Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose This study aims to investigate the impact of three determinants of organizational identification (OID) on employee performance (EP) in the context of private business institutions. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 175 permanent faculty members from four top universities in Karachi, Pakistan, was interviewed using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The data were inserted in SPSS 22 and SmartPLS v 3.2 for performing the analysis. Findings Results of the study showed a significant effect in perceived supervisor support on OID; OID; job satisfaction and EP; and mediating relationship. Conversely, an insignificant effect was observed in workplace incivility. Research limitations/implications It is highly recommended that organizations work on the areas that lead to enhancing their employees’ performance. Also, human resource should create a healthy culture that promotes initiatives, open-door policies and discourages power distance. Lastly, one of the key responsibilities of management is to strengthen their OID because employees are more likely to identify with their supervisors if they invest in the organizations they work for. Practical implications This study will help strengthen the relationship between supervisors and university employees. It will guide the supervisors to acknowledge and appreciate the efforts of their subordinates and develop recreational policies and employee engagement activities. In addition, it will help develop a conducive environment and enhance the quality of education in the university and the society. Originality/value Understanding the determinants of OID on EP in the educational context is very important as it enhances the quality of EP and the overall quality of education of the institution.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the role of selected sociodemographic variables in the ethical decision-making (EDM) process of professional accountants in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach The study obtained data from 329 professional accountants with the aid of a structured questionnaire containing four dilemmatic ethical vignettes. The data were analysed using Kendall correlation, Kruskal–Wallis and Jonckheere–Terpstra tests. Findings The results revealed that upbringing, especially parental discipline, and education are significant sociodemographic determinants of EDM. Religion and experience played little or no significant role in predicting accountants’ EDM in the face of ethical dilemmas. Research limitations/implications The study used a questionnaire to measure its variables, which may bias and somewhat inflate the findings. Hence, caution should be applied regarding its conclusion. Practical implications The evidence in this study could stimulate policy change and review to include a separate ethics course in the accounting education curriculum, which could enhance the ethics training of future accountants. This is important for countries like Nigeria, where no provision is made for a discrete ethics course in the curriculum for accounting under-graduate education. Social implications The study draws attention to the fact that ethical conduct among professionals and in society could be enhanced through proper upbringing and formal education. Originality/value The study adds some uniqueness in focusing on professional accountants in Nigeria, a developing country with high corruption profile and weak government institutions, and, as such, contributes to the limited research output on accounting ethics in developing countries.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose Hierarchically superior bodies develop normative instructions to induce the diffusion of innovations, stimulating the adoption of management practices in supervised public bodies and seeking public administration efficiency increase. Despite this, the effectiveness of these normative instructions is unknown, as well as its inducing and lasting effects in the diffusion of these innovations, especially in Brazil. This study aims to understand the effects of normative induction. Design/methodology/approach The adoption of risk management, integrity & ethics and information security practices was evaluated over a decade (2009 to 2019), including the adoption behavior of more than 200 Brazilian federal agencies. Public open data were collected and analyzed with multinomial logistic regression. Findings The normative instructions’ effectiveness in propagating the evaluated practices is remarkable; however, its mere development by the superior bodies cannot be considered enough since the general adoption index can be considered good but not excellent. No evaluated practice reached a saturation level above 75%. Research limitations/implications This paper contributes to bringing the international literature’s generic knowledge on the adoption of innovation to the specific Brazilian public administration context, providing insightful implications for policymakers, public managers and researchers. Practical implications This work is unique, as it systematically analyzes multiple innovation adoption and presents excellent opportunities for future researchers by reproducing all scripts and automation developed. Furthermore, all data are available and hosted on public platforms with detailed steps and documentation. Social implications The use of open data from governmental sources allows enhanced transparency and the discovery of affecting variables while observing innovation adoption in the public administration. Originality/value The presence of normative instructions and their adoption rate is rarely measured in the Brazilian public administration.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose This study aims to explain the effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) dimensions on firms’ export performance. The study has considered three dimensions of EO: innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking. Export performance has been measured through multifaceted determinants: financial, strategic and satisfaction levels of exporting firms. Design/methodology/approach To explain the association between such determinants, qualitative face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with the respondents from the apparel manufacturing companies of Bangladesh. The study has also applied a content analysis technique to explore and triangulate the descriptions of EO dimensions on performance. Findings The research results reveal that EO has a meaningful explanation of export performance from the lived experience of the respondents. The study has also found frequent explanations and indicators about the association of innovativeness and proactiveness on export performance, but the risk-taking dimension has revealed no effects. Research limitations/implications The research has different implications on