and the reduction of the elevated dispersion rates observed in the study area. Similar researches that encompass more municipalities from that region may reinforce Chagas disease surveillance and control in the Northeast of Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A drug resistance survey involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients of a tertiary Hospital in the Rio de Janeiro city (RJ), Brazil, between the years 1996 and 1998 revealed a high frequency of isoniazid (HR) resistance. These isolates were revisited and genotyped. Patients came from different RJ neighborhoods and municipalities, and 70% were outpatients. Applying the 3’ and 5’ IS 6110 -RFLP and the Spoligotype genotyping methods, the clonal structure of this population was investigated obtaining a snapshot of past epidemiological events. The 3’ clusters were subsequently 5’ IS 6110 -RFLP typed. Spoligotyping was analyzed in the SITVIT2 database. Epidemiological relationships were investigated. The major lineage was T (54.4%), and SIT 53/T1 and SIT 535/T1 were the most frequent. The T1 sublineage comprises 12.8% of resistant strains and SIT 535 were assigned for 31.8% of them. Orphan patterns corresponded to 12% and 73.3% and belonged to the T lineage. One pattern was unlisted in the SITVIT2. The 5’ IS 6110 -RFLP did not confirm 3/12 of the 3’ IS 6110 -RFLP clusters. A combination of all methods decreased the number of clusters to three. Nosocomial transmission was associated with one cluster involving a hospital cupbearer. This event was suspected in a multidrug resistant-TB inpatient caregiver who harbored a mixed infection. The 3’ IS 6110 clusters were associated with HR (p=0.046). These genotypic retrospective data may reflect a fraction of more extensive recent transmission in different communities that may be corroborated by the concentration of HR patients, and may serve as a database for further evolutionary and characterization evaluation of circulating strains and together with epidemiological data favors a more effective transmission control.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In 2018, Bhutan reported 54 cases of malaria, of which six were indigenous, 14 introduced and 34 imported. Considering the continuous reduction in the number of indigenous cases, Bhutan plans to eliminate malaria by 2025 under the Bhutan Malaria Elimination Strategy. The study was conducted to assess the presence of asymptomatic plasmodial infection in both, Bhutanese population living in malaria-risk areas and in migrant workers to guide the elimination strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2016 in 750 Bhutanese people and 473 migrant workers. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections were investigated by using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Prevalence of asymptomatic plasmodial infection based on PCR was 0.27% (95% CI: 0.05–1.07%) among Bhutanese people with a mean age of 43 years old. The proportions of males and females were 45% and 55%, respectively. Among migrant workers, the prevalence of asymptomatic plasmodial infection was 0.42% (95% CI: 0.07–1.69%) with a mean age of 30 years old. The majority of migrant workers were from the neighboring Indian State of West Bengal (57.51%), followed by Assam (12.26%). RDT in both study groups did not detect any plasmodial infection. The presence of a low prevalence of asymptomatic plasmodial infection indicates that the current elimination strategies and interventions are effective.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is considered an emerging disease in the Americas. Since 1993, thousands of cases have been reported from different countries, but mainly from Brazil. This study aims to describe some epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of patients with hantavirus who presented poor outcome and were autopsied in a teaching hospital in Brazil, from 2000 to 2014. Of the 10 patients included, nine were male (mean age 43.5 years) and seven reported previous contact with rodents. Fever was present in eight of ten patients, dyspnea in nine of ten and myalgia in seven of ten patients; hemoconcentration, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and renal involvement were evidenced in all the 10 cases. At autopsy, the main alterations were seen in the lungs: pleural effusion (8/10 cases), increased weight 2.5 to 3 times, congestion/edema (10/10), interstitial mononuclear inflammation (10/10), alveolar hemorrhage (7/10), pulmonary collapse (7/10), hyaline membranes (7/10) and alveolar neutrophilic infiltrate (2/10). Pericardial effusion (2/10), mild myocardium inflammation (4/10), right ventricle dilation (1/10), polyploidy nuclei (3/10) and pericardial diffuse petechial (1/10) were also observed. The other organs exhibited discrete and non-specific alterations. Currently, this syndrome continues to be associated with high mortality directly linked to a late diagnosis and/or a misdiagnosis in the medical centers where these patients were seen for the first time. The anatomopathological findings at autopsy revealed the final phase of the process with pulmonary alterations, allowing a direct correlation with the severity of respiratory distress observed in these patients at admission.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Dermatophytosis is a cutaneous mycosis caused by a plethora of keratinophilic fungi, but Trichophyton rubrum is the most common etiological agent. Despite its high prevalence worldwide, little is known about the host defense mechanisms in this infection, particularly the in situ immune response. Using an immunohistochemistry approach, we investigated the density of CD1a+, factor XIIIa+ and CD68+ cells in the skin of dermatophytosis patients. Langerhans cells (CD1a+ cells) were significantly decreased in the epidermis of patients, both in affected and unaffected areas. In the dermis, however, no differences in the density of macrophages (CD68+ cells) and dermal dendrocytes (factor XIIIa+ cells) were observed. These results suggest that the decreased number of Langerhans cells may be a risk factor for development of dermatophytosis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that emerged in the Americas in 2013. Infection with CHIKV is symptomatic in most of the cases and patients can develop chronic arthralgia that lasts from months to years in over 40% of the cases. The East-Central-South Africa (ECSA) genotype was introduced in Brazil in 2014, in Bahia State. Here we report the circulation of the CHIKV ECSA genotype in Piaui State, Northeast Brazil, during the years 2016-2017. