Accessibility / Report Error

Gymnopilus ianthinilophus (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), a new species from the Brazilian Amazon

Abstract

Gymnopilus is an agaricoid genus of mostly wood-rotting mushrooms, with ca. 200 species worldwide distributed, of which 23 of them are currently known in Brazil. In the Amazon region, Gymnopilus taxa correspond mostly to very old names described under Agaricus, later recombined into Gymnopilus, such as G. marasmioides, G. panurensis, G. psamminus, and G. trailii. Based on the examination of a well-annotated exsiccate at the INPA Herbarium, Gymnopilus ianthinilophus is described as a new species. It is characterized by the densely cespitose habit, squarrose pileus with blackish brown squamules, adnate to subdeccurent lamellae with decurrent tooth, violaceous brown stipe, weakly dextrinoid basidiospores 7.6-9.2 × 5.1-6.1 µm, interwoven pileus trama, lageniform with capitate or subcapitate apex cheilocystidia measuring 15.3-25.5 × 5.6-8.2 µm, and absence of pleurocystidia and caulocystidia. Description, photographs, illustrations of the new species, and discussion and comparison with morphologically similar taxa are provided.

Key words:
Agaricomycetes; Fungi; Hymenogastraceae; Neotropics; taxonomy

Resumo

Gymnopilus é um gênero agaricoide comumente lignícolas que possui cerca de 200 espécies distribuídas pelo mundo, onde 23 são conhecidas no Brasil. Na região amazônica, Gymnopilus corresponde principalmente a antigos registros sob o gênero Agaricus, os quais foram recombinados em Gymnopilus, como G. marasmioides, G. panurensis, G. psamminus e G. trailii. Após análise de exsicatas, G. ianthinilophus é descrito como uma nova espécie. Caracterizada por seu hábito densamente cespitoso, píleo esquarroso de escamas marrom-escuras, lamela adnata a subdecurrente com dentes decurrente, estipe violeta-acastanhado, esporos fracamente dextrinoides 7,6-9,2 × 5,1-6,1 µm, trama do píleo com hifas entrelaçadas queilocistídios lageniformes com ápice capitado ou subcapitado medindo 15,3-25,5 × 5,6-8,2 µm e ausência de pleurocistídios e caulocistídios. São apresentadas descrição, fotografias e ilustrações da nova espécie, discutidas e comparadas com espécies morfologicamente similares.

