Checklist of polypores (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) reveals seventeen new records in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments at the Poços de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais 1 Part of the undergraduate monography of the first author.

Filipe Pagin-Cláudio Adriana de Mello Gugliotta Ricardo Matheus Pires About the authors

Abstract

This is the first survey of macrofungi carried out at the Poços de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an area of high biological importance according to the Ministry of Environment. The survey of polypores was performed monthly, from June/2018 to May/2019 in ten transects (200 m² each) distributed in fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a montane seasonal semideciduous forest. Two orders, 8 families, 21 genera, and 23 species were identified, of which one is a new record for Brazil, Tropicoporus drechsleri, and 16 are new records for the state of Minas Gerais. A list of species is included in this study, as well as illustrations for the new records, a key for taxonomic identification, and remarks on the distribution of the recorded species. The study also includes annotations about substrate, taxonomy discussion, and a full description of the new record for the country.

Key words
Hymenochaetales; mycology; Neotropical fungi; Polyporales; taxonomy

Resumo

Este é o primeiro inventário de macrofungos realizado no Planalto de Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, uma área de alta importância biológica de acordo com o órgão de política brasileira do meio ambiente, Ministério do Meio Ambiente. O levantamento de políporos foi executado mensalmente de junho/2018 até maio/2019, em dez transectos (200 m² cada) distribuídos em fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecidual montana da Mata Atlântica Brasileira. Duas ordens, 8 famílias, 21 gêneros e 23 espécies foram identificadas, dentre as quais verificou-se um novo registro para o Brasil, Tropicoporus drechsleri, e 16 novos registros para o estado de Minas Gerais. Uma lista de espécies está presente neste trabalho, bem como, uma prancha de fotos dos novos registros, uma chave para determinação dos táxons e comentários sobre a distribuição das espécies. O estudo também contempla anotações sobre o substrato, discussões taxonômicas e a descrição completa para o novo registro referente ao país.

Palavras-chave
Hymenochaetales; micologia; fungos neotropicais; Polyporales; taxonomia

Introduction

Polypores are lignicolous macrofungi with tubular hymenophore, belonging to the class Agaricomycetes, phylum Basidiomycota (Ryvarden 1991Ryvarden L (1991) Genera of polypores: nomenclature and taxonomy. Synopsis Fungorum 5: 1-373.; Webster & Weber 2007Webster J & Weber SWR (2007) Introduction. In: Webster J & Weber SWR (eds.) Introduction to fungi. Vol.1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 1-39.; Hibbett et al. 2014Hibbett DS, Bauer R, Binder M, Giachini AJ, Hosaka K, Justo A, Larsson E, Larsson KH, Lawrey JD, Miettinen O, Nagy LG, Nilsson RH, Weiss M & Thorn RG (2014) Agaricomycetes. In: McLaughlin DJ & Spatafora JW (eds.) The Mycota. Vol. 8. Ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Pp. 373-412.).

Polypores establish an ecological relationship with the substrate as saprobes, but can also act as parasites, and rarely as mycorrhiza (Zjawiony 2004Zjawiony JK (2004) Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi. Journal of Natural Products 67: 300-310.). Saprobes play a major role in the global carbon cycle and in decomposition within ecosystems (Harvey & Thurston 2001Harvey PJ & Thurston CF (2001) The biochemistry of ligninolytic fungi. In: Gadd GM (ed.) Fungi in bioremediation. Vol. 1. Ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 27-51.; Dighton 2003Dighton J (2003) Introduction. In: Bennett JW & Lemke PA (eds.) Fungi in ecosystem processes. Vol. 17. Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York. Pp. 1-25.). In addition, these fungi establish a series of interactions with a variety of organisms in the deadwood microhabitat (Stokland 2012Stokland JN (2012) The saproxylic food web. In: Stokland JN, Siitonen J & Jonsson BG (eds.) Biodiversity in dead wood. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 1-509.).

This group of fungi is useful for humans because of its biomass (used as food) and metabolomics (used as medicine or intermediates in industrial chemical processes) (Grienke et al. 2014Grienke U, Zöll M, Peintner U & Rollinger JM (2014) European medicinal polypores: a modern view on traditional uses. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 154: 564-583.; Nguyen et al. 2018Nguyen KA, Wikee S & Lumyong S (2018) Brief review: lignocellulolytic enzymes from polypores for efficient utilization of biomass. Mycosphere 9: 1073-1088.; Willis 2018Willis KJ (eds.) (2018) State of the world’s fungi. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 92p.), among others.

Only a fraction of the total number of species present in Brazilian tropical ecosystems is known, and several taxonomic problems involving native taxa represent a knowledge gap (Berrin et al. 2012Berrin JG, Navarro D, Couturier M, Olivé C, Grisel S, Haon M, Taussac S, Lechat C, Courtecuisse R, Favel A, Coutinho PM & Meesen-Lesage L (2012) Exploring the natural fungal biodiversity of tropical and temperate forests toward improvement of biomass conversion. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78: 6483-6490.).

The Atlantic Forest, one of the richest neotropical biomes in terms of biotic composition, is identified as a “hotspot” for its elevated rates of diversity, endemism, and deforestation (Myers et al. 2000Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GAB & Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858. ). It has been considered a relevant site for investigation of the diversity of polypores (Baltazar et al. 2012Baltazar JM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Ryvarden L, Cavalcanti MAQ & Gibertoni TB (2012) Contribution to the knowledge of polypores (Agaricomycetes) from the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga, with new records from Brazil. Mycosphere 3: 267-280. ). Although Minas Gerais is one of the largest states in the country, it has records for less than 600 species in the Fungi kingdom, with only five herbaria registering but a few amount of vouchers in their mycological collections (Maia et al. 2007Maia LC, Drechsler-Santos ER & Cáceres M (2007) Representatividade dos fungos nos herbários brasileiros. In: Maia LC, Yano-Melo AM (orgs.) Micologia: avanços no conhecimento. Vol. 1. Ed. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife. Pp 189-194.; Baltazar et al. 2012Baltazar JM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Ryvarden L, Cavalcanti MAQ & Gibertoni TB (2012) Contribution to the knowledge of polypores (Agaricomycetes) from the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga, with new records from Brazil. Mycosphere 3: 267-280. ; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Williams & Teodoro 2015Williams EA & Teodoro CI (2015) Herbário Anders Fredrik Regnell, Minas Gerais (AFR). Unisanta Bioscience 4: 328-330.; Maia et al. 2019Maia LC, Gibertoni TB, Gugliotta AM, Leonardo-Silva L, Moreira IC, Silveira RMB, Sotão HMP & Xavier-Santos S (2019) Acervos micológicos nos herbários brasileiros: retratando as diferenças nacionais. In: Oliveira LA, Jesus MA, Jackisch Matsuura AB, Gasparotto L, Oliveira JGS, Lima-Neto RG & Rocha LC (eds.) Conhecimento, conservação e uso de fungos. Vol. 1. Ed. INPA, Manaus. Pp. 190-201.).

This study focuses on the taxonomic investigation of polypores present in two fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a montane seasonal semideciduous forest, at the Poços de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais. We provide a list of species, a photo plate of the new records, a dichotomous taxonomic key, and remarks on the distribution of the recorded species, as well as comments on substrates and taxonomic discussions.

Materials and Methods

Study area and inventoried sites

The Poços de Caldas Plateau is located within the Brazilian Atlantic biome, and located in the South and Southwest mesoregions of the Minas Gerais state (21°47’14”S and 46°33’59”W) (Ministério do Meio Ambiente 2007Ministério do Meio Ambiente (2007) Áreas prioritárias para a conservação, uso sustentável e repartição de benefícios da biodiversidade brasileira: atualização - Portaria MMA N°9, de 23 de Janeiro de 2007. Report. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília. 300p.; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística 2019Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2019) Monografias municipais: Sudeste, Minas Gerais, Poços de Caldas. Report. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Brasília. 32p.). The plateau has a maximum altitude of 1,636 m.a.s.l. and its climate is classified in the Köppen-Geiger Scale as “mild”mesothermal with mean temperatures ranging from 10 to 15 °C (Moraes & Jiménez-Rueda 2008Moraes FT & Jiménez-Rueda JR (2008) Fisiografia da região do Planalto de Poços de Caldas, MG/SP. Revista Brasileira de Geociências 38: 196-208.; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística 2019Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2019) Monografias municipais: Sudeste, Minas Gerais, Poços de Caldas. Report. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Brasília. 32p.). According to the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2006)Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estátistica (2006) Mapa da área de aplicação da lei n° 11.428, de 2006. Avaliable at <https://www.ibge.gov.br/geociencias/informacoes-ambientais/15842-biomas.html?=&t=downloads>. Access on 22 June 2020.
https://www.ibge.gov.br/geociencias/info...
, the single type of forested phytophysiognomy at the Poços de Caldas plateau is the montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

Sample collection and preservation

Our fungi inventory was collected from two forest fragments in the municipality of Poços de Caldas. Ten transects of 200 m² each were demarcated in these fragments, according to the measurements recommended by Zak & Willig (2004)Zak JC & Willig MR (2004) Fungal biodiversity patterns. In: Mueller GM, Bills GF & Foster MS (eds.) Biodiversity of fungi: inventory and monitoring methods. Elsevier Academic Press, Boston. Pp. 1-761. and in a recent study developed in Brazil by Abrahão et al. (2019)Abrahão MC, Pires RM, Gugliotta AM, Gomes EPC & Bononi VLR (2019) Wood-decay fungi (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) in three physiognomies in the Savannah region in Brazil. Hoehnea 46: 1-11.. Sample collection was performed monthly from June/2018 to May/2019, and the first author collected all materials. During the survey, basidiomata where photographed, georeferenced, collected with a knife and individually packed in paper bags. Samples were preserved by dehydration in an oven with air ventilation at room temperature and then frozen at -20 °C. Vouchers are deposited at the Anders Fredrik Regnell (AFR) Herbarium, at Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas (FJBPC).

