This article explores a study conducted by Gramsci in the Prison Notebooks about cultural criticism, in particular, literary criticism. It shows the development of this theme in the prison writings based on a reflection on the place of Italian intellectuals in their 19th century national context. It reveals two interpretations developed by Francesco De Sanctis and Benedetto Croce. It indicates the original proposal that the Marxist developed for literary criticism and culture, in an effort to apply this reflection to the problems of the development of a popular perspective of culture and art.
Subaltern classes; Intellectuals; Cultural Critique.