Facial lesions caused by renal osteodystrophy in a patient with chronic renal insufficiency: a case report

Lesões faciais por osteodistrofia renal em paciente com insuficiência renal crônica: relato de caso

PURPOSE: Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is the last stage of a chronic renal condition in which the kidney loses its filtration and endocrine functions. Chronic endocrine hypofunction causes generalized damage to the body known as Uremic Syndrome, which affects the central nervous system as well as the cardiovascular, hematologic, dermatologic, ophthalmic, endocrine, respiratory, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. The present study reports the case of a female patient with CRI who presented facial osteodystrophy of the osteitis fibrosa type, and highlights the main features of this condition. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 24-year old, female, Caucasian patient presented chronic glomerulonephritis recurrence and lost the transplanted kidney five years before, undergoing arteriovenous fistula hemodialysis three times a week. She presented swelling of the left masseter area with a hard consistency on palpation, covered by intact skin, swelling at the bottom of the left atrium, with a hard consistency on palpation, a mucosa-like color and absence of inflammation signs, suggesting expansive bone lesions on the face. These features were compatible with hyperparathyroidism brown tumor and/or osteodystrophy. The CT scan showed expansive bone lesions of heterogeneous appearance on the left jaw, maxilla/nasal floor, and right frontotemporal suture areas. The clinical and histopathological characteristics of the lesion, in association with PHT hormone high serum levels led to renal osteodystrophy diagnosis. The patient was referred to the nephrology services. CONCLUSION: Osteodystrophic bone alterations have a high prevalence in renal disease patients, and the dentist must take these alterations into consideration in bone lesion diagnosis for this specific group of patients.

Chronic renal insufficiency; renal dialysis; renal osteodystrophy

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