Palavras-chave:
Agaricomycetes; Fungi; Hymenogastraceae; Neotrópicos; taxonomia

Gymnopilus P. Karst. is a genus of mostly lignicolous agaricoid mushrooms with about 200 mainly lignicolous species (He et al. 2019He MQ, Zhao RL, Hyde KD, Begerow D, Kemler M, Yurkov A, McKenzie EHC, Raspé O, Kakishima M, Sánchez-Ramírez S, Vellinga EC, Halling R, Papp V, Zmitrovich IV, Buyck B, Ertz D, Wijayawardene NN, Cui BK, Schoutteten N, Liu XZ, Li TH, Yao YJ, Zhu XY, Liu AQ, Li GJ, Zhang MZ, Ling ZL, Cao B, Antonín V, Boekhout T, da Silva BDB, De Crop E, Decock C, Dima B, Dutta AK, Fell JW, Geml J, Ghobad-Nejhad M, Giachini AJ, Gibertoni TB, Gorjón SP, Haelewaters D, He SH, Hodkinson BP, Horak E, Hoshino T, Justo A, Lim YW, Menolli N Jr, Mešić A, Moncalvo JM, Mueller GM, Nagy LG, Nilsson RH, Noordeloos M, Nuytinck J, Orihara T, Ratchadawan C, Rajchenberg M, Silva-Filho AGS, Sulzbacher MA, Tkalčec Z, Valenzuela R, Verbeken A, Vizzini A, Wartchow F, Wei TZ, Weiß M, Zhao CL & Kirk PM (2019) Notes, outline and divergence times of Basidiomycota. Fungal Diversity 99: 105-367.; Wijayawardene et al. 2020Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Al-Ani LKT, Tedersoo L, Haelewaters D, Rajeshkumar KC, Zhao RL, Aptroot A, Leontyev DV, Saxena RK, Tokarev YS, Dai DQ, Letcher PM, Stephenson SL, Ertz D, Lumbsch HT, Kukwa M, Issi IV, Madrid H, Phillips AJL, Selbmann L, Pfliegler WP, Horváth E, Bensch K, Kirk PM, Kolaříková K, Raja HA, Radek R, Papp V, Dima V, Ma J, Malosso E, Takamatsu S, Rambold G, Gannibal PB, Triebel D, Gautam AK, Avasthi S, Suetrong S, Timdal E, Fryar SC, Delgado G, Réblová M, Doilom M, Dolatabadi S, Pawłowska J, Humber RA, Kodsueb R, Sánchez-Castro I, Goto BT, Silva DKA, Souza FA, Oehl F, Silva GA, Silva IR, Błaszkowski J, Jobim K, Maia LC, Barbosa FR, Fiuza PO, Divakar PK, Shenoy BD, Castañeda-Ruiz RF, Somrithipol S, Lateef AA, Karunarathna SC, Tibpromma S, Mortimer PE, Wanasinghe DN, Phookamsak R, Xu J, Wang Y, Tian F, Alvarado P, Li DW, Kušan I, Matočec N, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Papizadeh M, Heredia G, Wartchow F, Bakhshi M, Boehm E, Youssef N, Hustad VP, Lawrey JD, Santiago ALCMA, Bezerra JDP, Souza-Motta CM, Firmino AL, Tian Q, Houbraken J, Hongsanan S, Tanaka K, Dissanayake AJ, Monteiro JS, Grossart HP, Suija A, Weerakoon G, Etayo J, Tsurykau A, Vázquez V, Mungai P, Damm U, Li QR, Zhang H, Boonmee S, Lu YZ, Becerra AG, Kendrick B, Brearley FQ, Motiejūnaitė J, Sharma B, Khare R, Gaikwad S, Wijesundara DSA, Tang LZ, He MQ, Flakus A, Rodriguez-Flakus P, Zhurbenko MP, McKenzie EHC, Stadler M, Bhat DJ, Liu JK, Raza M, Jeewon R, Nassonova ES, Prieto M, Jayalal RGU, Erdoğdu M, Yurkov A, Schnittler M, Shchepin ON, Novozhilov YK, Silva-Filho AGS, Liu P, Cavender JC, Kang Y, Mohammad S, Zhang LF, Xu RF, Li YM, Dayarathne MC, Ekanayaka AH, Wen TC, Deng CY, Pereira OL, Navathe S, Hawksworth DL, Fan XL, Dissanayake LS, Kuhnert E, Grossart HP & Thines M (2020) Outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa. Mycosphere 11: 1060-1456.), of which 23 are known in Brazil (Fabrini & Wartchow 2020Fabrini FCSS & Wartchow F (2020) Annotated checklist of Gymnopilus from Brazil. Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) 10: 42-49.; Fabrini et al. 2022Fabrini FCSS, Gúzman-Dávalos L & Wartchow F (2022) Gymnopilus pholiotoides (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), an unexpected new record from an urban area in Brazil. Iheringia, Série Botânica 77: e2022021.). From the Amazon region, the following Gymnopilus taxa were reported: G. marasmioides (Berk.) Singer, G. panurensis (Berk.) Pegler, G. psamminus (Berk.) Pegler, and G. trailii (Berk. & Cooke) Singer (Berkeley 1856Berkeley MJ (1856) Decades of Fungi LI-LIV: Rio Negro Fungi. Hooker Journal of Botany Kew Garden Miscellaneous 8: 129-144.; Berkeley & Cooke 1877Berkeley MJ & Cooke MC (1877) The fungi of Brazil, including those collected by J.W.H. Trail, Esq. M.A., in 1874. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 15: 363-398.; Singer 1965Singer R (1965) Interesting and new Agaricales from Brazil. Atas do Instituto de Micologia da Universidade do Recife 2: 15-59.; Pegler 1988Pegler DN (1988) Agaricales of Brazil described by M.J. Berkeley. Kew Bulletin 43: 453-473.).