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a single introduction of this lineage probably in 2015 and its maintenance at least until 2017. This analysis has also demonstrated the proximity of this genotype with isolates from neighboring States, and its partial nucleotide sequence of the viral E1 gene revealed a synapomorphy synonyms. This finding highlights the spread of the ECSA genotype in Brazil and supports its circulation in the Brazilian Northeast.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis whose treatment is particularly difficult in immunosuppressed patients due to their low responsiveness to conventional therapy. Carica papaya and its isolated compounds benzyl isothiocyanate, carpaine and carpasemine are promising compound for the treatment of Strongyloides infections due to their anthelmintic action. This study aims to examine the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of C. papaya seed hexane extract against Strongyloides venezuelensis, using egg hatching tests and larval motility tests as efficiency markers. The crude extract at the concentrations of 566 – 0.0566 mg/mL or the control with albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and negative controls (water and PBS) were incubated with an equal volume of egg suspension (± 50 specimens) followed by counting of the specimens after 48 h. The same extract and dilutions were added to L3 larvae suspensions (±50 specimens) followed by analysis of larvae viability after 24, 48, and 72 h. The extract inhibited egg hatching with high efficiency at concentrations of 56.6 mg/mL (95.74%) and 5.66 mg/mL (92.16%). At the concentrations of 566 mg/mL (100%) and 56.66 mg/mL (97.32%), the extract inhibited larval motility as effectively as ivermectin (0.316 mg/mL; 100%), and more effectively than the other dilutions and the negative controls. The larvicidal effect depended on the extract concentration, but not on the treatment period. Therefore, C. papaya seed hexane extract has anthelmintic potential against S. venezuelensis and is a promising compound for the development of phytotherapies to treat strongyloidiasis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Public parks are leisure environments widely used by both, adults and children, often accompained by their pets. Soil contamination of these environments by enteric viruses and intestinal parasites occurs through these animals feces. The aim of this work was to detect Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPV-1) and different species of Mastadenovirus in soils samples from a park located in a medium-sized city in Brazil and evaluate the presence of helminth eggs and larvae in 18 points of a public park soil samples, as well as feces found on this site during six months. Parasitological analyzes were conducted through flotation and sedimentation techniques, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for viral detection. Of the 216 soil and 16 feces samples, 49% (106/216) and 12% (2/16) were positivefor nematodes larvae, respectively, through sedimentation techniques. Toxocara spp eggs were found in one soil sample and one feces sample, Trichuris spp eggs were found in only one feces sample and Hookworms eggs were found in four soil samples. After reconstruction work in the streets near the park, 30% (64/216) of the samples were positive for Human Mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), 1.4% (3/216) for HAdV-E and 0.4% (1/216) for Canine Mastadenovirus A (CAdV-A). The parasitic forms found in this study have demonstrated that the contamination of the park’s soil pose a threat to human and animal health. This was the first study to report the presence of HAdVs and CAdVs in soil samples.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing and transbronchial biopsy are of fundamental importance in the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the lungs of immunosuppressed patients, especially those infected with HIV. This was a descriptive and retrospective study, in which the results of bronchoalveolar lavages, bronchial brushings and transbronchial biopsies of HIV-positive patients attended at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro from 1999 to 2015 were reviewed to determine the most frequent findings in these patients, to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these procedures and to correlate bronchoscopy results with clinical and radiological findings. Serological tests for HIV were confirmed and cases with negative or unverified serology were excluded. Medical records were reviewed for correlation with clinical and radiological findings. A total of 1,423 patients with a mean age of 50 years were initially selected; 727 cases had no serology for HIV; 696 had serology for HIV and 64 were positive. Of these, 47 were men, aged 24 to 84 years, and 17 women, aged 31 to 69 years. Biopsies and cytological tests were positive in 20 (31.25%) of the 64 patients and the most frequent diagnosis was pneumocystosis, found in 8 cases (12.5%). Of the 20 bronchofibroscopy-positive patients, only 2 did not show agreement between histopathological and clinical-radiological diagnoses. The analysis of the cytological tests and biopsy specimens obtained by bronchofibroscopy seems to be valuable for the etiological diagnosis of pulmonary infections in HIV- positive patients; however, negative results do not always exclude the diagnosis. In these cases, clinical symptoms and imaging findings may help to guide the best therapy.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Patients' data during daily clinical care are extremely important for improving the allocation of healthcare resources and for assessing healthcare demands. The prospective gathering of these data over decades allowed us to describe the trends of infectious diseases in a tertiary hospital. The results concerning the period between 1965 and 1994 described the exponential increase in the incidence of HIV infection and its important effects on our institutional mortality. The present study describes the demand for the same hospital between 1995 and 2016. There were 4,691 admissions and the main causes of admissions were, in descending order, HIV infection (1,312, 28.0%), noninfectious diseases (447, 9.5%), meningoencephalitis (432, 9.2%), soft tissue infections (427; 9.1%), tuberculosis (272, 5.8%), pneumonias (212, 4.5%) and leptospirosis (212, 4.5%). There were 864 readmissions; most due to HIV infections (65.2%). The institutional mortality fell from 16.9% in the first two years to 5.0% in the last two years of the study. The case-fatality rates among the HIV patients decreased from more than 40% to approximately 5% over the study period. In the last two decades, the hospital experienced a decrease in demand due to vaccine-preventable diseases. The demand for children has fallen and the demand for patients over the age of 50 has increased. These results reflect the improvement in public health standards over more than half a century and the positive effects of the