Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: a systematic review

Juan Rodríguez-Mansilla Blanca González-Sánchez Silvia Torres-Piles Jorge Guerrero Martín María Jiménez-Palomares Macarena Núñez Bellino About the authors

ABSTRACT

Objective:

to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer.

Method:

systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old).

Results:

of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Their authors use different massage techniques (Swedish massage, effleurage, petrissage, frictions, pressures), obtaining benefits in the symptoms present during the illness (decrease of pain, nausea, stress, anxiety and increase of white blood cells and neutrophils).

Conclusion:

therapeutic massage improves the symptoms of children with cancer, but there is a need for more research that may support the effects attributed to it.

Descriptors:
Child; Massage; Anxiety; Neoplasia; Leukemia; Cancer

RESUMEN

Objetivo:

conocer los efectos del uso del masaje terapéutico en niños con cáncer.

Método:

revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos controlados la búsqueda se llevó a cabo en noviembre de 2014 en las bases de datos científicas: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane y PEDro. Los criterios de inclusión han sido: ensayos clínicos, publicados en inglés o español, en los que se analizaran los efectos del masaje en las diferentes etapas y tipos de cáncer infantil (entre 1 y 18 años).

Resultados:

de 1007 artículos localizados, 7 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Sus autores utilizan diferentes técnicas de masaje (masaje sueco, effleurage, petrissage, fricciones, presiones), obteniendo beneficios en los síntomas presentes durante la enfermedad (disminución del dolor, náuseas, estrés, ansiedad y aumento de glóbulos blancos y neutrófilos).

Conclusión:

el masaje terapéutico mejora los síntomas de los niños con cáncer, que respalden los efectos que se le atribuyen.

Descriptores:
Niño; Masaje; Ansiedad; Neoplasia; Leucemia; Cáncer

RESUMO

Objetivo:

conhecer os efeitos do uso da massagem terapêutica em crianças com câncer.

Método:

revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos controlados. A pesquisa foi realizada em novembro de 2014 em bases de dados científicas: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Os critérios de inclusão foram: ensaios clínicos, publicados em inglês ou espanhol, analisando os efeitos da massagem nas diferentes fases e tipos de câncer infantil (entre 1 e 18 anos).

Resultados:

de 1007 artigos encontrados, 7 preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Os autores utilizam diferentes técnicas de massagem (massagem sueca, effleurage, petrissage, fricções, pressões), obtendo benefícios nos sintomas presentes durante a doença (diminuição da dor, náusea, estresse, ansiedade e aumento de glóbulos brancos e neutrófilos).

Conclusão:

a massagem terapêutica melhora os sintomas das crianças com câncer, mas são necessárias mais pesquisas que apoiem os efeitos atribuídos a ela.

Descritores:
Criança; Massagem; Ansiedade; Neoplasia; Leucemia; Câncer

Introduction

Cancer is defined as "a group of diseases in which the body produces an excess of malignant cells with typical traits of behavior and uncontrolled growth"11 De la Torre I, Cobo MA, Mateo T, Vicente LI. Cuidados enfermeros al paciente oncológico. Málaga: Vértice; 2008. 292 p..

It is currently considered the second cause of death between the ages of 1 and 14, with a higher incidence in developed countries22 Rivera-Luna R, Shalkow -Klincovstein J, Velasco-Hidalgo L, Cárdenas-Cardós R, Zapata-Tarrés M, Olaya-Vargas A, et al. Descriptive epidemiology in Mexican children with cancer under an open national public health insurance program. BMC Cancer. [Internet]. 2014. [cited April 13, 2015]; 14: 790. Available from: Available from: http://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-14-790
http://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/artic...
-33 Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics for Hispancis/Latinos, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. [Internet].2012. [cited April 13, 2015]; 62 (5): 283-98. Available from: Available from: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/document/acspc-046405.pdf
http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content...
, being leukemia the majority of the infantile cases. According to medical evidence, the most frequent are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors, lymphomas (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's), Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) and bone tumors11 De la Torre I, Cobo MA, Mateo T, Vicente LI. Cuidados enfermeros al paciente oncológico. Málaga: Vértice; 2008. 292 p..