Analysis of basidiomata and species taxonomy

Basidiomata were studied using the traditional methods applied in the taxonomy of polypores (Ryvarden 2004Ryvarden L (2004) Neotropical polypores part 1. Synopsis Fungorum 19: 1-238.). By means of macromorphological examination with the aid of a stereoscopic microscope, the attachment, seasonality, consistency, color, surface, thickness, construction, and configuration of the basidiomata were analyzed; for more details see Ryvarden (2004)Ryvarden L (2004) Neotropical polypores part 1. Synopsis Fungorum 19: 1-238.. Microscopic characterization of the fungi was performed using freehand longitudinal and transversal cuts of the basidiomata. In order to hydrate the sections, a KOH solution (5%) was used. Phloxine (1%) was used to stain the protoplasm, and Melzer´s reagent was adopted for verification of chemical reactions in spores and hyphae (Teixeira 1995Teixeira AR (1995) Método para estudo das hifas do basidiocarpo de fungos poliporáceos. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo. Pp. 1-20.). Microstructures, including hyphae, sterile elements, and basidia, were classified by type, color, size, and positive or negative chemical reactions. For the characterization of basidiospores the variables size, shape, color, presence, and type of ornaments, as well as, positive or negative chemical reactions were evaluated.

Current names, classifications, authors, and synonyms of the identified taxa were check on the Index Fungorum electronic database (2021Index Fungorum (2021) Index Fungorum. Available at <http://www.indexfungorum.org/>. Access on 25 February 2021.
http://www.indexfungorum.org/...
) and on referential literature. The geographic distributions of the species in Brazil were verified using proper literature and data from the online platform Flora do Brasil 2020 (continuously updated).

Substrate classes: host type and size

The differences in the ecology of polypores is in some way or another linked with its substrate variables (Lodge et al. 2004Lodge DJ, Ammirath JF, O´Dell TE, Mueller GM, Huhndorf SB, Wang CJ, Stokland JN, Schmit JP, Ryvarden L, Leacock PR, Mata M, Umaña L, Wu Q & Czederpiltz (2004) Terrestrial and lignicolous macrofungi. In: Mueller GM, Bills GF & Foster MS (eds.) Biodiversity of fungi: invetoring and monithoring methods. Elsevier Academic Press, Boston. Pp 128-168.). Some variables of the wood are host type and size (Lodge et al. 2004Lodge DJ, Ammirath JF, O´Dell TE, Mueller GM, Huhndorf SB, Wang CJ, Stokland JN, Schmit JP, Ryvarden L, Leacock PR, Mata M, Umaña L, Wu Q & Czederpiltz (2004) Terrestrial and lignicolous macrofungi. In: Mueller GM, Bills GF & Foster MS (eds.) Biodiversity of fungi: invetoring and monithoring methods. Elsevier Academic Press, Boston. Pp 128-168.). Host type was divided into seven categories: dead twig, dead branch, dead trunk, stand dead tree, living tree, stump, or exposed root. For size, we adopted the six classes of diameter proposed by Lodge et al. (2004)Lodge DJ, Ammirath JF, O´Dell TE, Mueller GM, Huhndorf SB, Wang CJ, Stokland JN, Schmit JP, Ryvarden L, Leacock PR, Mata M, Umaña L, Wu Q & Czederpiltz (2004) Terrestrial and lignicolous macrofungi. In: Mueller GM, Bills GF & Foster MS (eds.) Biodiversity of fungi: invetoring and monithoring methods. Elsevier Academic Press, Boston. Pp 128-168.: less than 1.0 cm, 1.1–2.5 cm, 2.6–5.0 cm, 5.1–10 cm, 10.1–20 cm, or more than 20 cm. Although this is not a work of research in ecology, we recommend that more annotated checklists incorporate this approach, given the importance of substrate information, and the opportunity to compare data that is quite easy extract during the field work.

Results and Discussion

Checklist of polypores

The first checklist of polypores in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments at the Poços de Caldas Plateau reveals one new record for Brazil and sixteen new records for Minas Gerais (Tab. 1), evidencing a knowledge gap about polypores in these geographic regions, especially in the state. A total of 23 species, 21 genera, 8 families, and two orders (Tab. 1) were identified, and all reported fungi represent new records for the Poços de Caldas Plateau (Tab. 1).

Table 1
List of polypore species, including new records and its substrates, concerning type and size, reported in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Fragments at the Poços de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais. Legend: ( Ω ) = New record for Brazil; ( Φ ) = New record for Minas Gerais.

Polypores and their substrates

All polypores were collected from angiosperm deadwood substrates (Tab. 1). Seventeen species were found on a single type of substrate (e.g. branch or trunk), four species on two types (e.g. branch and trunk), and two species on three types (e.g. branch, trunk, and stand dead tree) (Tab. 1). This pattern was similarly revealed in an ecological research conducted by Borba-Silva et al. (2015)Borba-Silva MA, Drechsler-Santos ER & Robledo GL (2015) Community structure and functional diversity of polypores (Basidiomycota) in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Biotemas 28: 1-11. where most species were found on a single type of substrate and fewer species on two types. However, they did not find any species on three types of substrate. The majority of species were sampled from branches of small to medium size in diameter (1.0-15 cm), and this could be partially explained by the fact that this type of substrate tend to be more frequent in the forest than dead trunks, stand dead trees (Lodge et al. 2004Lodge DJ, Ammirath JF, O´Dell TE, Mueller GM, Huhndorf SB, Wang CJ, Stokland JN, Schmit JP, Ryvarden L, Leacock PR, Mata M, Umaña L, Wu Q & Czederpiltz (2004) Terrestrial and lignicolous macrofungi. In: Mueller GM, Bills GF & Foster MS (eds.) Biodiversity of fungi: invetoring and monithoring methods. Elsevier Academic Press, Boston. Pp 128-168.), stumps, and exposed roots. The results obtained by Borba-Silva et al. (2015)Borba-Silva MA, Drechsler-Santos ER & Robledo GL (2015) Community structure and functional diversity of polypores (Basidiomycota) in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Biotemas 28: 1-11. concur with ours, with a majority of species sampled from dead branches. Dead twigs are the smallest-sized wood debris, which are also relatively frequent in the forest (Lodge et al. 2004Lodge DJ, Ammirath JF, O´Dell TE, Mueller GM, Huhndorf SB, Wang CJ, Stokland JN, Schmit JP, Ryvarden L, Leacock PR, Mata M, Umaña L, Wu Q & Czederpiltz (2004) Terrestrial and lignicolous macrofungi. In: Mueller GM, Bills GF & Foster MS (eds.) Biodiversity of fungi: invetoring and monithoring methods. Elsevier Academic Press, Boston. Pp 128-168.), but no species was sampled from this substrate, indicating a preference of polypores for abundant small- to medium-sized wood debris with 1–10 cm in diameter (Tab. 1).

Identification key for polypores, including new records, for Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments at the Poços de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais

  1. 1. Basidiomata stipitate.

    1. 2. Presence of a black cuticle on the stipe ................... 17. Polyporus guianensis

    2. 2’. Black cuticle absent on the stipe.

      1. 3. Basidiomata centrally stipitate ................... 13. Lentinus arcularius

      2. 3’. Basidiomata eccentrically to almost laterally stipitate ................... 6. Favolus brasiliensis

  2. 1’. Basidiomata resupinate to sessile pileate.

    1. 4. Basidiomata strictly resupinate.

      1. 5. Ornamented basidiospores ................... 11. Haploporus papyraceus

      2. 5’. Basidiospores smoothie.

        1. 6. Hyphal system dimitic.

          1. 7. Basidiomata white, pores 1–2/mm ................... 2. Dichomitus setulosus

          2. 7’. Basidiomata pink, pores 9–10/mm ................... 19. Steccherinum neonitidum

        2. 6’. Hyphal system monomitic.

          1. 8. Hymenial setae present ................... 12. Inonotus multisetifer

          2. 8’. Hymenial setae absent ................... 5. Emmia latemarginata

    2. 4’. Basidiomata effused-reflexed to pileate, if resupinate only when young.

      1. 9. Basidiospores double-walled, endospore ornamented ................... 10. Ganoderma australe

      2. 9’. Basidiospores simple-walled, without ornamentation.

        1. 10. Hymenial setae present.

          1. 11. Basidiomata less than 5 cm wide, context homogeneous, with both skeletal and generative hyphae, pores 8–10/mm ................... 9. Fuscoporia gilva

          2. 11’. Basidiomata usually found up to 10 cm wide, context duplex, composed only of generative hyphae, pores 4–6/mm ................... 23. Tropicoporus drechsleri

        2. 10’. Hymenial setae absent.

          1. 12. Arthroconidia present.

            1. 13. Hirsute orange projections present in the abhymenial surface ................... 3. Echinoporia aculeifera

            2. 13’. Hirsute orange projections absent ................... 4. Echinoporia inermis

          2. 12’. Arthroconidia absent.

            1. 14. Hyphal system monomitic to pseudodimitic, generative hyphae with simple septa.

              1. 15. Basidiomata white to ivory-cream, basidiospores 3–4.5 × 3–4 µm ......................................................... 14. Oxyporus populinus

              2. 15’. Basidiomata cream, pale buff to orange, basidiospores larger.

                1. 16. Basidiomata less than 5 cm wide, basidiospores 4.5–6 × 4–5 µm ......................................................... 16. Physisporinus lineatus

                2. 16’. Basidiomata more than 5 cm wide, basidiospores (7–)8–10 × 6 µm ......................................................... 18. Rigidoporus ulmarius

            2. 14’. Hyphal system trimitic, dimitic or pseudodimitic, generative hyphae with clamps.

              1. 17. Hyphal system trimitic.

                1. 18. Hymenial surface grayish putty to brownish gray, granular dissepiments ......................................................... 1. Cerioporus stereoides

                2. 18’. Hymenial surface white to cream, dissepiments without a granular nature.