National Immunization Program. They also illustrate the sharp decline in the HIV case-fatality rate after the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A prospective cohort study with rigorous searching for schistosomiasis cases was conducted among residents of Pedra Preta, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, seven years after an intervention. Kato-Katz (KK), Saline Gradient, Miracidia Hatch and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were used as the diagnostic methods in 2008. In the period of 2013-2016, 175 patients remaining in the area were examined using the diagnostic methods Kato-Katz (24 slides, 1 g of feces) and Saline Gradient (2 procedures, 1 g of feces). Sixty-eight out of the 69 infected and treated individuals in 2008 tested negative. The percentage of new cases was 2.29% (4/175), and the 4 infected individuals presented low parasitic load [1, 6, 7 and 19 eggs per gram (EPG)]. All the participants answered epidemiological questionnaires on risky behavior. All residences had pit latrines and domiciliary water supply. The primary transmission focus (lake) was dry for several months. Malacological surveys showed a few non-infected specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata . A clear dominance of Biomphalaria straminea was observed. It can be inferred that a significant decrease in the disease transmission occurred after a single action through an intense search for infected and treated cases under the ecoepidemiological conditions of this area.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is an important emergent zoonosis associated with wild rodents in Brazil, where this viral infection in children is generally rare. We present HCPS in a child from the Pantanal Biome and a review of all reported pediatric cases in Mato Grosso State, an endemic area for HCPS in Brazil. The investigation used the Information System for Notifiable Diseases database (SINAN). A 12-year-old boy was hospitalized with fever and respiratory failure and hantavirus IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA in serum samples. During the period of 1999 to 2016, 32 HCPS pediatric cases confirmed by serology were reported to SINAN with a mortality rate of 34.4%. The possibility of hantavirus infection in children with acute febrile illness associated with respiratory failure should be considered mainly in recognized endemic areas as Mato Grosso State, contradicting a hypothesis that children are more protected from lung involvement.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Although the salivary glands present several functions, there are few studies evaluating these glands in Chagas disease (CD). This study aimed to compare the percentage of collagen, the presence of inflammation, the density of chimase and tryptase mast cells, the area and density of lingual salivary gland acini in autopsied individuals with and without (CD). We analyzed 400 autopsy reports performed in a tertiary public hospital from 1999 to 2015 and selected all the cases in which tongue fragments were collected (27 cases), 12 with chronic CD without megaesophagus (CH) and 15 without CD (non-chagasic - NC). The histological sections of the tongue were stained by Picrosirius red for collagen evaluation and Hematoxylin-eosin for morphometric evaluation of salivary gland acini and inflammation. Anti-chimase and anti-tryptase antibodies were used for the immunohistochemical evaluation of mast cells. The chagasic patients presented higher volume and lower density of salivary glands acini. There was no difference in the collagen percentage, inflammation and density of mast cell chymase and tryptase between the groups. Although we did not observe a significant difference between the groups regarding the collagen percentage, inflammatory process and mast cell density, our results suggest that even without megaesophagus, chagasic patients present hypertrophy of the lingual salivary glands and lower acinar density probably due to mechanisms independent of the esophagus-glandular stimulus.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of scientific papers that used spatial analysis tools in cases of leishmaniasis, in Brazil. The search for articles was carried out in PubMed, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Science databases. The keywords used in the identification of the articles were Thematic map AND Leishmaniasis, Spatial analysis AND Leishmaniasis, and Geoprocessing AND Leishmaniasis, in English language. A total of 360 articles were found, and 11 of them were analyzed after screening by title and abstract as well as reading of the full articles. The States studied were Sao Paulo, Acre, Maranhao, Piaui, Minas Gerais, Parana and Tocantins. Cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred predominantly in rural areas, with clusters in forest reserve regions or modified forest areas. Conversely, visceral leishmaniasis mainly occurred in peripheral and central urban areas associated with poorer environments and urban infrastructure, including worse sanitation. We conclude that the spatial distribution of leishmaniasis is closely related to the living environment of the risk population. The analyzed articles associated geospatial data with some risk factors for the disease, pointing out the locations where most cases occur, creating a relevant source to define control strategies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to explore how medical students differ regarding the HPV vaccination status according to their demographics, sexuality, medical school year and sources of information regarding the vaccine. The cross-sectional survey included 379 participants from medical school year 1 to 6, in a medical school in Brasilia. Statistical analyses of the data obtained from a questionnaire analyzed contingency tables and highlighted odds ratios effect sizes. The results showed that among all the participants, 80 (21.1%) were vaccinated against HPV, 215 (58.7%) were not vaccinated but wanted to be and 84 (22.2%) were neither vaccinated nor wanted to be vaccinated. . Female gender (OR= 5.88, 95% CI 3.36-10.30), parental advice (OR= 6.95, 95% CI= 3.97-12.16), and absence of sexual initiation before 16 years of age (OR= 3.04, 95% CI= 1.05-8.77) were positively associated with HPV-vaccinated students. In parallel, female gender (OR= 4.74, 95% CI= 2.38-9.44), parental advice (OR= 3.50, 95% CI=1.20-10.22), and reporting two or more recent sexual partners (OR= 2.03, 95% CI= 1.06-3.88) were positively associated with the intention to be vaccinated among unvaccinated students. The high cost of the vaccine was perceived as a barrier among those respondents who wished to be vaccinated. Additionally, among the 84 (81.3% male) students who admitted unwillingness to be vaccinated, approximately