theoretical, managerial and policy-making aspects of EO and export performance. Nevertheless, the findings are based on the opinions of a small sample of entrepreneurs and high-level managers. Thus, it is important to test the generalizability of these findings in future research using a larger sample. Originality/value This study indicated product, process and market creation innovativeness. Risks related to product innovation, new market entry and politics are considered for risk-taking measures, while proactive innovation, technology and new market searching are used for measuring proactiveness. Additionally, multifaceted performance determinants have been applied to evaluate export performance. Hence, this study is a unique qualitative analysis with important theoretical, practical and methodological implications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose This study aims to examine the impact of workplace safety (WPS) on employee retention (ER) in the health-care sector in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K), Pakistan. At the same time, a mediation relationship through job satisfaction (JS) and employee loyalty (EL) was also tested. Design/methodology/approach Structured questionnaires were used to collect the data from 300 doctors, using purposive sampling technique analysed using partial least squares (Smart-PLS 3). Findings This study’s findings supported all hypotheses, such as WPS has a significant positive relationship with ER. In addition, a mediation relationship between JS and EL was also confirmed. Furthermore, a serial mediation effect of JS and EL between WPS and ER was also confirmed in this study. Research limitations/implications This study might not fit organisations from other regions due to regional norms. In the future, this study’s model may be tested on other regions and segments of the health-care sector, such as nurses, management staff and support staff. Practical implications The present study is unique because it is based on a newly formulated framework, WPS → JS → EL → ER, under the social exchange theory, which has not been tested before. Social implications In a safe environment, doctors will feel relaxed, stay longer and provide better services; resultantly, patients will get better treatment. Originality/value This study tested the sequential mediation effect through JS and EL for the first time in ER, which was missing previously, to the best of the authors’ knowledge. This will add more insights to the safety-retention literature in health-care settings. Furthermore, this study is also the first attempt to explore the relationship between WPS and ER in the health-care sector in AJ&K.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose The singularity of being the first Chinese manufacturer of drug-eluting stents to arrive in Brazil and the country being selected as the company's first experience outside its home country motivated the interest in the study of this case, vis-à-vis with the characteristic of internationalization medical device companies according to the Uppsala model. Considering this context, the following research question was outlined: “How did Microport internationalize before the distribution of its stents product in Brazil?” The aim of the study is to investigate Microport's internationalization process for the distribution of its drug-eluting stents in Brazil. Design/methodology/approach Exploratory research under the qualitative method was adopted. It chose the single case study as a procedure for data collection, as it is a revealing, exemplary subject that offers opportunities for access to unusual research. The company MicroPort was chosen because in the period when Chinese medical device companies were focused on gaining market share in China, MicroPort began its international expansion, choosing Brazil as the first country to have its own subsidiary. It consists in the case of the internationalization of a high-tech EMNE in an emerging country that has institutional and cultural differences. Findings Taking advantage of new technology in highly internationalized environments favors its insertion; the internationalization of medical technology can expand according to the Uppsala Model, which does not explain internationalization, but rather its evolution. Cultural and behavioral issues reinforce that the development of the market for medical devices depends on local perspectives and values. The formation of an ecosystem in the local market for internationalization is observed. One implication of the study is that MicroPort's experience and the application of the Uppsala model for international expansion can serve as an important learning experience for Brazilian multinational companies. Research limitations/implications Empirical analysis carried out in the context of a single company. Although the results can be used as lessons learned from the application of the Uppsala model for international expansion of EMNE in an emerging market, caution should be exercised when generalizing its findings. Future studies could carry out comparative cases considering other emerging multinational companies, from the same sector or even from different industries, investing in other emerging markets. There is a limitation of the fact that the case studied does not explore the concepts of the later stages of the Uppsala model. Practical implications High-tech EMNEs internationalizing in other markets need to adopt aggressive strategies. The need to adopt different strategies for supply chain operations according to the specificities of the markets in which they operate. Important contributions to the Uppsala model, with regard to the process of passing stages, learning and networking. The findings of this study have similarities to the process described as a sequence of distinct phases of activities. Social implications A local top management team is essential to deal with institutional issues of government agencies when EMNE is internationalized in a culturally distant market. When there are major institutional differences between the country of origin and the host country, the autonomy in the management of the foreign subsidiary positively influences the acceleration of the internationalization process of companies in the high-tech sector. When there are major institutional differences between the country of origin and the country of destination, the use of local social networks positively influences the acceleration of the internationalization process of companies in the high-technology sector. Originality/value Regardless of these limitations, the study provided an exciting case of internationalization of a Chinese company in Brazil operating in a high-tech medical sector. The challenges for the internationalization of EMNEs continue, which makes it opportune for future studies to include more research in this area. The propositions suggested in the study may be the first step.