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Prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis and potential associated factors in patients with diabetes mellitus

ABSTRACT

Objective:

to estimate the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B and C in patients with diabetes mellitus and analyze potential associated factors.

Method:

a cross-sectional study with 255 patients with diabetes mellitus. Demographic, clinical, and risk behavior factors for hepatitis B and C were selected. The markers HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs, and Anti-HCV were investigated. A questionnaire and venous blood collection and inferential statistical analysis were used.

Results:

16.8% of the patients had a total reactive Anti-HBc marker, 8.2% an isolated Anti-HBs, and 75% were non-reactive for all hepatitis B markers. No case of reactive HBsAg was found and 3.3% of the patients had a reactive anti-HCV marker. The prevalence of prior hepatitis B virus infection was directly associated with the time of diabetes mellitus and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection was not associated with the investigated variables. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in patients with diabetes mellitus was higher when compared to the national, with values of 16.8% and 3.3%, respectively.

Conclusion:

the results suggest that patients with diabetes are a population of higher vulnerability to hepatitis B and C, leading to the adoption of preventive measures of their occurrence.

Descriptors:
Diabetes Mellitus; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Immunization Coverage; Liver Diseases; Nursing

RESUMO

Objetivo:

estimar a prevalência de marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B e C em pacientes com diabetes mellitus e analisar potenciais fatores associados.

Método:

estudo transversal com 255 pacientes com diabetes mellitus. Elegeram-se variáveis demográficas, clínicas e comportamentos de risco para hepatite B e C. Investigou-se os marcadores HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs e Anti-HCV. Utilizou-se um questionário e coleta de sangue venoso e análise por estatística inferencial.

Resultados:

16,8% pacientes apresentaram marcador Anti-HBc total reagente, 8,2% Anti-HBs isolado e 75% foram não reagentes para todos os marcadores de hepatite B. Nenhum caso de HBsAg reagente foi encontrado, 3,3% dos pacientes apresentaram marcador anti-HCV reagente. A prevalência de infecção pregressa pelo vírus da hepatite B mostrou-se diretamente associado ao tempo de diabetes mellitus, e a prevalência de infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C não teve associação com as variáveis investigadas. A prevalência de infecção por hepatite B e C em pacientes com diabetes mellitus foi superior a nacional, 16,8% e 3,3% respectivamente.

Conclusão:

os resultados sugerem que pacientes com diabetes sejam uma população de maior vulnerabilidade às hepatites B e C, ensejando à adoção de medidas preventivas de sua ocorrência.

Descritores:
Diabetes Mellitus; Hepatite B; Hepatite C; Cobertura Vacinal; Hepatopatias; Enfermagem

RESUMEN

Objetivo:

estimar la prevalencia de marcadores serológicos para la hepatitis B y C en pacientes con diabetes mellitus y analizar potenciales factores asociados.

Método:

estudio transversal con 255 pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Se eligieron variables demográficas, clínicas y comportamientos de riesgo para hepatitis B y C. Se investigaron los marcadores HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs y Anti-HCV. Se utilizó un cuestionario, colecta de sangre venosa y análisis por estadística inferencial.

Resultados:

16,8% de los pacientes presentaron marcador Anti-HBc total reactivo, 8,2% Anti-HBs aislado y 75% fueron no reactivos para todos los marcadores de hepatitis B. Ningún caso de HBsAg reactivo fue encontrado, 3,3% de los pacientes presentaron marcador anti-HCV reactivo. La prevalencia de infección previa por el virus de la hepatitis B se mostró directamente asociado al tiempo de diabetes mellitus, y la prevalencia de infección por el virus de la hepatitis C no tuvo asociación con las variables investigadas. La prevalencia de infección por hepatitis B y C en pacientes con diabetes mellitus fue superior al nacional, 16,8% y 3,3% respectivamente.

Conclusión:

los resultados sugieren que pacientes con diabetes son una población de mayor vulnerabilidad a las hepatitis B y C, lo que da lugar a la adopción de medidas preventivas de su ocurrencia.

Descriptores:
Diabetes Mellitus; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Cobertura de Vacinación; Hepatopatías; Enfermería

Introduction

The international literature shows outbreaks of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the hospital, outpatient, and long-term care facilities. Infection cases have been shown to be more frequent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than in those without the disease, suggesting that patients with DM are potentially more susceptible to HBV and HCV infection as a result of treatment and control procedures of the disease, in particular, the monitoring of capillary glycemia11 Bender TJ, Wise ME, Utah O, Moorman AC, Sharapov U, Drobeniuc J, et al. Outbreak of hepatitis B virus infections associated with assisted monitoring of blood glucose in an assisted living facility-Virginia, 2010. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e50012. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050012
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.137...

2 Lanini S, Garbuglia AR, Puro V, Solmone M, Martini L, Arcese W, et al. Hospital cluster of HBV infection: Molecular evidence of patient-to-patient transmission through lancing device. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33122. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033122
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.137...

3 Reilly ML, Schillie SF, Smith E, Poissant T, Vonderwahl CW, Gerard K, et al. Increased Risk of Acute Hepatitis B among Adults with Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2012; 6(4):858-66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/193229681200600417
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.117...