two-thirds cited the feeling to be safe, lack of counseling, or low efficacy of the vaccine as the reasons for their reluctance. In conclusion, vaccination coverage was low among these medical students. Nevertheless, female gender, personal advice, and safe sex were the main factors associated with higher levels of vaccination and vaccine acceptance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Vaccination has been a successful strategy in influenza prevention. However, despite the safety and efficacy of the vaccines, they can cause adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Moreover, due to the vaccination success, most of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) have become rare, and public attention has been shifted from VPD to the AEFI associated with vaccination. This manuscript describes the safety of Instituto Butantan (IB) seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) from 2013 to 2017. AEFI data were received by the Department of Pharmacovigilance of IB (PV-IB), from January the 1st 2013 to December the 31st 2017, and were recorded in an electronic database (OpenClinica©). PV-IB received 1,415 Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSR) associated with the TIV; 1,253 ICSR with at least one AEFI were analyzed and 4,140 AEFI were identified. The other 162 (11.4%) cases did not present any symptom. Among the total of AEFI, 405 (9.8%) were classified as serious. AEFI with the highest incidence rates per 100,000 doses of TIV were: “local pain” (0.28), “local erythema” (0.23), “local warmth” (0.22), “local swelling” (0.20) and “fever” (0.19). PV-IB received 175 (4.2%) occurrences of SAE of special interest, of which 75 (1.8%) anaphylaxis/anaphylactic reactions, 56 (1.4%) neurological syndromes (including seven Guillain-Barré Syndrome) and 44 (1.1%) convulsion/febrile convulsion. The results of this manuscript suggested that Instituto Butantan trivalent influenza vaccine (IB-TIV) is safe, as most of the reported AEFI were classified as non-serious. AEFI described for the IB-TIV are in agreement with the ones described in the literature for similar vaccines.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Cryptosporidium spp. is a pathogenic protozoan present in the gastrointestinal tract of several hosts. This protozoan was originally classified as within the Coccidia Class and has recently been reclassified to gregarine based on studies that observed the evolutionary phases from the process of excision and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Molecular biology techniques have become diagnostic tools and have also been used to understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp., since several species of this genus are very similar morphologically and morphometrically. Molecular techniques have been used in the identification of parasites, at the species and subtypes levels and to study disease transmission. The laboratory diagnosis of human cryptosporidiosis can be made by parasite detection methods, such as optical microscopy, antigens or genetic material detection, as well as serum antibodies raised to Cryptosporidium spp. Molecular methods were developed and allowed, not only an extensive revision of the taxonomy, but also an improvement in the laboratory diagnosis. In Brazil, there are few reports of Cryptosporidium spp. outbreaks in humans and all of them took place in nurseries. A few epidemiological studies developed in Brazil have used molecular methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., as well as genotyping studies of their species and subtypes. The use of real-time PCR, together with microscopy and immunochromatography techniques, would result in a more precise diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. The analysis of genotypes, subtypes and clonality of Cryptosporidium could be useful to understand and define the prognosis and severity of infections.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Yellow fever is one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases, which still affects a significant number of people every year, mainly in tropical countries. Mortality can be high, even with intensive treatment due to multiple organ failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). This disease can also be a burden on the health care system in developing countries, without mentioning the number of lives that could be spared with an early diagnosis and adequate monitoring and treatment. The pathophysiology of yellow fever-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is still to be completely understood, and the best clinical approach has not yet been determined. This manuscript presents the most recent scientific evidence of kidney involvement in yellow fever, since AKI plays an important role in the mortality rate. Recent outbreaks have occurred in Brazil and further studies are required to provide a better clinical control for patients with yellow fever.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mycobacterium leprae is the primary causative agent of Hansen’s disease or leprosy. Besides human beings, natural infection has been described in animals such as mangabey monkeys and armadillos. Leprosy is considered a global health problem and its complete pathogenesis is still unknown. As M. leprae does not grow in artificial media, armadillos have become the primary experimental model for leprosy, mimicking human disease including involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Leprosy transmission occurs through continuous and close contact of susceptible people with untreated infected people. However, unknown leprosy contact has been reported in leprosy-affected people, and contact with armadillos is a risk factor for leprosy. In the USA, leprosy is considered a zoonosis and this classification has recently been accepted in Brazil. This review presents information regarding the role of wild armadillos as a source of M. leprae for human infections, as well as the pathogenesis of leprosy.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by some species of phlebotomine sandflies from the genus Lutzomyia. This neglected tropical zoonosis shows increasing urbanization process, since the end of the 1980s. After the emergence of foci of the disease in urban areas, VL has assumed an important role in public health. Although VL is widely prevalent in several parts of the world, diagnosing the illness is still difficult. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a history of recurrent fever, anorexia, cachexia, chronic fatigue, weight loss, left palpebral unilateral edema, persistent cough and pancytopenia. A diagnosis of VL was performed using a reference immunochromatographic rapid test. Identification of the infecting protozoan was directly obtained by PCR of bone marrow. The patient responded favorably to treatment using liposomal amphotericin B. This is the first report of human visceral leishmaniasis in the city of Lavras in the South of Minas Gerais State. This first report of VL highlighted the need of maintenance of permanent surveillance and control programs in the city of Lavras, including the active search of sandflies, human and canine cases. The current situation of Lavras should also be taken as an alert to other near cities where favorable eco-epidemiological conditions may exist.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Chronic Hepatitis C relapse after liver transplantation can lead to graft failure within a short time period. The high efficacy and good safety profile of direct-acting antivirals has led to consensual recommendations for using interferon-free treatment after liver transplantation. However, pegylated interferon may still be required for genotype 3 non-responders. We treated a liver graft recipient with grade 1 fibrosis in the biopsy with daclatasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks. He did not respond and progressed to grade 3 fibrosis. Lacking other options, we obtained a sustained virological response with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks. The combination of pegylated interferon, ribavirin and sofosbuvir is a viable option after the failure of direct acting antivirals in economically disadvantaged countries.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Murine typhus is endemic in several countries. We herein report an imported case of murine typhus caused by Rickettsia typhi in Mexico City. This is the first report of a case after almost 20 years since the last report. The species was confirmed by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Nowadays, the transmission in Brazil occurs mainly by oral ingestion of contaminated food that has been associated with more severe clinical manifestations. We report a case of Acute Chagas disease caused by oral transmission in a child from Northern Brazil. In the hospital admission, physical examination showed tachycardia, hepatomegaly, bipalpebral edema and anasarca. Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes were found in microscopy during blood cell count. Twenty-three days before hospitalization, the child had ingested the “bacaba palm fruit's wine”. Even with the appropriate diagnosis and starting of treatment, she did not survive. Quantitative analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in a blood sample resulted in 54,053.42 parasite equivalents/mL and the DTU TcIV was identified. The outcome may have been determined by several factors, including the delay to seek a medical service beyond the high parasitemia, detected by qPCR. DTU TcIV could also have influenced the natural history of the disease.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Acute petrified myocardium associated with septic shock, diagnosed by autopsy has rarely been described. A 15-year-old adolescent male was diagnosed with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. One year later, he was hospitalized with fever, myalgia, headache, arthritis, vomiting, dyspnea and was diagnosed with sepsis secondary to bronchopneumonia and meningitis. Blood culture identified Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y. Despite antibiotics and intensive therapeutic measures, he died after 29 days of hospitalization. The autopsy revealed necrotic cardiomyocytes with dystrophic calcification and interstitial fibrosis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis , the human botfly, is frequent in the Americas, however, scarce morphological and molecular information exist regarding this dipteran. We describe three cases in urban areas of Mexico were D. hominis is not endemic. Morphological and genetic identification were performed using the cytochrome oxidase I as a molecular marker. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene is useful for inferring the genetic divergence of D. hominis .
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This manuscript reports a case of intestinal toxemia botulism in an adult with recently diagnosed metastatic colon cancer in whom botulism symptoms began 23 days after hospital admission. Representing the rarest form of botulism presentation in clinical practice, this infectious disease may have developed due to a cluster of predisposing factors that favored Clostridium botulinum colonization and the endogenous production of neurotoxins, among which are previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and colon changes related to the development of the neoplasia. This case highlights the importance of considering intestinal toxemia botulism in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, since immediate treatment with botulinum antitoxin may improve clinical outcomes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study involves a 49-year-old male, who for three years suffered with a myelodysplastic syndrome and who needed frequent blood transfusions. One day following a transfusion, he presented fever and abdominal pain. The fever became persistent and only improved temporarily with two cycles of intravenous ciprofloxacin. Nearly 120 days after beginning the second cycle of treatment, he had experienced a weight loss of 16 kg and recurring fever. Screening for fever of unknown origin was conducted, including Bartonella infection. No etiology could be found. The patient improved with an antimicrobial regimen composed of oral doxycycline and intravenous ciprofloxacin. After 15 days afebrile, the patient was discharged with a four-month oral prescription of doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. Eight months following the antibiotic treatment, the patient received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Five days following the transplant, the patient initiated a febrile neutropenia and died. From a blood sample collected and stored at the time of hospitalization, a microbiological and molecular study was performed again. Blood- and liquid culture-PCRs from the same blood sample were all negative, but an isolate from solid subculture was found. The molecular reactions from this isolate were all positive and the sequence was 100% homologous to Bartonella henselae . The present report points to the limitations of laboratory techniques currently available for investigation of possible cases of bartonellosis in clinical practice, and the potential risk of Bartonella spp. transmission through blood transfusions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT HPV clinical manifestations have their characteristics modified by the use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), although its incidence is unaffected by cART. We report an unusual presentation of oral HPV infection and discuss an effective treatment for disseminated HPV lesions. A 52-year-old male of Asian-origin, HIV-seropositive, presented with extensive nodular lesions throughout the oral mucosa extending to the oropharyngeal region. Biopsy followed by histopathological examination and HPV genotyping were performed. The treatment was initiated with topical application of podophyllin and trichloroacetic acid. HPV lesions in oral mucosa are generally easy to handle. Extensive lesions can make it difficult to choose an effective treatment that meets the patient’s particularities and medication availability.