The treatment of this pathology in conventional protocols use isolated or combined44 Pacheco M, Madero L. Oncología pediátrica. Psicooncología. [Internet]. 2003. [Acceso 12 Abril 2015]; 1: 107-16. Disponible en: Disponible en: http://www.seom.org/seomcms/images/stories/recursos/sociosyprofs/documentacion/psicooncologia/numero1_vol0/articulo9.pdf
http://www.seom.org/seomcms/images/stori...

5 Cooper SL, Brown PA. Treatment of pediatric acude lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Clin North Am. [Internet]. 2015. [cited April 13, 2015]; 62 (1): 61-73. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4366417/pdf/nihms662731.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-66 Ju HY, Hong CR, Shin HY. Advancements in the treatment of pediatric acute leukemia and brain tumor - continuous efforts for 100% cure. Korean J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2014. [cited April 12, 2015]; 57 (10): 434-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4219945/pdf/kjped-57-434.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
. antineoplastic drugs, radiotherapy and surgery according to the type11 De la Torre I, Cobo MA, Mateo T, Vicente LI. Cuidados enfermeros al paciente oncológico. Málaga: Vértice; 2008. 292 p..

The application of the massage comes from the oldest civilizations77 Fritz S. Fundamentos del masaje terapéutico. Barcelona: Paidotribo; 2001. 500 p.-88 Rodríguez JA. De friegas y masoterapia: Consideraciones históricas sobre la evolución del masaje. En: Torres M, Salvat I, editores. Guía de masoterapia para fisioterapeutas. Madrid: Panamericana; 2006 .p. 3-25.. In the middle of the XIX century its effectiveness was demonstrated delimiting its therapeutic indications88 Rodríguez JA. De friegas y masoterapia: Consideraciones históricas sobre la evolución del masaje. En: Torres M, Salvat I, editores. Guía de masoterapia para fisioterapeutas. Madrid: Panamericana; 2006 .p. 3-25.. It can be defined99 Vázquez J. Manual profesional del masaje. Badalona: Paidotribo; 2009. p. 1-21. as "a set of manipulations and / or maneuvers performed with the hands of the therapist and applied to the human body with preventive, hygienic, therapeutic, rehabilitating and psychological objectives in a methodical, orderly and reasoned manner". It consists of the basic maneuvers of: effleurage, petrissage, friction, pinching and vibration99 Vázquez J. Manual profesional del masaje. Badalona: Paidotribo; 2009. p. 1-21..

Some authors1010 Falkensteiner M, Mantovan F, Müller I, Them C. The use of massage therapy for reducing pain, anxiety, and depression in oncological palliative care patients: a narrative review of the literature. ISRN Nurs. [Internet].2011. [cited April 11, 2015]; 929868. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3168862/pdf/NURSING2011-929868.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
show that the perception of pain by palliative care patients decreases and this effect lasts up to 18 hours after application, while others1111 Jane SW, Wilkie DJ, Gallucci BB, Beaton RD, Huang HY. Effects of a full-body massage on pain intensity, anxiety, and physiological relaxation in Taiwanese patients with metastatic bone pain: a pilot study. J Pain Symptom Manage. [Internet].2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 37 (4): 754-63. Available from: Available from: http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(08)00561-7/fulltext
http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885...
indicate that the intervention performed by a nurse specialized in therapeutic massage for 45 minutes in children with bone metastases reduces anxiety and pain, with lasting effects in the long term.

Would it be possible to improve the symptomatology of patients through the application of therapeutic massage? Due the above, the purpose of this review is to know the effects of the application of therapeutic massage on the oncological children population.

Method

Systematic review of controlled clinical trials.

Inclusion criteria:

-Articles in English / Spanish.

-Published from 11/01/1994 to 11/01/2014.

-Oncological children patients aged 0.5-18 years.

-Addressing different types of childhood cancer.

-Articles who use therapeutic massage or some of their basic maneuvers as treatment.

Exclusion criteria:

-Articles that do not correspond to the type of study analyzed.

-Research that addresses types of cancer other than childhood cancer.

-Studies that do not address therapeutic massage in treatment.