4 Schaffzin JK, Southwick KL, Clement EJ, Konings F, Ganova-Raeva L, Xia G, et al. Transmission of hepatitis B virus associated with assisted monitoring of blood glucose at an assisted living facility in New York State. Am J Infect Control. 2012;40(8):726-31. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2011.11.002
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.101...

5 Schillie SF, Xing J, Murphy TV, Hu DJ. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among persons with diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the United States, 1999-2010. J Viral Hepatol. 2012; 19(9):674-6. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2012.01616
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.111...

6 Diercke M, Monazahian M, Petermann H, Gerlich WH, Schüttler CG, Wend U, et al. Hepatitis B outbreak in a nursing home associated with reusable lancet devices for blood glucose monitoring, Northern Germany 2010. J Med Virol. 2015; 87(4):583-8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24104
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.100...

7 Ba-Essa EM, Mobarak EI, Al-Daghri NM. Hepatitis C virus infection among patients with diabetes mellitus in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016; 16:313. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1578-0
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.118...
-88 Kanwal N, Nasir B, Abrar MA, Kaukab I, Nawaz A, Nisar N, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C in diabetic patients: a prospective study. Acta Pol Pharm. [Internet]. 2016 [cited Jun 15, 2017]; 73(3):771-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476296
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2747...
.

These outbreaks occur when infection control standards during capillary glycemia monitoring are neglected, such as the sharing of lancet pens, lancets, and glucometers without the proper disinfection process due to the transmission of microorganisms through the blood. HBV and HCV can survive on surfaces such as lancet pens, lancets, and glucometers on average for five to seven days, even in the absence of visible blood. During this period, the virus can cause infection if it reaches the bloodstream of a susceptible person99 Bond WW, Favero MS, Petersen NJ, Gravelle CR, Ebert JW, Maynard JE. Survival of hepatitis B virus after drying and storage for one week. Lancet. 1981; 1(8219):550-1. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(81)92877-4
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.101...
-1010 Doerrbecker J, Friesland M, Ciesek S, Erichsen TJ, Mateu-Gelabert P, Steinmann J, et al. Inactivation and survival of hepatitis C virus in inanimate surfaces. J Infect Dis. 2011; 204(12):1830-8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir535
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.109...
.

There is evidence that the severity and lethality related to HBV and HCV infection are higher in patients with DM than in those without the disease. Studies show that in patients infected with HBV and HCV, the presence of DM can accelerate the progression of liver disease, lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death1111 Huang YW, Wang TC, Lin SC, Chang HY, Chen DS, Hu JT, et al. Increased risk of cirrhosis and its decompensation in chronic hepatitis B patients with new onset diabetes: a nationwide cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2013; 57(12):1695-702. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit603
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.109...
-1212 Doerrbecker J, Friesland M, Ciesek S, Erichsen TJ, Mateu-Gelabert P, Steinmann J. Type 2 diabetes: a risk factor for liver mortality and complications in hepatitis B cirrhosis patients. J Infect Dis. 2011; 204(12):1830-8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir535
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.109...
. In addition, HBV and HCV infection may negatively influence the glycemic control of patients with DM, increasing the risk of hyperglycemia1313 Lecube A, Hernández C, Genescà J, Simó R. Glucose abnormalities in patients with hepatitis C virus infection: epidemiology and pathogenesis. Diabetes Care. 2006; 29(5):1140-9. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.2951140
https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.23...

14 Gutiérrez-Grobe Y, Ponciano-Rodríguez G, Méndez-Sánchez N. Viral hepatitis infection and insulin resistance: a review of the pathophysiological mechanisms. Salud Publica Mex. [Internet]. 2011 [cited Jul 10, 2017]; 53Suppl1:S46-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21877073
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2187...
-1515 Gundling F, Seid H, Strassen I, Haller B, Siegmund T, Umgelter A, et al. Clinical manifestations and treatment options in patients with cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. Digestion. 2013; 87(2):75-84. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000343458
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.115...
.

However, in Brazil, there is a shortage of studies regarding the behavior of hepatitis B and C in patients with DM. Regarding hepatitis C, four studies were identified in patients with DM1616 Parolin MB, Réa R, Vargas RM, Almeida ACR, Baldanzi GR, Lopes RW. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arq. Gastroenterol. 2006; 43(2): 77-80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032006000200003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...