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The largest endemic areas of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) in Brazil comprise the humid agricultural regions of the Southeast, South, and, recently, the Midwest and North regions. The Ceara State, located in the Brazilian Northeast region, presents semi-arid climate in most of its territory, characterized by high temperatures, scarce vegetation and low humidity. The objective of the present study was to describe a new autochthonous case of paracoccidioidomycosis from a distinct area of Ceara and review the characteristics of PCM occurrence in Northeastern Brazil. The patient was a 65-year-old male farmer who denied traveling outside the Ceara State or living in other locations. He was born and lived in the rural area known as Camara, bordering the municipalities of Itapaje and Itapipoca. Camara is one of the highest areas (around 720 m of altitude) of the Uruburetama mountains that exhibits tropical forests and is located in Northern Ceara, distant 139 km from the capital, Fortaleza. The patient sought for care, complaining of an oral lesion that appeared over the past three years. The hard palate lesion biopsy revealed multinucleated cells with cytoplasmic inclusions, compatible with PCM. After culture, P. brasiliensis was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Serological testing for PCM was reagent. The patient was treated with itraconazole for approximately 17 months, persisting free of symptoms after 15 months of follow-up. Regarding this new autochthonous case in the Ceara State, PCM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with suggestive clinical manifestations, proceeding from the mountainous areas of Ceara.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Nosocomial bacterial infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is associated with high mortality in neurosurgical patients. There are few reports in the literature on meningitis caused by CRKP. We report two cases of CRKP meningitis after neurosurgery. The K. pneumoniae identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek Compact System. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of polymyxin B were determined using the broth microdilution method. Molecular typing of K. pneumoniae isolates was investigated using multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the K. pneumoniae isolates were multidrug resistant and co-produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and KPC enzymes. The patients were treated with intrathecal polymyxin. Genetic polymorphism analyses revealed two different K. pneumoniae clones (ST1298 and ST2687), which were observed for the first time in CRKP infections. We recommend intravenous administration of intrathecal polymyxin for treating meningitis caused by multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae .
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis with a broad clinical spectrum. This disease mostly affects liver and kidney tissues. Other organs such as the pancreas, can be affected by leptospirosis-induced vasculitis. In addition, cardiac manifestations are common, and the presence of transient ECG abnormalities can be found in 70% of the patients. We report a male patient who presented with an atypical leptospirosis that progressed with severe acute pancreatitis, acute kidney injury and atrial fibrillation. Early diagnosis and adequate supportive therapy are crucial for the appropriated management of symptoms.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mycobacterium haemophilum is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that causes localized or disseminated disease, mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report the case of a 35-year-old HIV-infected woman who presented with several enlarging cutaneous lesions over the arms and legs. Histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis of a cutaneous mycobacterial disease. Mycobacterial analyses unveiled M. haemophilum infection. Six months after completion of a successful antimycobacterial treatment, she developed an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This paradoxical relapse presented as tenderness, redness and swelling at the precise sites of the healed lesions and took place in the setting of significant recovery of the CD4 cell count (from 05 to 318 cells/mm 3 ). Microbiological analyses of these worsening lesions were negative, and they spontaneously remitted without the initiation of a novel antimycobacterial treatment cycle. M. haemophilum infection should always be considered as a cause of skin lesions in immunocompromised subjects. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of IRIS as a complication of successful antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with M. haemophilum infection.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Although colony-forming unit (CFU) counting is widely used to quantify fungal load in tissue from animal experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, several technical disadvantages have been described. Here we developed highly accurate quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to determine the relative P brasiliensis load in lungs from infected mice. SYBR Green- and TaqMan-based assays using primers and probe for the 43-kDa glycoprotein (gp43) gene detected as little as 270 gene copies (about 2 fg of DNA) per reaction. Although qPCR assays cannot distinguish between living and dead yeasts, we found a highly positive linear correlation between CFU and qPCR.