                  1. 19. Basidiomata thin, flexible and papery, pileus gray and villose, abhymenial surface not becoming black with KOH ................... 21. Trametes villosa

                  2. 19’. Basidiomata rigid, coriaceous, pileus brown with hairs intercalated in zones, abhymenial surface becoming black with KOH ................... 8. Funalia caperata

              2. 17’. Hyphal system dimitic to pseudodimitic.

                1. 20. Hymenial surface sulfurous yellow ................... 7. Flaviporus brownii

                2. 20’. Hymenial surface different colored.

                  1. 21. Cystidia present ................... 20. Steccherinum undigerum

                  2. 21’. Cystidia absent.

                    1. 22. Pores 0.5–1.5/mm, basidiospores allantoid, bent, 5–6 × 2–3 µm ......................................................... 22. Trametopsis brasiliensis

                    2. 22’. Pores 6–8/mm, basidiospores globose to subglobose, not bent, 3–5 × 3–4.5 µm ................... 15. Perenniporiella neofulva

1. Cerioporus stereoides (Fr.) Zmitr. & Kovalenko, International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms (Redding) 18(1): 33. 2016. Fig. 1a

Figure 1
a-h. Macromorphology of the basidiomata – a. Cerioporus stereoides (Cláudio et al. 131); b. Dichomitus setulosus (Cláudio et al. 137); c. Echinoporia aculeifera (Cláudio et al. 302); d. Echinoporia inermis (Cláudio et al. 279); e. Emmia latemarginata (Cláudio et al. 321); f. Flaviporus brownii (Cláudio et al. 121); g. Haploporus papyraceus (Cláudio et al. 441); h. Inonotus multisetifer (Cláudio et al. 334). Scale bar = 1 cm.

Basionym: Polyporus stereoides Fr., Observ. Mycol. (Havniae) 2: 258. 1818.

Description: Ryvarden (2015)Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247. as Datronia stereoides.

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’28.3”S, 46°37’08.7”W, 25.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 131 (AFR); 21°46’27.9”S, 46°37’08.7”W, 24.VII.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 172 (AFR); 21°46’28.14”S, 46°37’08.57”W, 27.XI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 275 (AFR).

Cerioporus stereoides is characterized by its thin basidiomata, regular, angular, and medium, 3–4(–5)/mm pores, the granulose nature of its dissepiment walls due to the abundance of dendrohyphidia, and by a transient black line in the upward context that is difficult to observe because of the thin basidiomata. Despite the similarities, Cerioporus scutellatus (Schwein) Zmitr., has smaller basidiomata, rarely above 1 cm, and Coriolopsis brunneoleuca (Berk.) Ryvarden, has larger, 2–3/mm, pores and dextrinoid skeletal hyphae (Ryvarden 2015Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247.).

This is a widely distributed species with collections in Asia, Europe, North America, Central America, and South America (Lindblad 2000Lindblad I (2000) Host specificity of some wood-inhabiting fungi in a tropical forest. Mycologia 92: 399-405.; Núñez & Ryvarden 2001Núñez M & Ryvarden L (2001) East Asia polypores. Synopsis Fungorum 14: 161-575.; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2014Motato-Vásquez V, Pires RM & Gugliotta AM (2014) Polypores from an Atlantic rainforest in Southeast Brazil: pileate species. Brazilian Journal of Botany 37: 149-164. ; Ryvarden 2015Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247.; Álvarez et al. 2016Álvarez VI, Raymundo T & Valenzuela R (2016) Los hongos poliporoides de la Huasteca Potosina, San Luíz Potosí, México. Polibotánica 41: 31-48.). A phylogenetic analysis of Neotropical specimens is necessary to set out its geographic distribution and specific morphological concept.

Previously recorded in the states of Amapá, Pará, Acre, Rondônia, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, São Paulo (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in Minas Gerais. Not so often collected in the country, this species was recorded in dense ombrophilous forest (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2014Motato-Vásquez V, Pires RM & Gugliotta AM (2014) Polypores from an Atlantic rainforest in Southeast Brazil: pileate species. Brazilian Journal of Botany 37: 149-164. ; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in a montane seasonal semideciduous forest of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

2. Dichomitus setulosus (Henn.) Masuka & Ryvarden, Mycol. Res. 103(9): 1130. 1999. Fig. 1b

Basionym: Poria setulosa Henn., Bol. Jb. 28(3): 321. 1900.

Description: Ryvarden (2015)Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247..

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’26.8”S, 46°37’06.5”W, 25.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 135 (AFR); 21°46’26.6”S, 46°37’06.8”W, 25.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 136 (AFR); 21°46’26.9”S, 46°37’06.4”W, 25.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 137 (AFR); 21°46’27.0”S, 46°37’06.3”W, 23.VII.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 170 (AFR); 21°46’27.0”S, 46°37’06.4”W, 23.VII.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 171 (AFR); 21°46’26.71”S, 46°37’7.22”W, 27.XI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 273 (AFR); 21°46’26.2”S, 46°37’06.7”W, 29.I.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 338 (AFR); 21°46’26.6”S, 46°37’06.4”W, 29.I.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 339 (AFR); 21°46’26.9”S, 46°37’05.8”W, 25.II.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 362 (AFR).

The white, resupinate, and coriaceous basidiomata with larger, 1–2/mm, angular pores, and the long projections visible in the dissepiments due its numerous hyphal pegs are substantial features for the identification of this species, which are not seen in combination in any other taxa of the genus (Ryvarden 2015Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247.).

Previously recorded in the states of Pará, Ceará, Piauí, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in Minas Gerais. In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, this species occurs in phytophysiognomies of dense ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest (Westphalen et al. 2010Westphalen MC, Reck MA & Silveira RMB (2010) Polypores from Morro Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Hoehnea 37: 647-662.; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

3. Echinoporia aculeifera (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Ryvarden, Mycotaxon 20(2): 330. 1984. Fig. 1c

Basionym: Trametes aculeifera Berk. & M.A. Curtis, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 10(45): 319. 1868.

Description: Ryvarden (2015)Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247..

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’51.2”S, 46°37’19.7”W, 28.I.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 302 (AFR).

Echinoporia is an easily recognizable genus of polypores in the Neotropical region, where its represented by two species, because it produces relatively large asexual spores, called arthroconidia (Ryvarden 2015Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247.). Echinoporia aculeifera can be discriminated in situ from E. inermis by its cream basidiomata covered with linear to cylindrical orange projections that appear since its initial stage of development (Ryvarden 2015Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247.).

Previously recorded in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2015Motato-Vásquez V, Robledo GL & Gugliotta AM (2015) New records and geographic distribution map of Echinoporia Ryvarden (Schizoporaceae, Basidiomycota) species in the Neotropics. Check List 11: 1-5.), and now in Minas Gerais. Almost all records of this species in the country are from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where it occurs in the following phytophysiognomies: mixed ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest (Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

4. Echinoporia inermis G. Coelho, Fungal Planet, A Global Initiative to Promote the Study of Fungal Biodiversity 27: [2]. 2008. Fig. 1d

Description: Coelho (2008)Coelho G (2008) Echinoporia inermis G. Coelho, Sp. Nov. Fungal Planet 27: 1-2..

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’50.5”S, 46°37’19.2”W, 18.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 279 (AFR); 21°46’50.8”S, 46°37’18.8”W, 28.I.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 311 (AFR).

Both Neotropical Echinoporia species present a similar hymenial surface configuration, that is, cream-colored with large, regular to irregular pores, which is an indicator for the identification of these taxa in natura. Nevertheless, in field conditions, E. inermis can be discriminated from E. aculeifera by its white basidiomata, glabrous or with scales in the abhymenial surface, but always without orange projections (Ryvarden 2015Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247.).

Previously recorded in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo (Coelho 2008Coelho G (2008) Echinoporia inermis G. Coelho, Sp. Nov. Fungal Planet 27: 1-2.; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2015Motato-Vásquez V, Robledo GL & Gugliotta AM (2015) New records and geographic distribution map of Echinoporia Ryvarden (Schizoporaceae, Basidiomycota) species in the Neotropics. Check List 11: 1-5.), and now in Minas Gerais. This is the third time this species is sampled since its first description in 2008, and all specimens were collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, which reinforces the statement proposed by Motato-Vásquez et al. (2015)Motato-Vásquez V, Robledo GL & Gugliotta AM (2015) New records and geographic distribution map of Echinoporia Ryvarden (Schizoporaceae, Basidiomycota) species in the Neotropics. Check List 11: 1-5. that E. inermis is endemic to this biome. Within the biome, this species was recorded in dense ombrophilous forest (Motato-Vásquez et al. 2015Motato-Vásquez V, Robledo GL & Gugliotta AM (2015) New records and geographic distribution map of Echinoporia Ryvarden (Schizoporaceae, Basidiomycota) species in the Neotropics. Check List 11: 1-5.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

5. Emmia latemarginata (Durieu & Mont.) Zmitr., Spirin & Malysheva, in Zmitrovich, Malysheva & Spirin, Mycena 6: 33. 2006. Fig. 1e

Basionym: Polyporus latemarginatus Durieu & Mont., Syll. Gen. sp. Crypt. (Paris): 163. 1856.

Description: Ryvarden (2016)Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170. as Oxyporus latemarginatus.

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’25.0”S, 46°37’10.2”W, 29.01.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 321 (AFR); 21°46’25.3”S, 46°37’10.6”W, 25.II.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 350 (AFR).

Emmia latermarginata is characterized by its resupinate, soft when fresh and brittle when dried basidiomata, with large, angular pores, lacerated dissepiments, narrowly ellipsoid, (4.5–)5–6 × 3–4 µm basidiospores, and clavate to cylindrical cystidia with encrustations in the apex. Oxyporus hexaporoides Ryvarden & Iturr has similar basidiomata differentiated by its broadly ellipsoid, 3–4.5 × 2.2–2.5 µm basidiospores (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.).