Search strategy

The search was conducted in November 2014 in Pubmed, Cochrane, CSIC, Scopus, PEDro and Dialnet. The combinations of terms Mesh: "cancer AND child AND massage" were used; "Chemotherapy AND child AND massage"; "Cancer AND child AND touch"; "Cancer AND pediatric AND massage"; "Pediatric AND cancer AND touch"; "Cancer AND anxiety AND massage AND children"; "Leukemia AND child AND massage"; "Neoplasm AND pediatric AND massage".

Selection of studies

A selection of complete articles was established by reading the title and abstract. Those articles meeting the inclusion criteria were subjected to a complete reading for analysis and inclusion. The methodological quality was analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale1212 Escala PEDro [Internet]. [Acceso 13 Abril 2015]. Disponible en: Disponible en: http://www.pedro.org.au/spanish/downloads/pedro-scale/
http://www.pedro.org.au/spanish/download...
.

Methodological quality

See Figure 1.

Figure 1
Methodological quality of included studies. Badajoz, EX, Spain, 2016

Results

See Figure 2.

Figure 2
Figure Prism. Procedure for selection of articles in bibliographic searches

Description of studies

See Figure 3.

Figure 3
Characteristics of included studies. Badajoz, EX, Spain, 2016

Sociodemographic characteristics

The size of the sample ranged from N=171, of the study1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
with the larger sample to N=17 of the study1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
with the smallest sample.

The youngest kids1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
ages from 1 year and 6 months. In one of the papers(16) the average age was 6.9 years. In the remainder studies, subjects were between 4 and 18 years old1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

18 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
-1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
.

Intervention and treatment groups

The application of the treatment was divided in two groups, control and intervention1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...

15 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

16 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...

17 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

18 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
-1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, except in one of the studies1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
with a control group and two intervention groups. In one of the intervention groups massage therapy and humor is applied and in the other in addition to the above the parents were instructed in massage and relaxation. The intervention consisted of massage applied on the body1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

14 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...

15 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

16 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...

17 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

18 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
-1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
.

Techniques

Most studies used the Swedish massage1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...

15 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

16 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
-1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, applying techniques of effleurage, petrissage, frictions and compressions1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

14 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

18 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
-1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
with moderate pressure. The maneuvers were applied in combination(13-1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, predominating effleurage, petrissage and digital kneading1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
,1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
. In only one of the studies(16) effleurage was applied on legs, ending with stretching of the Achilles tendon and circular movements with fingers centrifugally. They performed techniques with light pressure1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
, moderate1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,17,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
and firm1418 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
.

In some studies1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
) they also use percussive technique1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, friction1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
and a thousand hands technique1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
.

Others1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
added acupressure1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
and interventions for health promotion1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, not specifying the massage technique or place of application.

Areas of application and frequency

In one of the studies1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
the center of the application was on legs, feet and arms, while others1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
performed a sequence, face, neck, shoulders, back, stomach, legs, feet, arms and hands, and were the only1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
) that performed Swedish massage in both decubitus. In the rest it was applied on the back, hands, legs, feet1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
, one of them including1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
face and arms. Two investigations1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
did not specify the body part.

Interventions in all studies were fifteen1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
, twenty1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
and thirty minutes1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
,1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
-1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, being carried out in one of the studies1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
by the parents. In the rest by a nurse1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
) or a masseur1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

14 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
with experience(14-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
.

The treatment protocol was: three sessions1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
, 1 session / day for one month1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
,3 sessions / week for 41 days1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, 3 sessions / week for 4 weeks1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
and 4 sessions / week1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
.

Type of cancer

Four studies indicate the types of cancer, being the most frequent ALL1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
,1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
,1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
) , acute myeloid leukemia (AML)1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, Sarcomas and lymphomas1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
, Hodgkin1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, brain tumors1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
, Wilms tumor1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
and Ewing sarcoma1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
. The rest1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
was not specified.

Scales

To measure the effects produced, they used valuation scales1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...

15 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

16 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...

17 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
) and questionnaires1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
. The scales used were:

-Visual Analogue Scale1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...

-Wong Baker FACES1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-Brief Pain Inventory1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...

-Pain Assessment Tool1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...

-Enumerated scale of 0-31717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-Baxter Animated Rating Face1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-The State Anxiety Inventory for Children1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...

15 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...