17 Costa LMFC, Mussi ADH, Brianeze MR, Souto FJD. Hepatitis C as a risk factor for diabetes type 2: lack of evidence in a hospital in central-west Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008; 12(1):24-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702008000100007
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
-1818 Greca LF, Pinto LC, Rados DR, Canani LH, Gross JL. Clinical features of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hepatitis C infection. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012; 45(3):284-90. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500013
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
. One of them showed a high prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) when compared to blood donors without DM1616 Parolin MB, Réa R, Vargas RM, Almeida ACR, Baldanzi GR, Lopes RW. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arq. Gastroenterol. 2006; 43(2): 77-80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032006000200003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
. Another study also found a high prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with DM21818 Greca LF, Pinto LC, Rados DR, Canani LH, Gross JL. Clinical features of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hepatitis C infection. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012; 45(3):284-90. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500013
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
. On the other hand, studies did not identify a difference in the prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with and without DM1414 Gutiérrez-Grobe Y, Ponciano-Rodríguez G, Méndez-Sánchez N. Viral hepatitis infection and insulin resistance: a review of the pathophysiological mechanisms. Salud Publica Mex. [Internet]. 2011 [cited Jul 10, 2017]; 53Suppl1:S46-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21877073
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2187...
and cases of hepatitis C in investigated patients with DM21717 Costa LMFC, Mussi ADH, Brianeze MR, Souto FJD. Hepatitis C as a risk factor for diabetes type 2: lack of evidence in a hospital in central-west Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008; 12(1):24-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702008000100007
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
.

A study on the occurrence of hepatitis showed the magnitude of the prevalence of Hepatitis A, B, and C Virus Infections in the Brazilian macro-regions and represented a major step in coping with hepatitis in Brazil1919 Pereira LM, Martelli CM, Merchán-Hamann E, Montarroyos UR, Braga MC, Lima ML, et al. Population-Based Multicentric Survey of Hepatitis B Infection and Risk Factor Differences among Three Regions in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. [Internet]. 2009 [cited Jun 15, 2017]; 81(2):240-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19635877
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1963...
. However, the behavior of the disease in individuals with DM and risk factors related to infection in this population is unknown.

Thus, considering the significant increase in the prevalence of DM in the city of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, from 12.1% in 1997 to 15.1% in 2006, the impact of HBV and HCV infection on morbidity and mortality, aggravated by DM, that patients with DM constitute an increased risk population for hepatitis B and C, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B and C in patients with DM and analyze potential related risk factors. We believe that the proposed study can provide subsidies to know the magnitude of the problem and to advance the production of knowledge about hepatitis B and C and DM. This study may represent the emergence of a new research topic that could lead to other studies, translating into the quality of health information and, therefore, an improvement in the healthcare network.

Method

This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a secondary health unit in of a city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The study population consisted of 314 patients with type 1 and 2 DM, who attended at least one consultation in the period from July to December 2014. All patients of both sexes, aged 18 years or more, with a diagnosis of type 1 and 2 DM registered in the health records, and who attended the medical consultation from July to December 2014 were considered as eligible. Seven patients were excluded due to hearing or cognitive limitations that made it impossible to answer the questions of the instrument, and other 17 due to the difficulty of establishing contact by the researcher. Thus, 290 patients with DM were invited to participate in the study, of whom 35 refused. The main reasons cited for the refusal were the lack of time to answer the questionnaire, lack of interest in participating in the study because they had already participated in other research projects, and unavailability for blood collection. The convenience sample consisted of 255 patients with DM who attended the medical consultation during the data collection period and met the inclusion criteria. This value (n=255) represents 88% of the patients invited to participate in the study, 81% of the study population and 39% of the patients with DM attended in that unit in 2014. The explanatory variables were demographic (sex, age, and schooling) and clinical (DM time, insulin use, capillary glycemia monitoring, medical, surgical, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions, behaviors and situations of risk for hepatitis B and C), and the outcomes were HBV and HCV infection.

For this study, the researcher elaborated the questionnaire Occurrence of Serological Markers for Hepatitis B and C in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus based on the questionnaire for adolescents and adults used in the National Survey of Prevalence of Hepatitis A, B and C Virus Infections2020 Ximenes RAA, Pereira LMB, Martelli CMT, Merchán-Hamann E, Stein AT, Figueiredo GM, et al. Methodology of a nationwide cross-sectional survey of prevalence and epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A, B and C infection in Brazil. Cad Saúde Pública. 2010; 26(9):1693-704. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2010000900003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
, the researcher’s experience with patients with DM, and an extensive literature review on the subject77 Ba-Essa EM, Mobarak EI, Al-Daghri NM. Hepatitis C virus infection among patients with diabetes mellitus in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016; 16:313. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1578-0
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.118...
-88 Kanwal N, Nasir B, Abrar MA, Kaukab I, Nawaz A, Nisar N, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C in diabetic patients: a prospective study. Acta Pol Pharm. [Internet]. 2016 [cited Jun 15, 2017]; 73(3):771-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476296
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2747...
,1919 Pereira LM, Martelli CM, Merchán-Hamann E, Montarroyos UR, Braga MC, Lima ML, et al. Population-Based Multicentric Survey of Hepatitis B Infection and Risk Factor Differences among Three Regions in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. [Internet]. 2009 [cited Jun 15, 2017]; 81(2):240-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19635877
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1963...

20 Ximenes RAA, Pereira LMB, Martelli CMT, Merchán-Hamann E, Stein AT, Figueiredo GM, et al. Methodology of a nationwide cross-sectional survey of prevalence and epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A, B and C infection in Brazil. Cad Saúde Pública. 2010; 26(9):1693-704. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2010000900003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...

21 Pereira LM, Martelli CM, Moreira RC, Merchan-Hamman E, Stein AT, Cardoso MR, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil, 2005 through 2009: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2013; 13:60. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-13-60
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.118...