Following our investigations of Gymnopilus in Brazil (e.g., Silva-Junior & Wartchow 2015Silva-Junior FCS & Wartchow F (2015) Gymnopilus purpureograminicola (Strophariaceae, Agaricomycetidae), a new species from Paraíba, Brasil. Nova Hedwigia 101: 395-402.; Fabrini & Wartchow 2020Fabrini FCSS & Wartchow F (2020) Annotated checklist of Gymnopilus from Brazil. Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) 10: 42-49.; Fabrini et al. 2022Fabrini FCSS, Gúzman-Dávalos L & Wartchow F (2022) Gymnopilus pholiotoides (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), an unexpected new record from an urban area in Brazil. Iheringia, Série Botânica 77: e2022021.), we begun to analyze exsiccates of Gymnopilus included in the unpublished thesis made by Aguiar (1984)Aguiar IJA (1984) Contribuição ao conhecimento da família Cortinariaceae Roze ex Heim (Agaricales) na Amazônia Brasileira. PhD Thesis. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia and Fundação Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus. 219p. and deposited in the INPA Herbarium (Thiers, continuously updatedThiers B (continuously updated) Index Herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available at <http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/>. Access on 25 February 2022.
http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/...
). One of them corresponds to an interesting material provisionally named as “Gymnopilus violaceus I.J. Araújo ined.” (Aguiar 1984Aguiar IJA (1984) Contribuição ao conhecimento da família Cortinariaceae Roze ex Heim (Agaricales) na Amazônia Brasileira. PhD Thesis. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia and Fundação Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus. 219p.) growing caespitose on a decayed trunk in the Amazon forest, and is formally described here as Gymnopilus ianthinilophus.

Thus, this report emphasizes in the importance of inventories in biological collections, as such herbaria, that are important source of knowledge of the biological diversity (Peixoto & Morim 2003Peixoto AL & Morim MP (2003) Coleções botânicas: documentação da biodiversidade brasileira. Ciência e Cultura 55: 21-24.).

Macroscopic description was taken from the unpublished thesis made by Aguiar (1984)Aguiar IJA (1984) Contribuição ao conhecimento da família Cortinariaceae Roze ex Heim (Agaricales) na Amazônia Brasileira. PhD Thesis. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia and Fundação Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus. 219p. and some few direct observations on the exsiccate. Microscopic observations were made from material mounted in 3% KOH, Melzer’s reagent, and Congo red; and observation on pileus trama were made after transversal sections (Hesler 1969Hesler LR (1969) North American species of Gymnopilus. Mycologia Memoirs 3: 1-117.). Description of the basidiospores follows the methodology proposed by Tulloss et al. (1992)Tulloss RE, Ovrebo CL & Halling RE (1992) Studies on Amanita (Amanitaceae) from Andean Colombia. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 66: 1-46., slightly modified here. Statistics are based on 25 measured basidiospores. Abbreviations include L(W) = average basidiospores length (width), Q = length / width ratio range as determined from all measured basidiospores, and Qm = Q value averaged from all basidiospores measured. The holotype is deposited at INPA herbarium (Thiers, continuously updatedThiers B (continuously updated) Index Herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available at <http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/>. Access on 25 February 2022.
http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/...
).

Gymnopilus iantinilophus Fabrini & Wartchow, sp. nov. Type: Brazil, Amazonas, Estrada Manaus-Caracaraí, km 41, 25.IV.1980, A. Webber s/n (INPA 122241 as ‘Gymnopilus violaceus’, holotypus hic designatus).

MycoBank no.: MB 843222. Figs. 1-4

Figure 1
a-b. Gymnopilus ianthinilophus (holotype) - basidiomes (scale bar = 10 mm).

Figure 2
a-c. Gymnopilus ianthinilophus (holotype) - a. basidia; b. basidiospores; c. cheilocystidia (scale bar = 10 µm).

Figure 3
a-f. Gymnopilus ianthinilophus (holotype) - a. pileus trama showing the interwoven construction in KOH 3% solution; b. basidium and basidiospores in KOH 3% and Congo red solution; c-d. cheilocystidia in KOH 3% solution (black arrows); e. basidiospores in KOH 3% solution; f. basidiospores with weak dextrinoid reaction.