-State Trait Anxiety Inventory1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-Lansky`s Play Performance Scale1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...

-Profile of Mood States1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
,16)

-The Children's Depression Inventory1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-Children`s Health Questionnaire1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-Benefit Finding Scale for Children1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

The Questionnaires1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
) were:

-Behavioral Affective and Somatic Scale1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-PedsQL Cancer Module.91919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-The Differential Emotions Scale1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

-Child Fatigue Scale1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

Results obtained

Five investigations addressed pain1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

14 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
-1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, but only three1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
verified that the massage produces changes on it. One study1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
shows a decrease in pain half an hour after each session. They used massage with pressure with sliding and circular movements using the fingers during 20-30 minutes1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
. In one of the studies1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
the authors observed a significant decrease of the pain related to ambulation. Other authors1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
indicate a decrease in muscle pain after Swedish massage in hospitalized and outpatient children with daily sessions on the first and weekly sessions on the second lasting 20 minutes for 4 weeks. A study1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
) shows the lasting decrease of the pain, and it does it combining massage and humor therapy. In two studies1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
favorable results were not obtained: in one of them(14) children who received chemotherapy and 4 weekly sessions of massage applying effleurage, petrissage, percussive technique and a thousand hands, according to the scale VAS and in the other1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, using the PedsQL Cancer Module questionnaire that obtained a non-statistically significant decrease.

Only in one of the included studies1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, after applying Swedish massage for 20 minutes in three sessions before and 24 hours after chemotherapy, they succeeded in delaying the appearance of both acute nausea and nausea that usually appears after 24-72 hours. In two other investigations it has been observed that combined Swedish massage and acupressure increase the levels of nausea1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
or no changes are seen with respect to their baseline assessment1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
.

In one of the studies1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
when performing the massage, in 30-minute sessions over four weeks, it showed a decrease in post-traumatic stress syndrome in 97 of the 171 children in their study. It was maintained from the first day until the last assessment. They did not specify place of application.

Three investigations addressed depression1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
. All agree that the massage intervention produces a decrease, but the application varies. One of the studies1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
combined Swedish massage and acupressure in sessions of 20-30 minutes for 41 days. In another1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
the massage was performed by the parents before going to bed for 15 minutes, for over a month. In the third study1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
it was showed a decrease of depression applying Swedish massage during 20 minutes in children between 6 months and 17 years. The frequency in hospitalized patients was daily and weekly on outpatient clinics.

In a study1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
the authors get a decrease in anxiety according to the STAIC scale in children with ALL. Other authors1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
achieved it by applying effleurage, petrissage and soft passes with the fingertips, during 30 minutes in four sessions they managed to decrease the anxiety in patients between 1 and 13 years in the fourth session.

One study1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
addresses the effects on the immune system by applying therapeutic massage throughout the body with the techniques of effleurage, petrissage and circular movements in supine and prone position, observing from the first day an increase of white blood cells and neutrophils, lasting for 30 days.

Two investigations indicate that the respiratory rate decreases using effleurage, petrissage, compressions and frictions1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
. In one of them1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
) they applied massage with cream and in the other1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, the massage is applied by a therapist on hands, feet, arms, shoulders and back for 20 minutes with a cream.

Only one of the studies1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
showed a significant decrease in heart rate at the end of treatment after 4 sessions.

Discussion

After the analysis we observed that the massage was performed in most cases by masseurs1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

14 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

18 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
-1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
except in one of the studies in which the parents applied it1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
. This may suggest that if physiotherapists had performed the interventions the results would have been different.

The participants are aged between 6 months1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
and 18 years old1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
,1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
. This age range coincides with those of other investigations2020 Revuelta- Iniesta R, Wilson ML, White K, Stewart L, McKenzie JM, Wilson DC. Complementary and alternative medicine usage in Scottish children and adolescents during cancer treatment. Complement Ther Clin Pract. [Internet]. 2014. [cited April 13, 2015]; 20 (4): 197-202. Available from: Available from: http://www.ctcpjournal.com/article/S1744-3881(14)00040-1/pdf
http://www.ctcpjournal.com/article/S1744...