Previously recorded in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Gibertoni et al. 2015Gibertoni TB, Gomes-Silva AC, Chikowski RS, Lira CRS, Soares MAS, Melo GSN, Araújo Neta L, Gugliotta AM, Medeiros PS, Silva VF, Silveira RMB, Drechsler-Santos ER & Montoya CAS (2015) Hymenochaetales in Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 01 July 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.), and now in Minas Gerais. This is the second record of the species in the Southeast region. Emmia latemarginata is a rare species in the country with few collections, restricted to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.). The phytophysiognomies within the biome where this species was recorded were dense ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest (Ryvarden & Meijer 2002Ryvarden L & Meijer AAR (2002) Studies in Neotropical polypores 14: new species from the state of Paraná, Brazil. Synopsis Fungorum 15: 34-69.; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.), and now montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

6. Favolus brasiliensis (Fr.) Fr., Linnaea 5: 511. 1830.

Basionym: Daedalea brasiliensis Fr. Syst. Mycol. (Lundae) 1: 332. 1821.

Description: Palacio et al. (2021)Palacio M, Drechsler-Santos ER, Menolli Júnior N & Silveira RMB (2021) An overview of Favolus from the Neotropics, including four new species. Mycologia: 1-17. .

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’51.6”S, 46°37’18.4”W, 19.IX.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 224 (AFR); 21°46’51.6”S, 46°37’21.4”W, 22.X.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 238 (AFR); 21°46’50.3”S, 46°37’18.7”W, 22.10.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 248 (AFR); forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’26.32”S, 46°37’9.72”W, 27.XI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 272 (AFR); 21°46’26.2”S, 46°37’09.6”W, 20.XII.2018, F.P. Cláudio 292 (AFR).

Recent investigations conducted by Palacio et al. (2021)Palacio M, Drechsler-Santos ER, Menolli Júnior N & Silveira RMB (2021) An overview of Favolus from the Neotropics, including four new species. Mycologia: 1-17. showed that F. brasiliensis is a species complex and further studies will be crucial to delimit its morphological concept and geographical distribution. However, white to pale yellow, flexible, strong eccentrically to almost laterally stipitate basidiomata, glabrous and radially striate abhymenial surface, larger, angular pores, and entire to slightly lacerate dissepiments covering the hymenial surface are attributes for its determination in the field. It differs from F. radiatifibrillosus Palacio & R.M. Silveira, F. rugulosus Palacio & R.M. Silveira, and F. yanomami Palacio & Menolli, which also have radially elongated pores, by the glabrous and radially striate abhymenial surface (Palacio et al. 2021Palacio M, Drechsler-Santos ER, Menolli Júnior N & Silveira RMB (2021) An overview of Favolus from the Neotropics, including four new species. Mycologia: 1-17. ).

Previously recorded in the states of Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Maranhão, Sergipe, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.). This species complex was commonly collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest where it was found in phytophysiognomies of dense ombrophilous forest and montane seasonal semideciduous forest (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2014Motato-Vásquez V, Pires RM & Gugliotta AM (2014) Polypores from an Atlantic rainforest in Southeast Brazil: pileate species. Brazilian Journal of Botany 37: 149-164. ; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.; Komonen et al. 2018Komonen A, Kokkonen M, Araujo LS, Halme P & Lopes-Andrade C (2018) Polypores communities and their substrate characteristics in Atlantic Forest fragments in Shoutheast Brazil. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-2.; Palacio et al. 2021Palacio M, Drechsler-Santos ER, Menolli Júnior N & Silveira RMB (2021) An overview of Favolus from the Neotropics, including four new species. Mycologia: 1-17. ).

7. Flaviporus brownii (Humb.) Donk [as ’brownei’], Persoonia 1(2): 215. 1960. Fig. 1f

Basionym: Polyporus brownii (Humb.) Pers., Mycol. eur. (Erlanga) 2: 121. 1825.

Description: Gerber & Loguercio-Leite (1997)Gerber AL & Loguercio-Leite C (1997) New records of polypores (Aphyllophorales) from Southern Brazil. Mycotaxon 62: 305-318..

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’27.9”S, 46°37’07.6”W, 30.I.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 344 (AFR). 21°46’27.9”S, 46°37’07.6”W, 28.V.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 428 (AFR).

Easily recognizable in the nature by its pileate, coriaceous to resinous basidiomata – which is a common feature in the genus due to agglutination of hyphae – a dark reddish brown abhymenial surface, and a distinct sulfurous yellow hymenial surface with small pores that are difficult to see without a magnifying lens (Gerber & Loguercio-Leite 1997Gerber AL & Loguercio-Leite C (1997) New records of polypores (Aphyllophorales) from Southern Brazil. Mycotaxon 62: 305-318.). Microscopically, this species presents a monomitic to pseudodimitic hyphal system, relatively tiny and ellipsoid basidiospores, and apically encrusted cystidia (Gerber & Loguercio-Leite 1997Gerber AL & Loguercio-Leite C (1997) New records of polypores (Aphyllophorales) from Southern Brazil. Mycotaxon 62: 305-318.; Westphalen et al. 2018Westphalen MC, Rajchenberg M, Tomšovský M & Gugliotta AM (2018) A re-evaluation of Neotropical Junghuhnia s. lat. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and multigene analyses. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 41: 130-141.).

Previously recorded in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Pires et al. 2016bPires RM, Motato-Vásquez V & Gugliotta AM (2016b) New records of Polypores (Basidiomycota) from the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Iheringia - Série Botânica 71: 124-131.), and now in Minas Gerais. In the country, F. brownii was collected only in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where it appears to be restricted (Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.). In this biome, the species was recorded in mixed ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest (Westphalen & Silveira 2013Westphalen MC & Silveira RMB (2013) Pileate polypores from Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil. Hoehnea 40: 77-86.; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

8. Funalia caperata (Berk.) Zmitr. & Malysheva, Mikol. Fitopatol. 47(6): 375. 2013.

Basionym: Polyporus caperatus Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., Mag. Zool. Bot. Geol. 3: 391. 1839.

Description: Ryvarden (2015)Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247. as Datronia caperata.

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’51.1”S, 46°37’19.9”W, 19.IX.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 211 (AFR).

This species can be recognized in the field by its annual, coriaceous basidiomata, which have a concentrically zonate abhymenial surface composed by adpressed tomentose zones (Ryvarden 2015Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247.). It differs from Datronia taylorii (Murrill) Ryvarden by the larger pores and larger basidiospores, and from Cerioporus glabrus (Ryvarden) Zmitr. by the tomentose zones and larger pores (Ryvarden 2015Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247.).

Previously recorded in the states of Acre, Amapá, Pará, Roraima, Rondônia, Tocantins, Alagoas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Piauí, Sergipe, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
). A commonly collected species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Westphalen & Silveira 2013Westphalen MC & Silveira RMB (2013) Pileate polypores from Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil. Hoehnea 40: 77-86.; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.). It is known to occur in dense ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest, and montane seasonal semideciduous forest (Abrahão et al. 2009Abrahão MC, Gugliotta AM & Gomes E (2009) Poliporóides (Basidiomycota) em fragmentos de mata no perímetro urbano de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 32: 427-440. ; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.; Komonen et al. 2018Komonen A, Kokkonen M, Araujo LS, Halme P & Lopes-Andrade C (2018) Polypores communities and their substrate characteristics in Atlantic Forest fragments in Shoutheast Brazil. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-2.).

9. Fuscoporia gilva (Schwein.) T. Wagner & M. Fisch, Mycologia 94(6): 1013. 2002.

Basionym: Boletus gilvus Schwein., Schr. Naturf. Ges. (Leipzig) 1: 96. 1822.

Description: Ryvarden (2004)Ryvarden L (2004) Neotropical polypores part 1. Synopsis Fungorum 19: 1-238. as Phellinus gilvus.

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’28.1”S, 46°37’08.7”W, 25.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 130 (AFR); 21°46’25”S, 46°37’11”W, 28.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 155 (AFR).

This species has high morphological plasticity and more studies are needed to clarify its strict morphological concept (Ryvarden 2004Ryvarden L (2004) Neotropical polypores part 1. Synopsis Fungorum 19: 1-238.; Campo-Santana et al. 2015). Nevertheless, the gregarious, relatively small, pileate to effused-reflexed basidiomata, glabrous to scrupose or hispid abhymenial surface, brown context, subulate to ventricose hymenial setae, and small ellipsoid basidiospores are diagnostic features for its identification (Ryvarden 2004Ryvarden L (2004) Neotropical polypores part 1. Synopsis Fungorum 19: 1-238.; Groposo et al. 2007Groposo C, Loguercio-Leite C & Góes-Neto A (2007) Fuscoporia (Basidiomycota, Hymenochaetales) in Shouthern Brazil. Mycotaxon 101: 55-63.; Campos-Santana et al. 2015Campos-Santana M, Robledo G, Decock C & Silveira RMB (2015) Diversity of poroid Hymenochaetaceae (Basidiomycota) from the Atlantic Forest and Pampa in Southern Brazil. Cryptogamie Mycologie 36: 43-78. ).

Previously recorded in the states of Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Alagoas, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gibertoni et al. 2015Gibertoni TB, Gomes-Silva AC, Chikowski RS, Lira CRS, Soares MAS, Melo GSN, Araújo Neta L, Gugliotta AM, Medeiros PS, Silva VF, Silveira RMB, Drechsler-Santos ER & Montoya CAS (2015) Hymenochaetales in Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 01 July 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Komonen et al. 2018Komonen A, Kokkonen M, Araujo LS, Halme P & Lopes-Andrade C (2018) Polypores communities and their substrate characteristics in Atlantic Forest fragments in Shoutheast Brazil. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-2.). This species was recorded several times in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest where it occurs in mixed ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest, and montane seasonal semideciduous forest (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Westphalen et al. 2010Westphalen MC, Reck MA & Silveira RMB (2010) Polypores from Morro Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Hoehnea 37: 647-662.; Westphalen & Silveira 2013Westphalen MC & Silveira RMB (2013) Pileate polypores from Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil. Hoehnea 40: 77-86.; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2014Motato-Vásquez V, Pires RM & Gugliotta AM (2014) Polypores from an Atlantic rainforest in Southeast Brazil: pileate species. Brazilian Journal of Botany 37: 149-164. ; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Pires & Gugliotta 2016aPires RM & Gugliotta AM (2016a) New records of polypores (Basidiomycota) from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Iheringia - Série Botânica 71: 124-131. ; Komonen et al. 2018Komonen A, Kokkonen M, Araujo LS, Halme P & Lopes-Andrade C (2018) Polypores communities and their substrate characteristics in Atlantic Forest fragments in Shoutheast Brazil. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-2.).