Figure 4
Gymnopilus ianthinilophus (holotype) - pileipellis (white arrow), and interwoven pileus trama (white line).

The species is characterized by the densely cespitose basidiomata, squarrose pileus with blackish brown squamules, adnate to subdeccurent lamellae with decurrent tooth, violaceous brown stipe, weakly dextrinoid basidiospores measuring 7.6-9.2 × 5.1-6.1 µm, interwoven pileus trama, cheilocystidia 15.3-25.5 × 5.6-8.2 µm, lageniform with capitate or subcapitate apex, and pleurocystidia and caulocystidia absent.

Basidiomata small sized, densely cespitose in a tuft with 10 basidiomata. Pileus 13-34 mm in diam., convex; surface squarrose, glabrous toward margin; ferruginous then centrally darker due the blackish brown squamules, with glossy spaces between the squamules; margin entire, non-sulcate nor striate (seen in dried specimens); context thin, up to 1.5 mm thick at centre (measured in the exsiccate). Lamellae adnate to subdecurrent with decurrent tooth, very wide, close, ferruginous; lamellulae frequent, with diverse lengths (observed in the exsicatum). Stipe 15-25 × 2-6 mm, subequal to slightly wider toward base, violaceous brown, glabrescent; veil absent.

Basidiospores 7.6-9.2 × 5.1-6.1 µm (L = 8.4 µm, W = 5.7 µm, Q = 1.33-1.54 (-1.70), Qm = 1.48), ellipsoid, few widely ellipsoid or elongate, yellowish brown in KOH, weakly dextrinoid, adaxial surface slightly convex, wall verrucose; moderately thick-walled (0.4 µm thick), without germ-pore; hilar appendix small. Basidia 17.3-21 × 6.1-9.2 µm, clavate, hyaline. Pleurocystidia absent. Lamellae edge sterile, with crowded cheilocystidia. Cheilocystidia 15.3-25.5 × 5.6-8.2 µm, lageniform with capitate or subcapitate apex, hyaline, thin walled. Lamellae trama regular, composed by hyaline or pale yellowish hyphae 2-5.5 µm wide. Pileus trama unsatisfactorily rehydrated but distinctly interwoven, with hyaline to pale yellowish thin-walled hyphae. Pileipellis a differentiated cutis, composed up by yellowish, parallel to subparallel hyphae, with terminal cells 6-11 µm wide, thin-walled; pileocystidia absent. Caulocystidia absent. Clamp connections present in hymenium, but difficult to observe.

The species is densely cespitose on a dicotyledon trunk. And is know only from the type locality. The etymology is from Gr. ‘ianthinus’ (= violet) and ‘lophus’ (= tuft). Due the new species is disposed as a dense tuft of many basidiomata with violet stipe.

This species was originally described as “G. violaceus Araújo ined.” in the unpublished thesis of Aguiar (1984)Aguiar IJA (1984) Contribuição ao conhecimento da família Cortinariaceae Roze ex Heim (Agaricales) na Amazônia Brasileira. PhD Thesis. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia and Fundação Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus. 219p., due the violet stipe. In addition, the epithet chosen by us also emphasizes the cespitose habit of the basidiomata. In the original description, Aguiar (1984)Aguiar IJA (1984) Contribuição ao conhecimento da família Cortinariaceae Roze ex Heim (Agaricales) na Amazônia Brasileira. PhD Thesis. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia and Fundação Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus. 219p. reported dextrinoid basidiospores, but in our analysis, the weak Melzer’s reaction was observed after approximately 24 hours.

According to Hesler (1969)Hesler LR (1969) North American species of Gymnopilus. Mycologia Memoirs 3: 1-117., the new species can be assigned to sect. Gymnopilus s.auct. in the account of the ringless stipe, and basidiospores mostly ranging (6-)7-9 µm long. Following Hesler’s (1969: 51-53) key, the dextrinoid basidiospores, fibrillose ranging to scaly pileus, lignicolous basidiomes not larger than 50 mm in diam., and absence of veil put our species keyed with G. picreus sensu Hesler, G. aurantiacus Hesler, and G. fuscosquamulosus Hesler. However, G. aurantiacus and G. fuscosquamulosus, although sharing the interwoven pileus trama, readily differ in the non-violaceous stipe, and the presence of pleurocystidia (Hesler 1969Hesler LR (1969) North American species of Gymnopilus. Mycologia Memoirs 3: 1-117.).

