Beltraniopsis rhombispora and Hemibeltrania decorosa from leaf litter in the Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia, Brazil

Marcos Vinícius Oliveira dos Santos Flávia Rodrigues Barbosa Edna Dora Martins Newman Luz José Luiz Bezerra About the authors

Abstract

Species of the Beltrania group are constantly identified in association with a variety of plant debris in Brazil and different localities of the world. Leaf litter samples of Myrcia splendens and Pera glabrata were collected in the Reserva Biológica de Una, municipality of Una, Bahia state, Brazil, in August 2012, and incubated in moist chambers. Two specimens related to Beltrania group were isolated and identified by morphological criteria. This study aimed to describe and illustrate Beltraniopsis rhombispora for the first time in Brazil. Hemibeltrania decorosa previously reported from Caatinga Biome, Bahia state, has been cited for the first time for Atlantic Forest.

Key words:
Beltrania group; conidial fungi; diversity; hyphomycetes; taxonomy

Resumo

Espécies do grupo Beltrania são constantemente identificadas em associação com uma variedade de substratos vegetais em decomposição no Brasil e em diferentes localidades do mundo. Amostras de folhedo de Myrcia splendens e Pera glabrata foram coletadas na Reserva Biológica de Una, município de Una, estado da Bahia, Brasil, em agosto de 2012, e incubadas em câmara úmida. Dois espécimes relacionados ao grupo Beltrania foram isolados e identificados por critérios morfológicos. Este estudo objetivou descrever e ilustrar Beltraniopsis rhombispora pela primeira vez no Brasil. Hemibeltrania decorosa, anteriormente, reportada no bioma Caatinga, estado da Bahia, está sendo citada pela primeira vez na Mata Atlântica.

Palavras-chave:
grupo Beltrania; fungos conidiais; diversidade; hifomicetos; taxonomia

Introduction

The tribe Beltraniae (Family Dematieae later Dematiaceae) was created in 1886 by Saccardo to accommodate the genus Beltrania Penz. and two species: B. rhombica Penz. and B. querna Harkn. Beltraniae differs from other tribes of the Didymosporae group in having setae mixed with conidiophores and by presence of rostrated acrogenous conidia (Saccardo 1886Saccardo, P.A. 1886. Sylloge Hyphomycetum. Sylloge Fungorum 4: 1-807.; Pirozynski 1963Pirozynski, K.A. 1963. Beltrania and related genera. Mycological Papers 90: 1-37.).

Pirozynski (1963)Pirozynski, K.A. 1963. Beltrania and related genera. Mycological Papers 90: 1-37., at that time, in a review of some genera, showed that Beltrania, Beltraniella Subram., Ellisiopsis Bat., Beltraniopsis Bat. & J.L. Bezerra, Pseudobeltrania Henn. and Hemibeltrania Piroz. (except Rhombostilbella Zimm.) formed a natural group. The author considered the following as taxonomically important characters: internal mycelium, stroma, superficial mycelium, setae and conidiophores, as well as separating cells and conidia.