10. Ganoderma australe (Fr.) Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 5(2,3): 65. 1889.

Basionym: Polyporus australis Fr., Elench. fung. (Greisfswald) 1: 108. 1828.

Description: Ryvarden (2004)Ryvarden L (2004) Neotropical polypores part 1. Synopsis Fungorum 19: 1-238..

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’51.3”S, 46°37’20.7”W, 26.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 138 (AFR); 21°46’51.4”S, 46°37’20.6”W, 26.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 141 (AFR); 21°46’38.9”S, 46°37’09.0”W, 21.XII.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 296 (AFR).

Ganoderma australe and G. applanatum (Pers.) Pat. are almost indistinguishable by morphological features, forming a species complex (Leonard 1998Leonard AC (1998) Two Ganoderma species compared. Mycologist 12: 65-68.; Gugliotta et al. 2011Gugliotta AM, Poscolere GD & Campacci TVS (2011) Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, Brasil. Fungos: Ganodermataceae. Hoehnea 38: 687-695. ). As stated by Moncalvo & Buchanan (2008)Moncalvo JM & Buchanan PK (2008) Molecular evidence for long dispersal across the Southern Hemisphere in the Ganoderma applanatum-australe species complex (Basidiomycota). Mycological Research 112: 425-436. molecular and biological evidence supports the existence of cryptic species nested in eight clades derived from the complex, which are strongly correlated with geographical origins (2 from the Northern Hemisphere, 1 from the Southern Hemisphere, 1 from the Southern Hemisphere and Asia, 1 from Asia, 1 from Malaysia, 1 from Neotropics, and 1 from Thailand). Therefore, it is more appropriate to identify our specimens as G. australe, common in the tropical zone, than as G. applanatum common in the temperate zone (Ryvarden 2004Ryvarden L (2004) Neotropical polypores part 1. Synopsis Fungorum 19: 1-238.; Moncalvo & Buchanan 2008Moncalvo JM & Buchanan PK (2008) Molecular evidence for long dispersal across the Southern Hemisphere in the Ganoderma applanatum-australe species complex (Basidiomycota). Mycological Research 112: 425-436.).

Ganoderma australe can be identified by the perennial, woody basidiomata, dull, brown to black, with a thick cuticle abhymenial surface, dark brown tubes that are not completely separated by layers of context, often light-colored walls, and basidiospores up to 8 µm (Leonard 1998Leonard AC (1998) Two Ganoderma species compared. Mycologist 12: 65-68.; Ryvarden 2004Ryvarden L (2004) Neotropical polypores part 1. Synopsis Fungorum 19: 1-238.). The size of basidiospores is a classical feature for the discrimination between G. australe and G. applanatum, which usually has smaller spores, but it cannot be used solely because measurements can overlap (Leonard 1998Leonard AC (1998) Two Ganoderma species compared. Mycologist 12: 65-68.). The revision of almost 50 specimens of G. australe collected in the municipality of São Paulo (Gugliotta et al. 2011Gugliotta AM, Poscolere GD & Campacci TVS (2011) Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, Brasil. Fungos: Ganodermataceae. Hoehnea 38: 687-695. ) showed that basidiospore size is highly variable, which corroborates the variations observed in our investigation. In conjuction with the actual evidences, this fact possibly indicates that cryptic species are involved in what we now know as the Neotropical G. australe clade.

Previously recorded in the states of Pará, Amazonas, Roraima, Rondônia, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Rio de janeiro, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, and Mato Grosso do Sul (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.). A commonly collected species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where it is known to occurs in mixed ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest, and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Westphalen et al. 2010Westphalen MC, Reck MA & Silveira RMB (2010) Polypores from Morro Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Hoehnea 37: 647-662.; Gugliotta et al. 2011Gugliotta AM, Poscolere GD & Campacci TVS (2011) Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, Brasil. Fungos: Ganodermataceae. Hoehnea 38: 687-695. ; Torres-Torres et al. 2012Torres-Torres MG, Guzmán-Davalos L & Gugliotta AM (2012) Ganoderma in Brazil: known species and new records. Mycotaxon 121: 93-132.; Westphalen et al. 2013; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2014Motato-Vásquez V, Pires RM & Gugliotta AM (2014) Polypores from an Atlantic rainforest in Southeast Brazil: pileate species. Brazilian Journal of Botany 37: 149-164. ; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.).

11. Haploporus papyraceus (Cooke) Y. C. Dai & Niemelä, in Dai, Niemelä & Kinnunen, Ann. Bot. fenn. 39(3): 181. 2002. Fig. 1g

Basionym: Boletus papyraceus Schwein., Schr. Naturf. Ges. Leipzig 1: 99. 1822.

Description: Ryvarden (2016)Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170. as Pachykytospora papyracea.

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’52.9”S, 46°37’18.0”W, 26.IV.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 441 (AFR).

Haploporus papyraceus can be identified by its annual, resupinate, adherent, buff, stained with pink to purple tint basidiomata, large pores, 1–3/mm, and ornamented and relatively large basidiospores. Haploporus papyraceus differs from the morphologically similar species, Haploporus alabamae (Berk. & Cooke) Ryvarden, by its stained with pink to purple tint basidiomata, larger pores, and slightly larger basidiospores (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.).

Previously recorded in the states of Roraima, Pará, Pernambuco, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul (Drechsler-Santos et al. 2008Drechsler-Santos ER, Groposo C & Loguercio-Leite C (2008) Additions to the knowledge of lignocellulolytic basidiomycetes in forests from Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Mycotaxon 103: 197-200.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
), and now in Minas Gerais. The majority of records for this species in the country are from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and a minority is from the Brazilian Cerrado (Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.). In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, it is known to be found in dense ombrophilous forest, mixed ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest (Westphalen et al. 2010Westphalen MC, Reck MA & Silveira RMB (2010) Polypores from Morro Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Hoehnea 37: 647-662.; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

12. Inonotus multisetifer Abrahão & Gugliotta, Mycotaxon 120: 36. 2012. Fig. 1h

Description: Abrahão & Gugliotta (2012)Abrahão MC & Gugliotta AM (2012) A new species of Inonotus (Hymenochaetaceae) and Trametes cingulata (Polyporaceae) newly recorded from Brazil. Mycotaxon 120: 35-41. .

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’26.6”S, 46°37’09.3”W, 29.I.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 334 (AFR).

Inonotus multisetifer and I. adnatus Ryvarden are closely related species presenting annual, resupinate, strongly adnate, and brown to cinnamon basidiomata, margin thin to absent, tubes deep, pores tiny, round to angular, presence of hymenial setae, and setal hyphae (Ryvarden 2005Ryvarden L (2005) The genus Inonotus: a synopsis. Synopsis Fungorum 21: 1-149.; Abrahão & Gugliotta 2012Abrahão MC & Gugliotta AM (2012) A new species of Inonotus (Hymenochaetaceae) and Trametes cingulata (Polyporaceae) newly recorded from Brazil. Mycotaxon 120: 35-41. ). What clearly defines and distinguishes this specimen as I. multisetifer rather than I. adnatus, only known from the Type collection in Costa Rica (Ryvarden 2005Ryvarden L (2005) The genus Inonotus: a synopsis. Synopsis Fungorum 21: 1-149.), is its slightly wider basidiomata and larger, (7–)8–10 × 8–9 µm [vs. 7–8.8 µm diam.; Ryvarden (2005)Ryvarden L (2005) The genus Inonotus: a synopsis. Synopsis Fungorum 21: 1-149.], subglobose to globose basidiospores.

Previously recorded in the Type collection in São Paulo (Abrahão & Gugliotta 2012Abrahão MC & Gugliotta AM (2012) A new species of Inonotus (Hymenochaetaceae) and Trametes cingulata (Polyporaceae) newly recorded from Brazil. Mycotaxon 120: 35-41. ), and now in Minas Gerais. This is the second record for this rare species since its first description in 2012 (Abrahão & Gugliotta 2012Abrahão MC & Gugliotta AM (2012) A new species of Inonotus (Hymenochaetaceae) and Trametes cingulata (Polyporaceae) newly recorded from Brazil. Mycotaxon 120: 35-41. ). Inonotus species are often short-lived, which could partially explain the fact that only two collections of I. multisetifer have been made in the country (Ryvarden 2005Ryvarden L (2005) The genus Inonotus: a synopsis. Synopsis Fungorum 21: 1-149.). Both specimens were sampled in a seasonal semideciduous forest of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Abrahão & Gugliotta 2012Abrahão MC & Gugliotta AM (2012) A new species of Inonotus (Hymenochaetaceae) and Trametes cingulata (Polyporaceae) newly recorded from Brazil. Mycotaxon 120: 35-41. ). More studies focusing on the survey of polypores in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest can expand its area of distribution and/or reveal if it inhabits other phytophysiognomies in the biome.

13. Lentinus arcularius (Batsch) Zmitr. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms (Redding) 12(1): 88. 2010. Fig. 2a

Figure 2
a-h. Macromorphology of the basidiomata – a. Lentinus arcularius (Cláudio et al. 355); b. Oxyporus populinus (Cláudio et al. 436); c. Perenniporiella neofulva (Cláudio et al. 193); d. Physisporinus lineatus (Cláudio et al. 404); e. Polyporus guianensis (Cláudio et al. 352); f. Rigidoporus ulmarius (Cláudio et al. 161); g. Steccherinum neonitidum (Cláudio et al. 202); h. Trametopsis brasiliensis (Cláudio et al. 228). Scale bar = 1 cm.