22 Khan N, Khan N, Hussain J, Ullah H, Khan H. Frequency of hepatitis C in type 2 diabetic patients. Gomal J Med Sci. [Internet]. 2014 [cited Jan 20, 2018]; 12(2):81-3. Available from: http://www.gjms.com.pk/ojs24/index.php/gjms/article/view/1033/633
http://www.gjms.com.pk/ojs24/index.php/g...
-2323 Korkmaz H, Kesli R, Pamuk BO, Ipekci SH, Terzi Y, Kebapcilar L. Assessment of evidence for positive association and seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in diabetic patients in a developing country. J Investig Med. 2015; 63:251-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JIM.0000000000000126
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.109...
. The questionnaire was composed of 96 questions subdivided into five parts: Identification (11 questions); Demographic variables (four questions); Clinical variables (51 questions); Behavioral variables (24 questions); and Results of serology tests for hepatitis B and C (six questions).

The data collection instrument was pre-tested with ten patients in order to identify possible adjustments in the sequence of questions, test the approach to the patient, as well as estimate the time of application of the questionnaire. For data collection, the researcher had the collaboration of a student of Scientific Initiation previously qualified in order to standardize it. After the application of the pre-test, the questionnaire was maintained with no need for adjustments regarding its form and content. The ten patients were included in the final study sample. The data collection was carried out from July to December 2014.

Among the 255 patients, 226 attended the unit to collect blood, 19 performed the collection at home, and 10 patients refused to collect blood. Thus, 245 patients performed blood collection. The main reasons for the refusal were the lack of time and the withdrawal from participation in this phase of data collection.

The statistical analysis of the data was performed using the program STATA 11.0 (StataCorp LP, College Station, USA). The description of demographic and clinical data was presented through descriptive statistics, considering all the patients who participated in the study (n=255). The serological analysis for hepatitis B in patients who underwent blood sampling (n=245) enabled to evaluate the presence of the markers HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, e Anti-HBs. Because the markers HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM were non-reactive for all patients for analysis and data presentation, the marker total Anti-HBc was considered as equivalent to Anti-HBc IgG. The serological analysis for hepatitis C allowed evaluating the presence of the marker Anti-HCV. A reactive result for this marker was considered an HCV infection. The univariate analysis of possible associations between demographic and clinical variables and HBV and HCV infection was determined by the Pearson-corrected chi-square test or two-tailed Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon test. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under No. CAAE 24638213.2.0000.5393.

Results

The demographic and clinical characteristics of the 255 (100%) investigated patients are described in Table 1.

Table 1
Distribution of patients with DM* according to demographic and clinical variables. Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, 2014

Among the 245 (100%) patients who attended the blood collection, 41 (16.8%) presented a marker corresponding to prior infection with a spontaneous cure, 20 (8.2%) presented vaccination seroconversion and, 184 (75%) presented susceptibility to infection. No cases of acute or chronic hepatitis B were found. Therefore, the prevalence of prior HBV infection found in patients with DM was 16.8%.

Table 2 shows the results obtained from the univariate analysis of prior HBV infection according to demographic and clinical variables. The prior infection had a direct association with age (p=0.014) and DM time (p=0.043). No significant association was observed for the other variables.

Table 2
Distribution of patients with DM* with and without prior hepatitis B according to demographic and clinical variables of DM*. Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, 2014

Table 3 shows the univariate analysis of prior infection according to variables related to the history of medical, surgical, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions and situations and behaviors of risk for hepatitis B. The results show an association between prior infection and report of home contact with case of hepatitis B (p=0.001), work as a police officer (p=0.016), and higher number of sexual partners throughout life (p=0.004).

Table 3
Distribution of patients with DM* with and without prior hepatitis B according to the history of medical, surgical, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions and situations and behaviors of risk for hepatitis B. Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, 2014

The explanatory variables included in the logistic regression analysis were those that showed a possible association with the outcome (p≤0.20). Among the variables included in the model, disease duration remained directly associated with the prior infection after the multivariate analysis, in which the DM time increases the risk of hepatitis B in approximately 4% each year of diagnosis of the disease. In addition, the work as a police officer was associated with infection (Table 4).

Table 4
− Logistic regression model for prior hepatitis B. Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, 2014

Among the 245 investigated patients, 8 (3.3%) presented a reactive anti-HCV marker. Therefore, the prevalence of HCV infection found in patients with DM was 3.3%. No significant association was found between the investigated demographic and clinical variables and HCV infection.

Discussion

When comparing the obtained results with the population-based survey conducted in Brazil, the prevalence of HBV exposure (16.8%) was higher than the national prevalence (11.6%) in the general population from 20 to 69 years. Regarding the prevalence of acute or chronic infection, the prevalence found was lower than the national prevalence, with a value of 0.6%1919 Pereira LM, Martelli CM, Merchán-Hamann E, Montarroyos UR, Braga MC, Lima ML, et al. Population-Based Multicentric Survey of Hepatitis B Infection and Risk Factor Differences among Three Regions in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. [Internet]. 2009 [cited Jun 15, 2017]; 81(2):240-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19635877
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1963...
. This result suggests that the prevalence of HBV exposure is higher in individuals with DM when compared to those without the disease55 Schillie SF, Xing J, Murphy TV, Hu DJ. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among persons with diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the United States, 1999-2010. J Viral Hepatol. 2012; 19(9):674-6. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2012.01616
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.111...
.