Species with dark colored stipe are not common in Gymnopilus. Gymnopilus picreus (Pers.) P. Karst., G. picreus sensu Hesler, G. marasmioides, and G. russipes Pegler are the only few known species, so far:

The North American specimens of G. picreus sensu Hesler somewhat agree in the ornamented pileus centre, and also share in the subdecurrent lamellae and the pigmented stipe. However, G. picreus sensu Hesler differs in the ‘subsquamulose’ pileus with moist and hygrophanous surface, umber to fulvous stipe, radial pileus trama, and the presence of ventricose pleurocystidia and clavate pileocystidia (Hesler 1969Hesler LR (1969) North American species of Gymnopilus. Mycologia Memoirs 3: 1-117.).

Actually, G. picreus sensu stricto was originally described from Northern Europe protologued as having “umbrino” (i.e., umber, brown according to Stern 1985Stern WT (1985) Botanical Latin. 3rd ed. David & Charles, London. 565p.) stipe, glabrous cinnamon pileus, and emarginate-adnexed lamellae (Persoon 1798Persoon CH (1798) Icones et Descriptiones Fungorum Munus Cognitorum. Fasc. I. Breitkopf-Haerteliani, Lipsiae. 60p., as Agaricus picreus Pers.). Bon & Roux (2002: 40)Bon M & Roux P (2002) Le genre Gymnopilus P. Karst. en Europe. Fungi non Delineati 17: 1-52., on the other hand, described the pileus surface as “matt and entirely pruinose”. Later, Holec (2005)Holec J (2005) The genus Gymnopilus (Fungi, Agaricales) in the Czech Republic with respect to collections from other European countries. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Historia Naturalis 61: 1-52. included more accurate data about this European entity as the orange-brown, red-brown to reddish rusty brown and glabrous (but finely ornamented under lens) pileus, emarginate lamellae, dark rusty brown to umber brown with red or violet tinge stipe, only slightly dextrinoid basidiospores (8-)8.5-10.5(-10.8) × (5.2-)5.5-6.5 µm, and absence of pleurocystidia, although Bon & Roux (2002)Bon M & Roux P (2002) Le genre Gymnopilus P. Karst. en Europe. Fungi non Delineati 17: 1-52. reported non-capitate pleurocystidia in French specimens.

In the Brazilian Amazon, G. marasmioides might be a somewhat similar species. It was originally described with tawny pulverulent subconic pileus, emarginate to adnate lamellae, and deep brown stipe (Berkeley 1856Berkeley MJ (1856) Decades of Fungi LI-LIV: Rio Negro Fungi. Hooker Journal of Botany Kew Garden Miscellaneous 8: 129-144., as Agaricus marasmioides Berk.). Later, it was redescribed in detail by Singer (1965)Singer R (1965) Interesting and new Agaricales from Brazil. Atas do Instituto de Micologia da Universidade do Recife 2: 15-59., who reported as growing in fasciculate tuft, but with tawny subglabrous and minutely sulcate pileus in dried state with a distinct papila, adnate to emarginate lamellae, and exannulate rusty stipe with deep brown base when dry. Microscopically, the basidiospores are similar to G. ianthinolophus in size measuring 6-9 × 4.8-6.5 µm, but the species presents pleurocystidia. Subsequent type study by Pegler (1988)Pegler DN (1988) Agaricales of Brazil described by M.J. Berkeley. Kew Bulletin 43: 453-473. also reported basidiospores 7-9 × 4-5.6 (7.5 ± 0.4 × 5.2 ± 0.3) µm, and numerous subcylindric to lageniform pleurocystidia. Thus, the presence of pleurocystidia in G. marasmioides can be readily used for segregating this taxon from G. ianthinilophus.