Basionym: Boletus arcularius Batsch, Elench. fung. (Halle): 97. 1783.

Description: Ryvarden (2016)Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170. as Polyporus arcularius.

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’25.2”S, 46°37’11.4”W, 25.II.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 355 (AFR). 21°46’39.3”S, 46°37’09.2”W, 26.III.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 371 (AFR).

This species belongs to the genus group Leucoporus, which presents centrally stipitate and leathery basidiomata, without a black cuticle on the stipe (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.). A circular pileus, generally with depressed center, ciliated margin, and especially the larger pores, 1.5–3/mm, are field characters for the identification of this species.

Previously recorded in the states of Pará, Rondônia, Bahia, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in Minas Gerais. Lentinus arcularius is a relatively rare species in the country due its small number of collections (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.). In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, this species was recorded in dense ombrophilous forest (Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

14. Oxyporus populinus (Schumach.) Donk, Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 9: 204. 1933. Fig. 2b

Basionym: Boletus populinus Schumach., Enum. pl. (Kjbenhavn) 2: 384. 1803.

Description: Ryvarden (2016)Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170..

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’50.3”S, 46°37’18.3”W, 26.V.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 436 (AFR).

The whitish to ivory-cream basidiomata, the monomitic hyphal system with simple septate hyphae, the subglobose basidiospores, and the presence of true hymenial cystidia are distinctive features for the classification of this specimen in the genus Oxyporus rather than any other related genera (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.; Wu et al. 2017Wu F, Chen JJ, Ji XH, Vlasák J & Dai CY (2017) Phylogeny and diversity of the morphologically similar polypore genera Rigidoporus, Physisporinus, Oxyporus and Leucophellinus. Mycologia 109: 749-765.). Three pileate species of Oxyporus are recorded for Brazil, two in the South region and one in the North region, including O. cinnamomeus Núñez & Ryvarden, O. mollis Gibertoni & Ryvarden, and O. populinus (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gibertoni et al. 2012Gibertoni TB, Martins-Junior A, Ryvarden L & Sotão H (2012) Oxyporus mollis sp. nov. (Agaricomycetes) from the Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Nova Hedwigia 94: 175-179., 2015). The later, like our specimen, has whitish to ivory-cream basidiomata, abundant and incrusted cystidia, and albeit originally described in Europe, it is distributed worldwide (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.). The former, has cinnamon basidiomata, slightly larger basidiospores, and is only known for Brazil and Japan, where the Type collection comes from (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.). Finally, O. mollis, only know from the Type location in the North of Brazil, differs by its yellowish basidiomata, concentrically zonate abhymenial surface, and smooth cystidia (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.).

Previously recorded in the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in Minas Gerais, the first state in the Southeast region with this record. All Brazilian specimens of O. populinus were collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, specifically in the phytophysiognomies of mixed ombrophilous forest (Ryvarden & Meijer 2002Ryvarden L & Meijer AAR (2002) Studies in Neotropical polypores 14: new species from the state of Paraná, Brazil. Synopsis Fungorum 15: 34-69.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

15. Perenniporiella neofulva (Lloyd) Decock & Ryvarden, Mycol. Res. 107(1): 94. 2003. Fig. 2c

Basionym: Polyporus neofulvus Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 4: 13. 1915.

Description: Decock & Ryvarden (2003)Decock C & Ryvarden L (2003) Perenniporiella Gen. Nov. segregated from Perenniporia, including a key to Neotropical Perenniporia species with pileate basidiomes. Mycological Research 107: 93-103..

Material selected: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’24.5”S, 46°37’10”W, 28.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 152 (AFR); 21°46’24.5”S, 46°37’10”W, 23.VII.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 163 (AFR); forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’51.3”S, 46°37’19.4”W, 22.X.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 242 (AFR); 21°46’50.8”S, 46°37’19.2”W, 20.XII.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 281 (AFR); 21°46’51.2”S, 46°37’19.1”W, 28.I.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 308 (AFR); 21°46’51.1”S, 46°37’19.3”W, 4.V.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 434 (AFR).

Perenniporiellaneofulva is characterized by its annual to biannual, pileated basidiomata, soft when fresh and becoming leathery after dehydration, smooth, azonate to concentrically zonate abhymenial surface, white to gray hymenial surface, dimitic hyphal system and globose to subglobose, thick-walled basidiospores (Decock & Ryvarden 2003Decock C & Ryvarden L (2003) Perenniporiella Gen. Nov. segregated from Perenniporia, including a key to Neotropical Perenniporia species with pileate basidiomes. Mycological Research 107: 93-103.). Nevertheless, it is necessary to highlight that thicker basidiomata, with slightly smaller pores and the production of slightly smaller basidiospores are quite substantial to discriminate this species when compared with the morphologically similar P. micropora (Ryvarden) Decock & Ryvarden (Decock & Ryvarden 2003Decock C & Ryvarden L (2003) Perenniporiella Gen. Nov. segregated from Perenniporia, including a key to Neotropical Perenniporia species with pileate basidiomes. Mycological Research 107: 93-103.).

Previously recorded in the states of São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
), and now in Minas Gerais. Perenniporiella neofulva is known from only a few localities in Brazil (Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.). It was more often collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest than in other biomes of the country (Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.). In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, P. neofulva, was recorded in mixed ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest (Westphalen & Silveira 2013Westphalen MC & Silveira RMB (2013) Pileate polypores from Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil. Hoehnea 40: 77-86.; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

16. Physisporinus lineatus (Pers.) F. Wu, Jia J. Chen & Y.C. Dai, in Wu, Chen, Vlasák & Dai, Mycologia 109(5): 760. 2017. Fig. 2d

Basionym: Polyporus punctatus Jungh., Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunst. Wet. 17(2): 64. 1838.

Description: Ryvarden (2016)Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170. as Rigidoporus lineatus.

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’24.9”S, 46°37’11.3”W, 27.XI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 269 (AFR); 21°46’25.3”S, 46°37’10.9”W, 30.IV.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 404 (AFR).

Physisporinuslineatus is characterized by its annual, applanate to imbricate, coriaceous basidiomata, concentrically zonate, vivid orange when fresh to pale cream when dried abhymenial surface, orange-red when fresh, drying pinkish-purple hymenial surface, and small pores, (7–)9–10/mm. In contrast with the similar species Rigidoporus microporus (Sw.) Overeem, P. lineatus produces encrusted cystidia, and slightly larger basidiospores (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.).

Previously recorded in the states of Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Alagoas, Bahia, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
), and now in Minas Gerais. Physisporinus lineatus is widely distributed in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where it was collected in mixed ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest (Baltazar & Gibertoni 2009Baltazar JM & Gibertoni TB (2009) A checklist of the aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) recorded from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mycotaxon 109: 439-442.; Westphalen et al. 2010Westphalen MC, Reck MA & Silveira RMB (2010) Polypores from Morro Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Hoehnea 37: 647-662.; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

17. Polyporus guianensis Mont., Annls. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2 13(1): 201. 1840. Fig. 2e

Description: Ryvarden (2016)Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170..

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’25.2”S, 46°37’11.0”W, 25.II.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 352 (AFR); 21° 46’25.3”S, 46°37’10.7”W, 25.V.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 399 (AFR).

This species belongs to the genus group Melanopus, which is recognize by a black cuticle covering the stipe (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.). In particular, P. guianensis can be discriminated from the other species in the group by the large pores, 1–2/mm, and paler abhymenial surface (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.).

Previously recorded in the states of Pará, Amazonas, Acre, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Bahia, Mato Grosso, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in Minas Gerais. In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, P. guianensis, was collected in fragments of dense ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest (Westphalen et al. 2010Westphalen MC, Reck MA & Silveira RMB (2010) Polypores from Morro Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Hoehnea 37: 647-662.; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

18. Rigidoporus ulmarius (Sowerby) Imazeki, Bull. Gov. Forest Exp. Stn Tokyo 57: 119.1952. Fig. 2f

Basionym: Boletus ulmarius Sowerby, Col. fig. Engl. Fung. Mushr. (London) 1(11): 88. 1797

Description: Ryvarden (2016)Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170..

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’26”S, 46°37’10”W, 28.VI.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 161 (AFR).

Large pileate basidiomata and large basidiospores are particular to this species when compared to the others included in the genus, which makes it easy to identify (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.). In addition, it can be recognized by pinkish-buff to pale cream basidiomata, pinkish buff when fresh to vinaceous buff when dry hymenial surface, and the presence of fusoid cystidiols.

Previously recorded in the states of Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Roraima, Bahia, São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
), and now in Minas Gerais. Rigidoporus ulmarius is a relatively common species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where it was collected in mixed ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest (Westphalen et al. 2010Westphalen MC, Reck MA & Silveira RMB (2010) Polypores from Morro Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Hoehnea 37: 647-662.; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

19. Steccherinum neonitidum Westphalen & Tomšovský, in Westphalen, Rajchenberg, Tomšovský & Gugliotta, Persoonia 41: 137. 2018. Fig. 2g

Description: Westphalen et al. (2018)Westphalen MC, Rajchenberg M, Tomšovský M & Gugliotta AM (2018) A re-evaluation of Neotropical Junghuhnia s. lat. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and multigene analyses. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 41: 130-141..

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’25”S, 46°37’11”W, 22.VIII.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 202 (AFR); 21°46’25.2”S, 46°37’11”W, 25.II.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 354 (AFR); 21°46’25.1”S, 46°37’11.1”W, 29.IV.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 393 (AFR).