The prevalence of prior cured infection and vaccine immunity marker were higher than in Spain2424 Esparsa-Martín N, Hernández-Betancor A, Suria-González S, Batista-García F, Braillard-Pocard P, Sánchez-Santana AY, et al. Serology for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis in the initial evaluation of diabetes patients referred for an external nephrology consultation. Nefrologia. 2013; 33(1):124-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2012.Jul.11331
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.326...
. On the other hand, studies carried out in Poland and Turkey showed two-fold higher values2525 Ozyilkan E, Erbas T, Simsek H, Telatar F, Kayhan B, Telatar H. Increased prevalence of hepatitis C vírus antibodies in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med. 1994; 235(3):283-4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.1994.tb01075
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.111...

26 Halota W, Muszynska M, Pawlowska M. Hepatitis B virus serologic markers and anti-hepatitis B vaccination in patients with diabetes. Med Sci Monit. [Internet]. 2002 [cited Nov 26, 2017]; 8(7):516-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12118201
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1211...
-2727 Sangiorgio L, Attardo T, Gangemi R, Rubino C, Barone M, Lunetta M. Increased frequency of HCV and HBV infection in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. [Internet]. 2000 [cited Feb 11, 2017]; 48(2):147-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10802152
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1080...
. Other studies also found a higher prevalence1616 Parolin MB, Réa R, Vargas RM, Almeida ACR, Baldanzi GR, Lopes RW. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arq. Gastroenterol. 2006; 43(2): 77-80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032006000200003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
,2525 Ozyilkan E, Erbas T, Simsek H, Telatar F, Kayhan B, Telatar H. Increased prevalence of hepatitis C vírus antibodies in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med. 1994; 235(3):283-4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.1994.tb01075
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.111...

26 Halota W, Muszynska M, Pawlowska M. Hepatitis B virus serologic markers and anti-hepatitis B vaccination in patients with diabetes. Med Sci Monit. [Internet]. 2002 [cited Nov 26, 2017]; 8(7):516-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12118201
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1211...

27 Sangiorgio L, Attardo T, Gangemi R, Rubino C, Barone M, Lunetta M. Increased frequency of HCV and HBV infection in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. [Internet]. 2000 [cited Feb 11, 2017]; 48(2):147-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10802152
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1080...

28 Gulcan A, Gulcan E, Toker A, Bulut I, Akcan Y. Evaluation of risk factors and seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in diabetic patients in Kutahya, Turkey. J Investig Med. 2008; 56(6):858-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/JIM.0b013e3181788d28
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.231...
-2929 Soverini V, Persico M, Bugianesi E, Forlani G, Salamone F, Masarone M, et al. HBV and HCV infection in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a survey in three diabetes units in different Italian areas. Acta Diabetol. 2011; 48(4):337-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-011-0293-x
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.100...
.

The association of exposure to HBV and a longer time of DM can be interpreted as a cumulative risk of exposure to the virus probably attributed to the disease management since DM does not progress to hepatitis B or C. The association of exposure to HBV and a longer time of DM were reported in Poland2626 Halota W, Muszynska M, Pawlowska M. Hepatitis B virus serologic markers and anti-hepatitis B vaccination in patients with diabetes. Med Sci Monit. [Internet]. 2002 [cited Nov 26, 2017]; 8(7):516-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12118201
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1211...
, Turkey2828 Gulcan A, Gulcan E, Toker A, Bulut I, Akcan Y. Evaluation of risk factors and seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in diabetic patients in Kutahya, Turkey. J Investig Med. 2008; 56(6):858-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/JIM.0b013e3181788d28
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.231...
, and Nigeria3030 Onyekwere CA, Ogbera AO, Dada AO, Adeleye OO, Dosunmu AO, Akinbami AA, et al. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Prevalence in Special Populations and Associated Risk Factors: A Report From a Tertiary Hospital. Hepat Mon. 2016; 16(5):e35532. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.35532
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.581...
. On the other hand, a study carried out in Italy found no association of infection and time of DM2727 Sangiorgio L, Attardo T, Gangemi R, Rubino C, Barone M, Lunetta M. Increased frequency of HCV and HBV infection in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. [Internet]. 2000 [cited Feb 11, 2017]; 48(2):147-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10802152
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1080...
.