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We described 235 bloodstream infection (BSI) episodes in 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outpatients and evaluated risk factors for hospitalization and death. Records of outpatients presenting with positive blood cultures over a 5-year period (January 2005 to December 2008) were reviewed. Variables with p< 0.1 in bivariate analysis were used in a regression logistic model. A total of 266 agents were identified, being 175 (66.7%) gram-negative, 80 (30.3%) gram-positive bacteria and 9 (3.4%) fungi. The most common underlying disease was acute leukemia 40 (27.4%), followed by lymphoma non-Hodgkin 26 (18%) and 87 patients (59.6%) were submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). BSI episodes were more frequent during the first 100 days after transplantation (183 or 77.8%), and ninety-one (38.7%) episodes of BSI occurred up to the first 30 days. Hospitalization occurred in 26% of the episodes and death in 10% of cases. Only autologous HSCT was protector for hospitalization. Although, central venous catheter (CVC) withdrawal and the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) score up to 21 points were protector factors for death in the bivariate analysis, only MASCC remained as protector.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The diagnosis of Chagas disease is based on the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi)-specific antibodies. Nonetheless, there is concern about the sensitivity of current serological assays due to reports of T. cruzi PCR positivity among seronegative individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate if T. cruzi seronegative infections occur in endemic areas. We recruited 2,157 individuals that were identified as having Chagas disease in a public health system database of an endemic region in Brazil. All participants were interviewed and 2,091 had a sample collected for serological and PCR testing. From these, 149 (7.1%) had negative serological results. PCR was positive in 610 samples (31.4%) of the 1,942 seropositive samples but in none of the 149 samples from seronegative participants. True T. cruzi seronegative infections seem to be rare (95% CI 0-3.7) and should not be a concern for blood supply, which relies on antibody screening.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with ocular infections such as keratitis. Multipurpose contact lens solutions can be used for washing, disinfection and storage of contact lenses, however, P. aeruginosa biofilm disinfection by this method is unsatisfactory. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ozonated water in reducing P. aeruginosa colony count. Lenses kept in storage cases were contaminated with P. aeruginosa and disinfected using ozonized water, chlorhexidine, ultrasound and multipurpose solutions. The multipurpose solutions and ultrasound methods reduced colony count from 1.17 to 1.63 log10 CFU/cm2 (92.93% to 97.31%), respectively, of P. aeruginosa biofilm cell viability when compared to the positive control. Both, ozonated water and chlorhexidine showed 7.42 log reduction in the number of viable cells of P. aeruginosa biofilm. As compared to chlorhexidine, ozonized water did not depose any known toxic residues, so that we recommend it as an alternative disinfectant solution for contact lenses storage cases.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The cytological and biochemical examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been used for the presumed diagnosis of bacterial meningitis until the final microbiological results are achieved. We assessed the ability of CSF lactate in comparison with other CSF parameters to discriminate bacterial and enteroviral community acquired meningitis. We included 1,187 CSF samples of acute community-acquired meningitis, being 662 cases of bacterial and 525 of enteroviral meningitis. Lactate concentration (mg/dL), leukocyte count/mm3, protein (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL) were compared between bacterial and viral meningitis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess diagnostic performance. CSF leukocytes, CSF protein and CSF lactate were significantly higher in bacterial meningitis cases (P<0.0001). CSF glucose was significantly lower in bacterial meningitis cases (P<0.0001). CSF lactate showed the best predictive ability with an area under the curve of 0.944 (95% CI 0.929 – 0.959). Considering a cut off of CSF lactate of 30 mg/dL, the sensitivity and specificity for bacterial meningitis were 84.1% and 99%, respectively. In the cytological and biochemical CSF analysis, CSF lactate was the most accurate marker for bacterial meningitis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Visceral Leishmaniasis is a public health problem caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. K39 serological test is commonly used in the initial investigation, with high specificity, but variable sensitivity. Amastigotes can be identified by optical microscopy, however, the differential diagnosis with cellular debris or other intracellular parasites is necessary. Recent studies have raised the possibility of using immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis with labeling of amastigotes by the anti-CD1a antibody. This retrospective study was based on 38 samples from patients with visceral leishmaniasis whose diagnoses were confirmed by myelogram and/or k39 testing, aside from positive (N=13) and negative biopsies (N=25), 2 samples from patients with false positive biopsies for visceral leishmaniasis and 8 samples from patients with histoplasmosis diagnosis. The histological slides were evaluated for the presence of amastigotes and their Modified Ridley Parasitic Index. The samples were submitted to immunohistochemical reactions using the anti-CD1a antibody with MTB1 and O10 clones. Immunohistochemical reactions with MTB1 and O10 clones had low sensitivity in this study. However, all bone marrow samples were previously decalcified with nitric acid which is probably a deleterious treatment for immunohistochemical reactions in this site. Excluding these samples, we obtained 58.33% sensitivity and 100% specificity with the MTB1 clone. Despite the intermediate sensitivity, the immunohistochemistry for the CD1a marker with clone MTB1 can be useful in the differential diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, helping to discriminate leishmania amastigotes from other pathogens with similar morphology and cellular debris in different samples, except in bone marrow biopsies previously decalcified with nitric acid.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Even though there are data published on HPV epidemiology in Ecuador, the distribution of genotypes in Guayaquil, the largest city in the country, has not been previously determined in a study including including both, men and women. The present study aimed to determine the distribution of 37 HPV genotypes in genital samples from Ecuadorian men and women living in the city of Guayaquil. Genital samples included in daily diagnostic routine were analyzed by the 37 HPV GenoArray Diagnostic Kit (Hybribio® Ltd., Sheung Wan, Hong Kong). The relative frequency of detectable genotypes was determined. HPV relative frequency according to sample characteristics, including sex and age groups, was compared using c2 test. From the 800 samples (400 men and 400 women), 411 (51.38%) were positive for HPV DNA. The obtained frequency was higher among samples from men (253/400 or 63.25%) in comparison to samples from women (158/400 or 39.50%), with a p value <0.05. Samples from men showed a higher frequency of HPV genotypes 6, 16, 18 and 11, while among samples from women genotypes 39, 16, 6 and 58 were the most frequent. Considering male and female samples together, genotypes 6, 16, 39 and 11 presented the highest frequencies. HPV DNA was detected in half of the studied samples, with a higher frequency among samples from men. Genotype 39 was the most frequent among women, and ranked third when samples from men and women are analyzed together.