21 Bishop FL, Prescott P, Chan YK, Saville J, Von Elm E, Lewith GT. Prevalence of complementary medicine use in pediatric cancer: a systematic review. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2010. [cited April 13, 2015];125 (4): 768-76. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20308209
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20308...
-2222 Valadares MT, Mota JA, de Olivera BM. Palliative care in pediatric hematological oncology patients: experience of a tertiary hospital. Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. [Internet]. 2014. [cited April 13, 2015]; 36 (6): 403-8. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4318475/pdf/main.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
. Although the interpretation must be carried out prudently since in some cases1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
,1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
the data collection has been done by the parents, and it could have biased the results.

The sample is reduced, 17-52 patients1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...

15 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
,1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
-1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, which makes difficult the extraction of significant results, except for two of the investigations1313 Phipps S, Peasant C, Barrera M, Alderfer MA, Huanq Q, Vannatta K. Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial. Pediatrics. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 129 (3): 762-70. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289525/pdf/peds.2011-1816.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
,1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
with samples of 70 and 171 patients respectively.

One of the papers1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
showed a decrease in pain in ambulation in children between 10 and 18 years while in other studies a decrease of muscle pain has been observed after the application of Swedish massage for 20 minutes1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
) or how improvement is maintained in the long term(13). Despite these 3 previous studies show an improvement in pain, it is achieved using different techniques, and different treatment regimens can be established to obtain equal benefits.

The decrease of pain in this study1818 Batalha LM, Mota AA. Massage in children with cancer: effectiveness of a protocol. J Pediatr. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 12, 2015];89 (6): 595-600. Available from: Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/1-s2.0-S0021755713001654-main.pdf?_tid=1e3b6362-54f4-11e6-904d-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1469731993_b339159ff86ca7340e15330bd8950ac1
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0021755713001654/...
could be due to the techniques applied in the dorsum-lumbar area, legs and feet. Greater oxygenation and muscle relaxation occurs here99 Vázquez J. Manual profesional del masaje. Badalona: Paidotribo; 2009. p. 1-21.,2323 Han JH, Kim MJ, Yang HJ, Lee YJ, Sung YH. Effects of therapeutic massage on gait and pain after delayed onset muscle soreness. J Exerc Rehabil. [Internet]. 2004. [cited April 12, 2015]; 10 (2): 136-40. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4025548/pdf/jer-10-2-136-15.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
which allows indirectly improving ambulation.

In another of the analyzed articles1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
) the application of the massage was performed in hospitalized and ambulatory patients. Those hospitalized patients who received daily sessions perceived a greater level of relaxation and less sensation of pain. On the other hand, the assessment through observational scales in children under two years of age was performed by the parents, which may have led to misinterpretation because they were not familiar with the evaluation instruments. These benefits can be achieved in both inpatients and outpatients and by using different techniques such as Swedish massage and the technique of circular movements with fingers. This is concurrent with other studies1010 Falkensteiner M, Mantovan F, Müller I, Them C. The use of massage therapy for reducing pain, anxiety, and depression in oncological palliative care patients: a narrative review of the literature. ISRN Nurs. [Internet].2011. [cited April 11, 2015]; 929868. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3168862/pdf/NURSING2011-929868.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
-1111 Jane SW, Wilkie DJ, Gallucci BB, Beaton RD, Huang HY. Effects of a full-body massage on pain intensity, anxiety, and physiological relaxation in Taiwanese patients with metastatic bone pain: a pilot study. J Pain Symptom Manage. [Internet].2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 37 (4): 754-63. Available from: Available from: http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(08)00561-7/fulltext
http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885...
,2424 Toth M, Marcantonio ER, Davis RB, Walton T, Kahn JR, Phillips RS. Massage therapy for patients with metastatic cancer: a pilot randomized cotrolled trial. J Altern Complement Med. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 13, 2015]; 19 (7): 650-6. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3700435/pdf/acm.2012.0466.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
) not present in this review. In that sense, they have used Swedish massage in adult patients with bone metastases1111 Jane SW, Wilkie DJ, Gallucci BB, Beaton RD, Huang HY. Effects of a full-body massage on pain intensity, anxiety, and physiological relaxation in Taiwanese patients with metastatic bone pain: a pilot study. J Pain Symptom Manage. [Internet].2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 37 (4): 754-63. Available from: Available from: http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(08)00561-7/fulltext
http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885...
,2424 Toth M, Marcantonio ER, Davis RB, Walton T, Kahn JR, Phillips RS. Massage therapy for patients with metastatic cancer: a pilot randomized cotrolled trial. J Altern Complement Med. [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 13, 2015]; 19 (7): 650-6. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3700435/pdf/acm.2012.0466.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
) or therapeutic massage in adult palliative care patients1010 Falkensteiner M, Mantovan F, Müller I, Them C. The use of massage therapy for reducing pain, anxiety, and depression in oncological palliative care patients: a narrative review of the literature. ISRN Nurs. [Internet].2011. [cited April 11, 2015]; 929868. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3168862/pdf/NURSING2011-929868.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
, decreasing pain.