In accordance with another study2727 Sangiorgio L, Attardo T, Gangemi R, Rubino C, Barone M, Lunetta M. Increased frequency of HCV and HBV infection in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. [Internet]. 2000 [cited Feb 11, 2017]; 48(2):147-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10802152
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1080...
, the present study also did not find an association of HBV infection with demographic variables, variables related to insulin use, monitoring of capillary glycemia, and history of medical, surgical, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions. In addition, the majority of the investigated patients monitored capillary glycemia at home and outbreaks of HBV infection reported in the literature were in institutionalized patients and health services undergoing assisted monitoring of capillary glycemia without proper infection control practices11 Bender TJ, Wise ME, Utah O, Moorman AC, Sharapov U, Drobeniuc J, et al. Outbreak of hepatitis B virus infections associated with assisted monitoring of blood glucose in an assisted living facility-Virginia, 2010. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e50012. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050012
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.137...
-22 Lanini S, Garbuglia AR, Puro V, Solmone M, Martini L, Arcese W, et al. Hospital cluster of HBV infection: Molecular evidence of patient-to-patient transmission through lancing device. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33122. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033122
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.137...
,44 Schaffzin JK, Southwick KL, Clement EJ, Konings F, Ganova-Raeva L, Xia G, et al. Transmission of hepatitis B virus associated with assisted monitoring of blood glucose at an assisted living facility in New York State. Am J Infect Control. 2012;40(8):726-31. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2011.11.002
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.101...
,66 Diercke M, Monazahian M, Petermann H, Gerlich WH, Schüttler CG, Wend U, et al. Hepatitis B outbreak in a nursing home associated with reusable lancet devices for blood glucose monitoring, Northern Germany 2010. J Med Virol. 2015; 87(4):583-8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24104
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.100...
.

The prevalence of HCV infection was 3.3% higher than the national prevalence for the general population from 20 to 69 years old, which was 1.6%2424 Esparsa-Martín N, Hernández-Betancor A, Suria-González S, Batista-García F, Braillard-Pocard P, Sánchez-Santana AY, et al. Serology for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis in the initial evaluation of diabetes patients referred for an external nephrology consultation. Nefrologia. 2013; 33(1):124-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2012.Jul.11331
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.326...
,2727 Sangiorgio L, Attardo T, Gangemi R, Rubino C, Barone M, Lunetta M. Increased frequency of HCV and HBV infection in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. [Internet]. 2000 [cited Feb 11, 2017]; 48(2):147-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10802152
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1080...
, as well as national studies with specific populations such as the deaf, military males, and workers collecting household waste3131 Pacher BM, Costa MRB, Nascimento MMP, Moura MC, Passos ADC. Hepatitis B and C in a Brazilian deaf community. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2015; 48(5):603-6. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0058-2015
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...

32 Villar LM, Ó KM, Scalioni LP, Cruz HM, Portilho MM, Mendonça AC, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections among military personnel. Braz J Infect Dis. 2015; 19(3):285-90. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2015.02.002
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.101...
-3333 Mol MP, Gonçalves JP, Silva EA, Scarponi CF, Greco DB, Cairncross S, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C among domestic and healthcare waste handlers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Waste Manag Res. 2016; 34(9):875-83. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X16649686
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.117...
. On the other hand, a study that investigated the prevalence of HCV infection in elderly patients in southern Brazil found a prevalence of 2.2%3434 Martins T, Machado DF, Schuelter-Trevisol F, Trevisol DJ, Vieira e Silva RA, Narciso-Schiavon JL, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with HCV infection among elderly individuals in a southern Brazilian city. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2013; 46(3):281-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0026-2013
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
.

The prevalence of hepatitis C in patients investigated in our study was also higher than that found in three national studies with patients with DM1616 Parolin MB, Réa R, Vargas RM, Almeida ACR, Baldanzi GR, Lopes RW. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arq. Gastroenterol. 2006; 43(2): 77-80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032006000200003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
-1717 Costa LMFC, Mussi ADH, Brianeze MR, Souto FJD. Hepatitis C as a risk factor for diabetes type 2: lack of evidence in a hospital in central-west Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008; 12(1):24-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702008000100007
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
. The difference in the observed prevalence can be attributed to the composition of the sample regarding the age group. An old age is considered a risk factor for exposure to HCV infection2020 Ximenes RAA, Pereira LMB, Martelli CMT, Merchán-Hamann E, Stein AT, Figueiredo GM, et al. Methodology of a nationwide cross-sectional survey of prevalence and epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A, B and C infection in Brazil. Cad Saúde Pública. 2010; 26(9):1693-704. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2010000900003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
-2121 Pereira LM, Martelli CM, Moreira RC, Merchan-Hamman E, Stein AT, Cardoso MR, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil, 2005 through 2009: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2013; 13:60. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-13-60
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.118...
. The time of DM found in these studies was also lower than that found in our study, which may also justify the difference in the observed prevalence.

On the other hand, a study carried out in southern Brazil showed that the prevalence was four times higher in patients with DM2 undergoing outpatient care1818 Greca LF, Pinto LC, Rados DR, Canani LH, Gross JL. Clinical features of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hepatitis C infection. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012; 45(3):284-90. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500013
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
. The time of DM of the investigated outpatients is higher when compared to those of our study, which may have contributed to a higher prevalence of infection.