This species is very similar to S. nitidum (Pers.) Vesterh. as they share annual, resupinate basidiomata, easily separable from the substrate, and pinkish hymenial surface (Ryvarden 2015Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247.; Westphalen et al. 2018Westphalen MC, Rajchenberg M, Tomšovský M & Gugliotta AM (2018) A re-evaluation of Neotropical Junghuhnia s. lat. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and multigene analyses. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 41: 130-141.). Despite these similarities, S. neonitidum has smaller pores, 8–10/mm (vs. 4–7/mm) and smaller, 3–4 × 3 µm (vs. 3.7–4.5 × 2–2.7 µm) basidiospores than S. nitidum (Westphalen et al. 2018Westphalen MC, Rajchenberg M, Tomšovský M & Gugliotta AM (2018) A re-evaluation of Neotropical Junghuhnia s. lat. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and multigene analyses. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 41: 130-141.).

Previously recorded in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo (Westphalen et al. 2018Westphalen MC, Rajchenberg M, Tomšovský M & Gugliotta AM (2018) A re-evaluation of Neotropical Junghuhnia s. lat. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and multigene analyses. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 41: 130-141.), and now in Minas Gerais. According to Westphalen et al. (2018)Westphalen MC, Rajchenberg M, Tomšovský M & Gugliotta AM (2018) A re-evaluation of Neotropical Junghuhnia s. lat. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and multigene analyses. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 41: 130-141., this species was traditionally identified in Brazil as Junghuhnia nitida (Pers.) Ryvarden due its morphological similarities. Therefore, the distribution of S. neonitidum in the country is probably underestimated; however, its synonyms were never cited for Minas Gerais. What we currently known of its distribution in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is that it occurs in dense ombrophilous forest (Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.; Westphalen et al. 2018Westphalen MC, Rajchenberg M, Tomšovský M & Gugliotta AM (2018) A re-evaluation of Neotropical Junghuhnia s. lat. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and multigene analyses. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 41: 130-141.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

20. Steccherinum undigerum (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Westphalen & Tomšovský, Persoonia 41: 138. 2018.

Basionym: Polyporus undiger Berk. & M. A. Curtis, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 10(45): 317. 1868.

Description: Ryvarden (2015)Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247. as Junghuhnia undigera [’undigerus’].

Material selected: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’26.9”S, 46°37’06.8”W, 25.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 133 (AFR); 21°46’25.2”S, 46°37’11.4”W, 22.VIII.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 200 (AFR); forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’51.2”S, 46°37’19”W, 26.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 144 (AFR).

The thin, flexible, imbricated, often effused-reflexed basidiomata with small pores, often-irregular dissepiments are characters for field diagnostic of this species (Westphalen et al. 2018Westphalen MC, Rajchenberg M, Tomšovský M & Gugliotta AM (2018) A re-evaluation of Neotropical Junghuhnia s. lat. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and multigene analyses. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 41: 130-141.). Steccherinum semisupiniforme (Murrill) Miettinen, a somewhat similar species, has tougher basidiomata and smaller basidiospores (Westphalen et al. 2018Westphalen MC, Rajchenberg M, Tomšovský M & Gugliotta AM (2018) A re-evaluation of Neotropical Junghuhnia s. lat. (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and multigene analyses. Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 41: 130-141.).

Previously recorded in the states of Pará, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Komonen et al. 2018Komonen A, Kokkonen M, Araujo LS, Halme P & Lopes-Andrade C (2018) Polypores communities and their substrate characteristics in Atlantic Forest fragments in Shoutheast Brazil. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-2.). In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest this species occurs in mixed ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest, and montane seasonal semideciduous forest (Westphalen & Silveira 2013Westphalen MC & Silveira RMB (2013) Pileate polypores from Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil. Hoehnea 40: 77-86.; Motato-Vázquez et al. 2014; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.; Komonen et al. 2018Komonen A, Kokkonen M, Araujo LS, Halme P & Lopes-Andrade C (2018) Polypores communities and their substrate characteristics in Atlantic Forest fragments in Shoutheast Brazil. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-2.).

21. Trametes villosa (Sw.) Kreisel, Monografias, Ciências, Univ. Habana, Ser. 16(4): 83. 1971.

Basionym: Boletus villosus Sw., Prodr.: 148. 1788.

Description: Ryvarden (2016)Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170..

Material selected: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’25.4”S, 46°37’10.3”W, 5.VIII.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 227 (AFR); 21°46’25.3”S, 46°37’10.6”W, 2.VIII.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 351 (AFR); forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’50.8”S, 46°37’ 16.3”W, 25.II.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 343 (AFR); 21°46’51.0”S, 46°37’19.3”W, 26.III.2019, F.P. Cláudio et al. 382 (AFR).

Trametes villosa can be recognized in the field by the thin, flexible basidiomata, concentrically zonate, covered with a whitish tomentum abhymenial surface, and large pores with dentate dissepiments covering the hymenial surface (Ryvarden 2016Ryvarden L (2016) Neotropical polypores part 3. Synopsis Fungorum 36: 1-170.).

Previously recorded in the states of Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Roraima, Bahia, Pernambuco, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina (Maia & Carvalho 2010Maia LC & Carvalho AAJ (coords.) (2010) Lista de espécies: fungos. In: Forzza RC (org.) Catálogo de plantas e fungos do Brasil. Vol. 1. Ed. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio, Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 871.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Komonen et al. 2018Komonen A, Kokkonen M, Araujo LS, Halme P & Lopes-Andrade C (2018) Polypores communities and their substrate characteristics in Atlantic Forest fragments in Shoutheast Brazil. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-2.). Trametes villosa is a common species in Brazil and it is distributed in all of the country´s biomes (Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.). In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, this species is known to inhabit mixed ombrophilous forest, dense ombrophilous forest, submontane seasonal semideciduous forest, and montane seasonal semideciduous forest (Westphalen et al. 2010Westphalen MC, Reck MA & Silveira RMB (2010) Polypores from Morro Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Hoehnea 37: 647-662.; Westphalen & Silveira 2013Westphalen MC & Silveira RMB (2013) Pileate polypores from Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil. Hoehnea 40: 77-86.; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2014Motato-Vásquez V, Pires RM & Gugliotta AM (2014) Polypores from an Atlantic rainforest in Southeast Brazil: pileate species. Brazilian Journal of Botany 37: 149-164. ; Pires et al. 2017Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC & Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual Da Serra do Mar, São Paulo state, Brazil. Hoehnea 44: 145-157.; Komonen et al. 2018Komonen A, Kokkonen M, Araujo LS, Halme P & Lopes-Andrade C (2018) Polypores communities and their substrate characteristics in Atlantic Forest fragments in Shoutheast Brazil. Tropical Conservation Science 11: 1-2.).

22. Trametopsis brasiliensis (Ryvarden & de Meijer) Gómez-Mont. & Robledo, in Gómez-Montoya, Drechsler-Santos, Ferreira-Lopes, Tomšovský, Urcelay & Robledo, Phytotaxa 311(2): 163. 2017. Fig. 2h

Basionym: Antrodiella brasiliensis Ryvarden & de Meijer, Syn. Fung. (Oslo) 14: 40. 2002.

Description: Ryvarden (2015)Ryvarden L (2015) Neotropical polypores part 2. Synopsis Fungorum 34: 1-247. as Antrodiella brasiliensis [’brasilensis’].

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment parallel with the road 267, 21°46’25.4”S, 46°37’10.3”W, 24.IX.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 228 (AFR).

Imbricated basidiomata, deep tubes, larger, angular, split and sinuous pores, and allantoid to markedly bent, 5–6 × 2–3 µm basidiospores are remarkable features of T. brasiliensis. The similar species T. cervina (Schwein.) Tomšovský has larger basidiospores, (5.5–)6–9(–10) × (1.7–)2–3 µm, and T. aborigena Gómez-Mont. & Robledo has more robust basidiomata with yellowish red to dark yellowish-brown radial veins in the abhymenial surface (Gómez-Montoya et al. 2017Gómez-Montoya N, Drechsler-Santos ER, Ferreira-Lopes V, Tomšovský M, Urcelay C & Robledo GL (2017) New insigths on Trametopsis Tomšovský (Polyporales Gaüm) based on phylogenetic evidences and morphological analyses of Neotropical species. Phytotaxa 311: 155-167.).

Previously recorded in the states of Paraná (Ryvarden & Meijer 2002Ryvarden L & Meijer AAR (2002) Studies in Neotropical polypores 14: new species from the state of Paraná, Brazil. Synopsis Fungorum 15: 34-69.; Gugliotta et al. 2015Gugliotta AM, Gibertoni TB, Drechsler-Santos ER, Silveira RMB, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Montoya CAS, Souza JF, Palacio M & Rezende DHC (2015) Polyporales in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Avaliable at <http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br >. Access on 20 June 2020.
http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br...
; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), and now in Minas Gerais. Since its original description in 2002, T. brasiliensis has been found in a few localities in Brazil, and all specimens were collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.), suggesting that it can be a rare, endemic species. In the biome, this species was recorded in mixed ombrophilous forest (Meijer 2008Meijer AAR (2008) Tables. In: Meijer AAR (ed.) Notable macrofungi from Brazil´s Paraná pine forests. Ed. Embrapa Forestry, Brasília. Pp. 42-261.), and now in montane seasonal semideciduous forest.

23. Tropicoporus drechsleri Salvador-Montoya & Popoff, in Salvador-Montoya, Costa-Rezende, Ferreira-Lopes, Borba-Silva & Popoff, Phytotaxa 338(1): 80. 2018. Fig. 3a-b

Figure 3
a-b. Macromorphology of young and old basidiomata, respectively – a-b. Tropicoporus drechsleri (Cláudio et al. 146, 114). Scale bar = 1 cm.