Taking into account what has been stated by some authors2525 Feeney K, Cain M, Nowak AK. Chemotherapy induces nausea and vomiting-prevention and treatment. Aust Fam Physician. [Internet]. 2007. [cited April 11, 2015]; 36 (9): 702-6. Available from: Available from: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/prevention-and-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-adults
http://www.uptodate.com/contents/prevent...
we thought that having performed two sessions, half an hour and 24 hours before the application, the effects of massage could have influenced acute and delayed nausea. This decrease could be due to the indirect activation of the nervous system(26) counteracting the secretion of serotonin, produced by chemotherapy2525 Feeney K, Cain M, Nowak AK. Chemotherapy induces nausea and vomiting-prevention and treatment. Aust Fam Physician. [Internet]. 2007. [cited April 11, 2015]; 36 (9): 702-6. Available from: Available from: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/prevention-and-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-adults
http://www.uptodate.com/contents/prevent...
, leading to reduced nausea and vomiting. This benefit is not showed by other studies included1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
in this review using Swedish massage and acupressure, although applying the same number of sessions1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
failed to demonstrate a decrease in nausea and vomiting. The massage1919 Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 13, 2015];1-9. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292254/pdf/ECAM2012-450150.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
was performed on feet, arms legs, back and scapular waist, however, one of the works1717 Mazlum S, Chaharsoughi NT, Banihashem A, Vashani HB. The effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. [Internet]. 2003. [cited April 11, 2015]; 18 (4): 280-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872861/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
did not specify the areas of application so we can not consider the place of application of massage as one of the reasons why there were no benefits.

The literature 2727 Thrane S. Effectiveness of integrative modalities for pain and anxiety in children and adolescents with cancer: a systematic review. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs . [Internet]. 2013. [cited April 13, 2015]; 30 (6): 320-32. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109717/pdf/nihms577633.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
shows that one of the techniques used for the reduction of anxiety in children with cancer is the massage. Several investigations have demonstrated a decrease of anxiety applying Swedish massage in adult patients with AML2828 Taylor AG, Snyder AE, Anderson JG, Brown CJ, Densmore JJ, Bourguignon C. Gentle massage improves Disease and treatment related symptoms in patients with Acute Myelogeneus Leukemia. J Clin Trials. [Internet]. 2014. [cited April 13, 2015]; 4: 1-18. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266937/pdf/nihms597751.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
) or in patients with coronary interventions2929 Babaee S, Shafiei Z, Sadeghi MM, Nik AY, Valiani M. Effectiveness of massage therapy on the mood patients after open-heart surgery. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res . [Internet]. 2012. [cited April 11, 2015]; 17 (2 Suppl 1): 120-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696961
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
.

These results coincide with some of the studies analyzed1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
-1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
. The first1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
uses Swedish massage while the second1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
, only matches the previous research1515 Haun JN, Granham-Pole J, Shortley B. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. [Internet].2009. [cited April 13, 2015]; 2 (2): 7-14. Available from: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091462/pdf/ijtmb-2-2-7.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
in two of the techniques, effleurage and petrissage. We can consider that they are the most suitable to reduce anxiety. The reduction in one of the research1414 Post- White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. [Internet]. 2009. [cited April 11, 2015]; 26 (1): 16-28. Available from: Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay_Savik/publication/23655253_Massage_Therapy_for_Children_With_Cancer/links/0912f510fe9561c023000000.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kay...
occurs in patients between 1 and 13 years, especially after the fourth session. We thought that the decrease in the fourth session could have happened because the effects of the massage were more evident than during the first sessions and the patients were more relaxed, improving their mood. With respect to the difference according to age, we consider that using different scales of evaluation can influence the obtaining and interpretation of the results.