International studies investigating the prevalence of HCV exposure in patients with DM in an outpatient clinic or hospital found a lower77 Ba-Essa EM, Mobarak EI, Al-Daghri NM. Hepatitis C virus infection among patients with diabetes mellitus in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016; 16:313. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1578-0
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.118...
,2424 Esparsa-Martín N, Hernández-Betancor A, Suria-González S, Batista-García F, Braillard-Pocard P, Sánchez-Santana AY, et al. Serology for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis in the initial evaluation of diabetes patients referred for an external nephrology consultation. Nefrologia. 2013; 33(1):124-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2012.Jul.11331
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.326...
,3030 Onyekwere CA, Ogbera AO, Dada AO, Adeleye OO, Dosunmu AO, Akinbami AA, et al. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Prevalence in Special Populations and Associated Risk Factors: A Report From a Tertiary Hospital. Hepat Mon. 2016; 16(5):e35532. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.35532
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.581...
, similar2323 Korkmaz H, Kesli R, Pamuk BO, Ipekci SH, Terzi Y, Kebapcilar L. Assessment of evidence for positive association and seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in diabetic patients in a developing country. J Investig Med. 2015; 63:251-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JIM.0000000000000126
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.109...
,2828 Gulcan A, Gulcan E, Toker A, Bulut I, Akcan Y. Evaluation of risk factors and seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in diabetic patients in Kutahya, Turkey. J Investig Med. 2008; 56(6):858-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/JIM.0b013e3181788d28
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.231...
, and higher88 Kanwal N, Nasir B, Abrar MA, Kaukab I, Nawaz A, Nisar N, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C in diabetic patients: a prospective study. Acta Pol Pharm. [Internet]. 2016 [cited Jun 15, 2017]; 73(3):771-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476296
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2747...
,2222 Khan N, Khan N, Hussain J, Ullah H, Khan H. Frequency of hepatitis C in type 2 diabetic patients. Gomal J Med Sci. [Internet]. 2014 [cited Jan 20, 2018]; 12(2):81-3. Available from: http://www.gjms.com.pk/ojs24/index.php/gjms/article/view/1033/633
http://www.gjms.com.pk/ojs24/index.php/g...
,2525 Ozyilkan E, Erbas T, Simsek H, Telatar F, Kayhan B, Telatar H. Increased prevalence of hepatitis C vírus antibodies in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med. 1994; 235(3):283-4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.1994.tb01075
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.111...
,2727 Sangiorgio L, Attardo T, Gangemi R, Rubino C, Barone M, Lunetta M. Increased frequency of HCV and HBV infection in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. [Internet]. 2000 [cited Feb 11, 2017]; 48(2):147-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10802152
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1080...
,2929 Soverini V, Persico M, Bugianesi E, Forlani G, Salamone F, Masarone M, et al. HBV and HCV infection in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a survey in three diabetes units in different Italian areas. Acta Diabetol. 2011; 48(4):337-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-011-0293-x
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.100...
prevalence in relation to our results.

Since the 1990s studies have shown a higher prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with DM when compared to those without this disease77 Ba-Essa EM, Mobarak EI, Al-Daghri NM. Hepatitis C virus infection among patients with diabetes mellitus in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016; 16:313. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1578-0
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.118...
-88 Kanwal N, Nasir B, Abrar MA, Kaukab I, Nawaz A, Nisar N, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C in diabetic patients: a prospective study. Acta Pol Pharm. [Internet]. 2016 [cited Jun 15, 2017]; 73(3):771-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476296
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2747...
,1616 Parolin MB, Réa R, Vargas RM, Almeida ACR, Baldanzi GR, Lopes RW. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arq. Gastroenterol. 2006; 43(2): 77-80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032006000200003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
,2323 Korkmaz H, Kesli R, Pamuk BO, Ipekci SH, Terzi Y, Kebapcilar L. Assessment of evidence for positive association and seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in diabetic patients in a developing country. J Investig Med. 2015; 63:251-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JIM.0000000000000126
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.109...
,2727 Sangiorgio L, Attardo T, Gangemi R, Rubino C, Barone M, Lunetta M. Increased frequency of HCV and HBV infection in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. [Internet]. 2000 [cited Feb 11, 2017]; 48(2):147-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10802152
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1080...
. When comparing the prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with DM found in our study (3.3%) and the prevalence observed in the general Brazilian population (1.4%)1919 Pereira LM, Martelli CM, Merchán-Hamann E, Montarroyos UR, Braga MC, Lima ML, et al. Population-Based Multicentric Survey of Hepatitis B Infection and Risk Factor Differences among Three Regions in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. [Internet]. 2009 [cited Jun 15, 2017]; 81(2):240-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19635877
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1963...
, we also observed a higher prevalence of infection in patients with DM.

However, in our study, although we found a prevalence of HCV infection higher than that of the Brazilian population, we did not observe an association of HCV infection with demographic variables, variables related to insulin use, monitoring of capillary glycemia, and history of medical, surgical, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions, which is in agreement with national studies1616 Parolin MB, Réa R, Vargas RM, Almeida ACR, Baldanzi GR, Lopes RW. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arq. Gastroenterol. 2006; 43(2): 77-80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032006000200003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...

17 Costa LMFC, Mussi ADH, Brianeze MR, Souto FJD. Hepatitis C as a risk factor for diabetes type 2: lack of evidence in a hospital in central-west Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008; 12(1):24-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702008000100007
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
-1818 Greca LF, Pinto LC, Rados DR, Canani LH, Gross JL. Clinical features of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hepatitis C infection. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012; 45(3):284-90. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500013
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
.