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Asian tiger mosquito ( Aedes albopictus, Diptera: Culicidae) has spread rapidly in the last 30 years from its native region in Southeast Asia. In Argentina, studies on its potential distribution suggest that this species could be found in temperate zones of the province of Buenos Aires. However, since its initial detection in 1998 Ae. albopictus is bounded to the subtropical province of Misiones. To evaluate the presence and abundance of Ae. albopictus in the Northeast of Argentina, we preliminarily evaluated the presence of this vector by analyzing its presence in tires of 20 cities belonging to the province of Misiones and four cities in Northern Corrientes, and then performed an evaluation of the vector in the towns where the vector was detected. Aedes albopictus was present only in two cities of Misiones: Eldorado and Colonia Aurora. Aedes aegypti and Ae . albopictus accounted for 86% of the individuals collected in the domiciles of both towns. In Colonia Aurora both species were in similar abundances suggesting a co-dominance. The present study extends the austral distribution of Ae. albopictus in Argentina to the city of Colonia Aurora where the highest abundance recorded in Argentina was detected. Nevertheless, the reasons of its bounded distribution in the region are not known.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT School-age children are a social group in which blood collection for laboratory testing can be perceived as an invasive procedure, with low acceptance and tolerance of stakeholders. This problem could be circumvented by replacing serum samples with saliva. For this purpose, and to make the collection of saliva samples playful and instructive for children, educational activities on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention were performed using toys and audiovisual tools. The target audience consisted of 7-10 year-old children from low-income families who attended public schools in the city of São Paulo. Saliva samples were used in a previously described in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) to detect anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies and establish the immunological status of each of the participants. One year later, children’s memory and fixation of concepts regarding hygiene habits, as well as transmission and prevention of toxoplasmosis were tested in the same schools, by means of a questionnaire application, using students who did not participate in the first intervention as controls. The prevalence of positive anti- T. gondii IgG among students was 50% (82/164). One year later, 45 children had more knowledge on toxoplasmosis (28/45 vs 29/147) and they drew the cat’s involvement in the transmission of toxoplasmosis more often than controls (28/45 vs 29/147). Sorted according to the presence of specific IgG in saliva, recovered positive students presented worse memory of the above cited knowledge as did saliva-negative IgG students, but both groups had isolated higher frequency of fixed knowledge than non-intervened students. Our data show that there is a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in school-children from low-income areas; saliva is an alternative to blood for anti- T. gondii IgG detection; and a one-day educational intervention in school-children was effective in promoting knowledge fixation on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention after one year.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Santa Catarina is a Brazilian State that has reported the lowest prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors (0.04%). Although it presents ports, airports and roads that facilitate the entrance and dissemination of new infectious agents, no information exists concerning the HTLV-1/2 infections in HIV/AIDS patients. This study searched for HTLV-1/2 antibodies in plasma samples of 625 HIV/AIDS patients from the municipality of Tubarao (Southern Santa Catarina), and disclosed 1.1% of positivity (0.48% HTLV-1, 0.48% HTLV-2 and 0.16% untypeable HTLV), and a positive correlation with the male sex (OR 4.16) and intravenous drug use (OR 35.18). Although the percentage of 1.1% appears to be low, it is 27.5 times higher than the percentage detected in blood donors. Since HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are circulating in HIV-infected individuals in Southern Santa Catarina, and these retroviruses could cause a differently impact on the HIV/AIDS outcomes, the surveillance of HTLV-1/2 is necessary, and it could support public health policies in preventing the transmission and dissemination of these viruses in this State.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT During the Brazilian slavery period, many African migrants were brought to the American continent. Historically, some of these migrants escaped from the Brazilian gold mines and farms to which they had been brought and settled in remote valleys and this was the main mode of resistance to the slavery system. These runaway-slave descendant communities are called quilombos, a group with distinct ethnic identity, specific behavioral habits, including geographic isolation and conservative practices. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of rodent-borne viruses in two Afro-descendent communities from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Midwestern Brazil. A total of 319 individuals from rural and urban quilombola communities were enrolled. Twelve (3.76%) had anti-rodent-borne virus IgG antibodies. Seven (2.19%) were anti-mammarenavirus reactive and nine (2.82%) had anti-orthohantavirus antibodies. The literature includes limited data on the health status of quilombola communities, but all the studies emphasize the disparity of attention of local healthcare personnel to these communities compared to the general population. The findings of this study highlight the vulnerability and the precarious health conditions of quilombola groups, especially those living in rural areas and thus, point to the need of preventive measures to improve access to healthcare for this ethnic group.