Description: Basidiomata perennial, pileate, sessile, broadly attached, applanate to triquetrous, solitary to gregarious, semicircular, up to 8 cm wide, woody. Abhymenial surface smooth brown to smooth black colored, turning black in contact with KOH, concentrically zonate, prominent furrowed zones, cracked and rimose with age, frequently with mosses growing on it. Margin entire, acute, light brown to buff brown, thick to thin in well-developed specimens. Context leathery yellow to brown colored, azonate, fibrous, duplex, with an inconspicuous but distinctive and thin dark line near the abhymenial surface. Tubes cinnamon brown to leathery yellow. Hymenial surface poroid, dark brown to a lighter brown in old specimens, appearing with a more fuscous color when observed from different angles due to the contrast light. Pores regular, circular, sometimes presenting a deviating form in elliptical shape, 4–6/mm, 300–480 µm diam.. Dissepiment thick, entire, velutinate. Hyphal system monomitic in the context and dimitic in the tubes. Context hyphae composed of generative hyphae with simple septa, yellow, not swallowing in KOH, thin- to thick-walled, 2.5–5 µm wide. Tramal hyphae composed by generative and skeletal hyphae (3–4 µm wide), yellow, thick-walled. Basidia not seen. Basidiospores ellipsoid, yellow, thick-walled, IKI-, 5–6 × 4–5 µm. Hymenial setae yellow, frequently present, normally arising from the subhymenium, straight to ventricose, thick-walled, 15–35 × 3–5.9 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Poços de Caldas, forest fragment in the “Area 2”of the Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, 21°46’50.7”S, 46°37’18.9”W, 17.V.2018, F.P. Cláudio 114 (AFR); 21°46’50”S, 46°37’19”W, 26.VI.2018, F.P. Cláudio et al. 146 (AFR).

The basidiomata morphotype resembling species of the “Inonotus linteus”complex featuring perennial seasonality, a pileate habit, a dimitic hyphal system in the tubes and a monomitic in the context, ellipsoid, yellow and thick-walled basidiospores, as well as, the presence of hymenial setae include this specimen in the genus Tropicoporus (Zhou et al. 2015Zhou LW, Vlasák J, Decock C, Assefa A, Stenlid J, Abate D, Wu SH & Dai YC (2015) Global diversity and taxonomy of the Inonotus linteus complex (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota): Sanghuangporus gen. nov., Tropicoporus excentrodendri and T. guanacastensis gen. et spp. nov., and 17 new combinations. Fungal Diversity 77: 335-347.). Of the circumscribed Tropicoporus species with Neotropical distribution, T. drechsleri is the only one presenting, in conjunction, a pileate habit with a duplex context, particularly discriminated by a thin dark line between the abhymenial surface and the context (Salvador-Montoya et al. 2018Salvador-Montoya CA, Costa-Rezende DH, Ferreira-Lopes V, Borba-Silva MA & Popoff OF (2018) A new species in the "Inonotus linteus complex” from nothern Argentina. Phytotaxa 338: 75-89.). Moreover, other remarkable morphological features for the recognition of this species are applanate to triquetrous basidiomata, concentrically zonate, cracked, rimose, and/or with furrowed zones abhymenial surface, ellipsoid, yellow, thick-walled basidiospores, and hymenial setae normally arising from the subhymenium (Salvador-Montoya et al. 2018Salvador-Montoya CA, Costa-Rezende DH, Ferreira-Lopes V, Borba-Silva MA & Popoff OF (2018) A new species in the "Inonotus linteus complex” from nothern Argentina. Phytotaxa 338: 75-89.). Our specimens have slightly larger basidiospores, 5–6 × 4–5 µm, than those reported by Salvador-Montoya et al. 2018Salvador-Montoya CA, Costa-Rezende DH, Ferreira-Lopes V, Borba-Silva MA & Popoff OF (2018) A new species in the "Inonotus linteus complex” from nothern Argentina. Phytotaxa 338: 75-89., (4–)4.5–5(–5.5) × (3–)3.5–4(–4.5) µm. It is possible, that this variation occurred given that we had measured 15 basidiospores due to scarcity of spores in the examined materials. During the field work, brownish spore prints were seen in its substrate justifying the scarcity.

Tropicoporus sideroxylicola (Vlasák & Y.C. Dai) L.W. Zhou, Y.C. Dai & Vlasák, T. dependens (Murrill) L.W. Zhou, Y.C. Dai & Vlasák, and T. pseudolinteus (Vlasák & Y.C. Dai) L.W. Zhou, Y.C. Dai & Vlasák also produce perennial, pileate, woody basidiomata with a cracked to rimose, black or lighter-colored, concentrically zonate abhymenial surface, but do not present a duplex context, and may present larger pores (T. sideroxylicola), sometimes slightly smaller pores (T. dependens), and/or be composed only of a dimitic hyphal system (T. sideroxylicola/ T. dependens) (Vlasák et al. 2013Vlasák J, Li HJ, Zhou LW & Dai YC (2013) A further study on Inonotus linteus complex (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) in tropical America. Phytotaxa 124: 25-36.; Salvador-Montoya et al. 2018Salvador-Montoya CA, Costa-Rezende DH, Ferreira-Lopes V, Borba-Silva MA & Popoff OF (2018) A new species in the "Inonotus linteus complex” from nothern Argentina. Phytotaxa 338: 75-89.). Tropicoporus excentrodendri L.W. Zhou & Y.C. Dai and T. drechsleri present a duplex context, but the former has tiny pores 7–8/mm (vs. 4–6/mm), slightly smaller basidiospores 3.4–4 × 2.9–3.6 µm (vs. 5–6 × 4–5 µm; our measurements), and a dimitic hyphal system (Zhou et al. 2015Zhou LW, Vlasák J, Decock C, Assefa A, Stenlid J, Abate D, Wu SH & Dai YC (2015) Global diversity and taxonomy of the Inonotus linteus complex (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota): Sanghuangporus gen. nov., Tropicoporus excentrodendri and T. guanacastensis gen. et spp. nov., and 17 new combinations. Fungal Diversity 77: 335-347.).

Worldwide distribution: Previously recorded in a seasonally dry tropical forest in Argentina (Salvador-Montoya et al. 2018Salvador-Montoya CA, Costa-Rezende DH, Ferreira-Lopes V, Borba-Silva MA & Popoff OF (2018) A new species in the "Inonotus linteus complex” from nothern Argentina. Phytotaxa 338: 75-89.); this is a new record for Brazil. Like the Type collection, these specimens were sampled in a seasonally dry tropical forest (Salvador-Montoya et al. 2018Salvador-Montoya CA, Costa-Rezende DH, Ferreira-Lopes V, Borba-Silva MA & Popoff OF (2018) A new species in the "Inonotus linteus complex” from nothern Argentina. Phytotaxa 338: 75-89.). Even though T. drechsleri was for the first time recorded in Brazil, this species may be widely distributed in areas of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Tropicoporus linteus s. s. was delimited from specimens collected in Florida (USA) and Central America (Tian et al. 2012Tian XM, Yu HY, Zhou LW, Decock C, Vlasák J & Dai YC (2012) Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Inonotus linteus complex. Fungal Diversity 58: 159-169.), and studies with T. linteus s. lat. collected in tropical Asia and tropical and subtropical America are constantly revealing new species (Tian et al. 2012Tian XM, Yu HY, Zhou LW, Decock C, Vlasák J & Dai YC (2012) Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Inonotus linteus complex. Fungal Diversity 58: 159-169.; Vlasák et al. 2013Vlasák J, Li HJ, Zhou LW & Dai YC (2013) A further study on Inonotus linteus complex (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) in tropical America. Phytotaxa 124: 25-36.; Coelho et al. 2016Coelho G, Silveira AO, Antoniolli ZI & Yurchenko E (2016) Tropicoporus stratificans sp. nov. (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) from Southern Brazil. Phytotaxa 245: 144-152.; Salvador-Montoya et al. 2018Salvador-Montoya CA, Costa-Rezende DH, Ferreira-Lopes V, Borba-Silva MA & Popoff OF (2018) A new species in the "Inonotus linteus complex” from nothern Argentina. Phytotaxa 338: 75-89.). No research has been done in Brazil to revise T. linteus s. lat. and the analysis of herbaria material from Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Sergipe, identified as Inonotus linteus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Teixeira or Phellinus linteus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Teng (Campos-Santana et al. 2015Campos-Santana M, Robledo G, Decock C & Silveira RMB (2015) Diversity of poroid Hymenochaetaceae (Basidiomycota) from the Atlantic Forest and Pampa in Southern Brazil. Cryptogamie Mycologie 36: 43-78. ; Maia et al. 2015Maia LC, Carvalho AAJ, Cavalcanti LH, Gugliotta AM, Drechsler-Santos ER, Santiago ALMA, Cáceres MES, Gibertoni TB, Aptroot A, Giachini AJ, Soares AMS, Silva ACG, Magnano AC, Goto BT, Lira CRS, Montoya CAS, Pires-Zotarelli CLA, Silva DKA, Soares DJ, Rezende DHC, Luz EDMN, Gumboski EL, Wartchow F, Karstedt F, Freire FM, Coutinho FP, Melo GSN, Sotão HMP, Baseia IG, Pereira J, Oliveira JJS, Souza JF, Bezerra JL, Neta LSA, Pfenning LH, Gusmão LFP, Neves MA, Capelari M, Jaeger MCW, Pulgarín MP, Menolli NJ, Medeiros PS, Friedrich RCS, Chikowski RS, Pires RM, Melo RF, Silveira RMB, Urrea-Valencia S, Cortez VG & Silva VF (2015) Diversity of Brazilian fungi. Rodriguésia 66: 1033-1045.; Pires & Gugliotta 2016a), can reveal a greater occurrence of T. drechsleri and/or new species.

Conclusions

The relatively large number of new records from a relatively small sampling area (as compared with the whole area of the state of Minas Gerais) evidences the need for further basic scientific research, which can also contribute with new and interesting data about species distributions. If the goals are the conservation, application and valuation of fungi, it is crucial to study and publish on them (Mace 2004Mace GM (2004) The role of taxonomy in species conservation. The Royal Society 359: 711-719.).

Acknowledgements

The authors kindly acknowledge Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo, Fundação Jardim Botânico de Poços de Caldas, and Centro Universitário Fundação de Ensino Octávio Bastos for providing structural support.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    16 May 2022
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    22 Apr 2021
  • Accepted
    28 July 2021
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