Other studies reported in the international literature found as variables associated with infection only recognized risk factors for hepatitis C such as the history of blood transfusion, sharing of sharps, multiple sexual partners, and changes in liver enzyme levels1616 Parolin MB, Réa R, Vargas RM, Almeida ACR, Baldanzi GR, Lopes RW. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arq. Gastroenterol. 2006; 43(2): 77-80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032006000200003
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
,1818 Greca LF, Pinto LC, Rados DR, Canani LH, Gross JL. Clinical features of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hepatitis C infection. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012; 45(3):284-90. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500013
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.159...
,2323 Korkmaz H, Kesli R, Pamuk BO, Ipekci SH, Terzi Y, Kebapcilar L. Assessment of evidence for positive association and seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in diabetic patients in a developing country. J Investig Med. 2015; 63:251-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JIM.0000000000000126
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.109...
,2525 Ozyilkan E, Erbas T, Simsek H, Telatar F, Kayhan B, Telatar H. Increased prevalence of hepatitis C vírus antibodies in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med. 1994; 235(3):283-4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.1994.tb01075
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.111...
,2929 Soverini V, Persico M, Bugianesi E, Forlani G, Salamone F, Masarone M, et al. HBV and HCV infection in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a survey in three diabetes units in different Italian areas. Acta Diabetol. 2011; 48(4):337-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-011-0293-x
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.100...
.

A study carried out in France found a significant difference in the prevalence of HCV infection in patients with (3.1%) and without DM (0.04%). However, the hypothesis that the type of treatment for DM, previous hospitalizations, and lancet use pen for monitoring the capillary glycemia are associated with HCV infection in patients with DM has not been confirmed3535 Rudoni S, Petit JM, Bour JB, Aho LS, Castaneda A, Vaillant G, et al. HCV infection and diabetes mellitus: influence of the use of finger stick devices on nosocomial transmission. Diabetes Metab. [Internet]. 1999 [cited Dec 8, 2017]; 25(6):502-5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10633875
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1063...
.

These results lead to the assumption that HCV infection may present as a risk factor for the development of DM, as investigated in other studies3636 White DL, Ratziu V, El-Serag HB. Hepatitis C infection and risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hepatol. 2008; 49(5):831-44. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2008.08.006
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.101...
-3737 Naing C, Mak JW, Ahmed SI, Maung M. Relationship between hepatitis C virus infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(14):1642-51. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v18.i14.1642
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.374...
. Studies have shown that HCV infection is followed by defects in the insulin-signaling pathway in the liver, which may contribute to insulin resistance and DM3737 Naing C, Mak JW, Ahmed SI, Maung M. Relationship between hepatitis C virus infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(14):1642-51. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v18.i14.1642
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.374...
. However, HCV-induced insulin resistance mechanisms are still partially understood1414 Gutiérrez-Grobe Y, Ponciano-Rodríguez G, Méndez-Sánchez N. Viral hepatitis infection and insulin resistance: a review of the pathophysiological mechanisms. Salud Publica Mex. [Internet]. 2011 [cited Jul 10, 2017]; 53Suppl1:S46-51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21877073
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2187...
,3838 Knobler H, Malnick S. Hepatitis C and insulin action: An intimate relationship. Wld J Hepatol. 2016; 8(2): 131-8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v8.i2.131
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.425...
. Another study shows that liver inflammation is a possible risk factor for pre-diabetes in the context of HCV infection3939 Burman BE, Bacchetti P, Ayala CE, Gelman N, Melgar J, Khalili M. Liver inflammation is a risk factor for prediabetes in at-risk latinos with and without hepatitis C infection. Liver Int. 2015;35(1):101-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.12676
https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.111...
.

In summary, when considering the higher prevalence of HBV exposure and its relation to the time of DM, it is suggested to deepen new investigations related to diabetes management that may contribute to HBV infection. The absence of association of HCV infection with the studied variables can be attributed to the relatively low number of infected individuals. This research is a pioneer in Brazil and offers subsidies for comparisons with future studies and advances in the knowledge of the subject.

This study offers subsidies to know the magnitude of the problem and advance the production of knowledge about hepatitis B and C and DM. The study can generate new research themes, translating into the quality of health information and, therefore, qualification of nursing care.

Conclusion

The prevalence of HBV infection in patients with DM was 16.8%, which is higher than the national level and was directly associated with the time of DM. No cases of acute or chronic hepatitis B were found. The prevalence of HCV infection was 3.3%, which is higher than the national level and had no association with the investigated demographic and clinical variables. Further studies need to be developed to investigate these issues and deepen the knowledge of the relationship between hepatitis C and DM in the national population aiming at the timely adoption of preventive measures.

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  • *
    Paper extracted from doctoral dissertation, “Prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B and C and potential risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus at a Basic Health District Unit”, presented to Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, PAHO/WHO Collaborating Centre for Nursing Research Development, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2018

History

  • Received
    19 Apr 2018
  • Accepted
    10 Sept 2018
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