In one of the works1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
) the authors show that by applying various massage techniques in children with ALL before bedtime for 30 days, neutrophils and white blood cells increase. This may be due to performing several techniques in different positions covering a larger area and therefore greater benefits. Another factor that could influence might be the form of application, according to medical evidence99 Vázquez J. Manual profesional del masaje. Badalona: Paidotribo; 2009. p. 1-21. whe performing the massage centrifugally stimulation is achieved. Therefore, we could consider that the combination of these factors improves blood flow, increasing blood volume, and thus reaching the stimuli received to the marrow to improve the production of blood cells1616 Field T, Cullen C, Diego M, Hernandez- Reif M, Sprinz P, Beebe K, et al. Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy. J Bodyw Mov Ther. [Internet]. 2001. [cited April 13, 2015]; 5 (4): 271-4. Available from: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360859201902281
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
. Massage therapy could be considered as a complementary technique to maintain the immune system under optimum conditions.

As studies3030 Gottschling S, Meyer S, Längler A, Scharifi G, Ebinger F, Gronwald B. Differences in use of complementary and alternative medicine between children and adolescents with cancer in Germany: a population based survey. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61(3):488-92. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24769
https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.24769...
-3131 Roth M, Lin J, Kim M, Moody K. Pediatric oncologists' views toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with cancer. J Pediatr Hematol. Oncol. 2009;31(3):177-82. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181984f5a.
https://doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0b013e318198...
conclude in the need of the oncological children patients to receive additional types of treatment devoid of side effects and with beneficial effects for their health, among them is the massage. There is a need for greater training of professionals(31) in this type of therapy as well as more studies to show the effects of it.

More recent studies3232 Çelebioğlu A, Gürol A, Yildirim ZK, Büyükavci M. Effects of massage therapy on pain and anxiety arising from intrathecal therapy or bone marrow aspiration in children with cancer. Int J Nurs Pract. [Internet]. 2015. [cited March 7, 2017];21(6):797-804. Available from: Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24689780
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2468...
corroborate the results of this review. There is preliminary evidence of efficacy in children's massage to reduce pain and anxiety derived from intrathecal therapy or aspiration of bone marrow. This being the only investigation found regarding the subject matter in the period between 2014 and 2107.

Thus the limitations of the study stem from the paucity of studies showing the efficacy of this therapy in patients affected by cancer as well as the scarcity of the sample in the studies analyzed with so small sample sizes results cannot be extrapolated to the total of the population of children with cancer.

Conclusion

Based on published studies, the effects of therapeutic massage in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy and other treatments show a decrease in pain, nausea, vomiting, posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety and an increase in white blood cells and neutrophils.

Further research is needed to observe benefits, establish protocols and extrapolate results, to improve the quality of life of these patients.

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    » http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696961
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    Gottschling S, Meyer S, Längler A, Scharifi G, Ebinger F, Gronwald B. Differences in use of complementary and alternative medicine between children and adolescents with cancer in Germany: a population based survey. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61(3):488-92. doi: 10.1002/pbc.24769
    » https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.24769
  • 31
    Roth M, Lin J, Kim M, Moody K. Pediatric oncologists' views toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with cancer. J Pediatr Hematol. Oncol. 2009;31(3):177-82. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181984f5a.
    » https://doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181984f5a
  • 32
    Çelebioğlu A, Gürol A, Yildirim ZK, Büyükavci M. Effects of massage therapy on pain and anxiety arising from intrathecal therapy or bone marrow aspiration in children with cancer. Int J Nurs Pract. [Internet]. 2015. [cited March 7, 2017];21(6):797-804. Available from: Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24689780
    » https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24689780

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2017

History

  • Received
    19 Aug 2016
  • Accepted
    26 Mar 2017
Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-902 Ribeirão Preto SP Brazil, Tel.: +55 (16) 3315-3451 / 3315-4407 - Ribeirão Preto - SP - Brazil
E-mail: rlae@eerp.usp.br