Finally, G. russipes was reported as very common growing in large numbers on rotten wood in the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe (Pegler 1983Pegler DN (1983) Agaric flora of Lesser Antilles. Kew Bulletin Additional Series 9: 1-668.). This species was described with a reddish brown stipe, a feature that can be somewhat similar to the violaceus brown stipe of G. ianthinilophus, as well as the absence of veil and of pleurocystidia. However, G. russipes differs at least in the larger, up to 60 mm in diam., pileus, with minute apressed fibrillose surface, and wider basidiospores 8-10 × 6-7.5 µm, L = 9 µm; W = 6.5 µm; Qm = 1.34 (Pegler 1983Pegler DN (1983) Agaric flora of Lesser Antilles. Kew Bulletin Additional Series 9: 1-668.).

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge Dr. Laura Guzmán-Dávalos (Universidad de Guadalajara), for kindly pre-submission expert review and suggestions; the “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico” (CNPq) by funding the projects “Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade” (PPBio Proc. 60/2009), “Fungos agaricoides em áreas de Mata Atlântica e Caatinga no estado da Paraíba” (Edital Universal Proc. 420.448/2016-0), providing PhD scholarship (Proc. 140848/2019-3) for FCSSF, and “Produtividade em Pesquisa” (Proc. 307922/2014-6, Proc. 307947/2017-3 and Proc. 309652/2020-0) grants for FW.

References

  • Aguiar IJA (1984) Contribuição ao conhecimento da família Cortinariaceae Roze ex Heim (Agaricales) na Amazônia Brasileira. PhD Thesis. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia and Fundação Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus. 219p.
  • Berkeley MJ (1856) Decades of Fungi LI-LIV: Rio Negro Fungi. Hooker Journal of Botany Kew Garden Miscellaneous 8: 129-144.
  • Berkeley MJ & Cooke MC (1877) The fungi of Brazil, including those collected by J.W.H. Trail, Esq. M.A., in 1874. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 15: 363-398.
  • Bon M & Roux P (2002) Le genre Gymnopilus P. Karst. en Europe. Fungi non Delineati 17: 1-52.
  • Fabrini FCSS & Wartchow F (2020) Annotated checklist of Gymnopilus from Brazil. Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) 10: 42-49.
  • Fabrini FCSS, Gúzman-Dávalos L & Wartchow F (2022) Gymnopilus pholiotoides (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), an unexpected new record from an urban area in Brazil. Iheringia, Série Botânica 77: e2022021.
  • He MQ, Zhao RL, Hyde KD, Begerow D, Kemler M, Yurkov A, McKenzie EHC, Raspé O, Kakishima M, Sánchez-Ramírez S, Vellinga EC, Halling R, Papp V, Zmitrovich IV, Buyck B, Ertz D, Wijayawardene NN, Cui BK, Schoutteten N, Liu XZ, Li TH, Yao YJ, Zhu XY, Liu AQ, Li GJ, Zhang MZ, Ling ZL, Cao B, Antonín V, Boekhout T, da Silva BDB, De Crop E, Decock C, Dima B, Dutta AK, Fell JW, Geml J, Ghobad-Nejhad M, Giachini AJ, Gibertoni TB, Gorjón SP, Haelewaters D, He SH, Hodkinson BP, Horak E, Hoshino T, Justo A, Lim YW, Menolli N Jr, Mešić A, Moncalvo JM, Mueller GM, Nagy LG, Nilsson RH, Noordeloos M, Nuytinck J, Orihara T, Ratchadawan C, Rajchenberg M, Silva-Filho AGS, Sulzbacher MA, Tkalčec Z, Valenzuela R, Verbeken A, Vizzini A, Wartchow F, Wei TZ, Weiß M, Zhao CL & Kirk PM (2019) Notes, outline and divergence times of Basidiomycota. Fungal Diversity 99: 105-367.
  • Hesler LR (1969) North American species of Gymnopilus Mycologia Memoirs 3: 1-117.
  • Holec J (2005) The genus Gymnopilus (Fungi, Agaricales) in the Czech Republic with respect to collections from other European countries. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Historia Naturalis 61: 1-52.
  • Pegler DN (1983) Agaric flora of Lesser Antilles. Kew Bulletin Additional Series 9: 1-668.
  • Pegler DN (1988) Agaricales of Brazil described by M.J. Berkeley. Kew Bulletin 43: 453-473.
  • Peixoto AL & Morim MP (2003) Coleções botânicas: documentação da biodiversidade brasileira. Ciência e Cultura 55: 21-24.
  • Persoon CH (1798) Icones et Descriptiones Fungorum Munus Cognitorum. Fasc. I. Breitkopf-Haerteliani, Lipsiae. 60p.
  • Silva-Junior FCS & Wartchow F (2015) Gymnopilus purpureograminicola (Strophariaceae, Agaricomycetidae), a new species from Paraíba, Brasil. Nova Hedwigia 101: 395-402.
  • Singer R (1965) Interesting and new Agaricales from Brazil. Atas do Instituto de Micologia da Universidade do Recife 2: 15-59.
  • Stern WT (1985) Botanical Latin. 3rd ed. David & Charles, London. 565p.
  • Thiers B (continuously updated) Index Herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available at <http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/>. Access on 25 February 2022.
    » http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/
  • Tulloss RE, Ovrebo CL & Halling RE (1992) Studies on Amanita (Amanitaceae) from Andean Colombia. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 66: 1-46.
  • Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Al-Ani LKT, Tedersoo L, Haelewaters D, Rajeshkumar KC, Zhao RL, Aptroot A, Leontyev DV, Saxena RK, Tokarev YS, Dai DQ, Letcher PM, Stephenson SL, Ertz D, Lumbsch HT, Kukwa M, Issi IV, Madrid H, Phillips AJL, Selbmann L, Pfliegler WP, Horváth E, Bensch K, Kirk PM, Kolaříková K, Raja HA, Radek R, Papp V, Dima V, Ma J, Malosso E, Takamatsu S, Rambold G, Gannibal PB, Triebel D, Gautam AK, Avasthi S, Suetrong S, Timdal E, Fryar SC, Delgado G, Réblová M, Doilom M, Dolatabadi S, Pawłowska J, Humber RA, Kodsueb R, Sánchez-Castro I, Goto BT, Silva DKA, Souza FA, Oehl F, Silva GA, Silva IR, Błaszkowski J, Jobim K, Maia LC, Barbosa FR, Fiuza PO, Divakar PK, Shenoy BD, Castañeda-Ruiz RF, Somrithipol S, Lateef AA, Karunarathna SC, Tibpromma S, Mortimer PE, Wanasinghe DN, Phookamsak R, Xu J, Wang Y, Tian F, Alvarado P, Li DW, Kušan I, Matočec N, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Papizadeh M, Heredia G, Wartchow F, Bakhshi M, Boehm E, Youssef N, Hustad VP, Lawrey JD, Santiago ALCMA, Bezerra JDP, Souza-Motta CM, Firmino AL, Tian Q, Houbraken J, Hongsanan S, Tanaka K, Dissanayake AJ, Monteiro JS, Grossart HP, Suija A, Weerakoon G, Etayo J, Tsurykau A, Vázquez V, Mungai P, Damm U, Li QR, Zhang H, Boonmee S, Lu YZ, Becerra AG, Kendrick B, Brearley FQ, Motiejūnaitė J, Sharma B, Khare R, Gaikwad S, Wijesundara DSA, Tang LZ, He MQ, Flakus A, Rodriguez-Flakus P, Zhurbenko MP, McKenzie EHC, Stadler M, Bhat DJ, Liu JK, Raza M, Jeewon R, Nassonova ES, Prieto M, Jayalal RGU, Erdoğdu M, Yurkov A, Schnittler M, Shchepin ON, Novozhilov YK, Silva-Filho AGS, Liu P, Cavender JC, Kang Y, Mohammad S, Zhang LF, Xu RF, Li YM, Dayarathne MC, Ekanayaka AH, Wen TC, Deng CY, Pereira OL, Navathe S, Hawksworth DL, Fan XL, Dissanayake LS, Kuhnert E, Grossart HP & Thines M (2020) Outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa. Mycosphere 11: 1060-1456.

Edited by

Area Editor: Dr. Mauricio Salazar-Yepes

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    06 Mar 2023
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    26 Nov 2021
  • Accepted
    16 Aug 2022
Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro Rua Pacheco Leão, 915 - Jardim Botânico, 22460-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Tel.: (55 21)3204-2148, Fax: (55 21) 3204-2071 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: rodriguesia@jbrj.gov.br