Kendrick (1980)Kendrick, B. 1980. The generic concept in hyphomycetes - A reappraisal. Mycotaxon 11: 339-364., presented proposals for condensation of genera, and established that representative members of the Beltrania group should have, at least, three of the following: 1) dark setae; 2) setae or conidiophores with radially lobed basal cell; 3) cell separation; 4) biconical conidia; 5) conidia with a hyaline equatorial band. Thus, only genera Beltrania, Beltraniopsis, Beltraniella, Ellisiopsis and Pseudobeltrania would remain in Beltrania group. Nowadays, Ellisiopsis is considered synonymous with Beltraniella (Seifert et al. 2011Seifert, K.; Morgan-Jones, G.; Gams, W. & Kendrick, B. 2011. The genera of hyphomycetes. CBS Biodiversity Series 9. CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht. 997p.). Hemibeltrania and Rhombostilbella would be excluded to have only one of the five listed characteristics. In recent years, new genera (Porobeltraniella Gusmão and Maxibeltrania Rambelli) and new species (Beltrania pseudorhombica Crous & Y. Zhang ter, Beltraniella endiandrae Crous & Summerell and Beltraniopsis neolitseae Crous & Summerell.) were included in Beltrania group (Gusmão 2004Gusmão, L.F.P. 2004. Porobeltraniella gen. nov. to accommodate two species of Beltraniella. Mycologia 96: 150-153.; Rambelli 2011Rambelli, A. 2011. Some dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Mediterranean maquis litters. Flora Mediterranea 21: 5-204.; Crous et al. 2014aCrous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z. & Summerell, B.A. 2014a. Beltraniella endiandrae Crous & Summerell, sp. nov. Persoonia 32: 210-211.,bCrous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z. & Summerell, B.A. 2014b. Beltraniopsis neolitseae Crous & Summerell, sp. nov. Persoonia 32: 208-209.,cCrous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z. & Zhang, Y. 2014c. Beltrania pseudorhombica Crous & Y. Zhang ter, sp. nov. Persoonia 32: 266-267.). It is evident that researches should be realized to elucidate several aspects, such as the taxa excluded and the new genera found.

Species of Beltrania group are commonly reported in diversity and fungal succession studies (Maia 1983Maia, L.C. 1983. Sucessão de fungos em folhedo de floresta tropical úmida. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife. 196p.; Rambelli 2011Rambelli, A. 2011. Some dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Mediterranean maquis litters. Flora Mediterranea 21: 5-204.; Shanthi & Vittal 2012Shanthi, S. & Vittal, B.P.R. 2012. Fungal diversity and the pattern of fungal colonization of Anacardium occidentale leaf litter. Mycology 3: 132-146., and others). In Brazil there are constant reports of taxa in the Beltrania group (Gusmão et al. 2001Gusmão, L.F.P.; Grandi, R.A.P. & Milanez, A.I. 2001. Hyphomycetes from leaf litter of Miconia cabussu in the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. Mycotaxon 79: 201-213.; Barbosa et al. 2009Barbosa, F.R.; Maia, L.C. & Gusmão, L.F.P. 2009. Fungos conidiais associados ao folhedo de Clusia melchiorii Gleason e C. nemorosa G. Mey. (Clusiaceae) em fragmento de Mata Atlântica, BA, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 23: 79-84.; Almeida et al. 2011Almeida, D.A.C.; Santa Izabel, T.S. & Gusmão, L.F.P. 2011. Fungos conidiais do bioma Caatinga I. Novos registros para o continente americano, Neotrópico, América do Sul e Brasil. Rodriguésia 62: 43-53.; Castro et al. 2012Castro, C.C.; Gutiérrez, A.H. & Sotão, H.M.P. 2012. Fungos conidiais em Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro) na Ilha do Combu, Pará-Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 26: 761-771.; Magalhães et al. 2013Magalhães, D.M.A.; Luz, E.D.M.N.; Magalhães, A.F.; Santos, M.V.O. & Bezerra, J.L. 2013. Fungos conidiais em plantas endêmicas da Mata Atlântica: novos registros para a Bahia. Agrotrópica 25: 109-116., and others). In specific studies within this group in the Paraná state, Gusmão & Grandi (1996)Gusmão, L.F.P. & Grandi, R.A.P. 1996. Espécies do grupo Beltrania (hyphomycetes) associadas a folhas de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae) em Maringá, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 23: 91-102. cataloged five species associated with leaf litter and/or live leaves of Cedrela fissilis Vell., and reported two new records to Brazil.

In the southern region of Bahia state only four species of Beltrania group have been recorded, such as: Beltrania rhombica, B. querna, Beltraniella portoricensis (F. Stevens) Piroz. & S.D. Patil (Magalhães et al. 2013Magalhães, D.M.A.; Luz, E.D.M.N.; Magalhães, A.F.; Santos, M.V.O. & Bezerra, J.L. 2013. Fungos conidiais em plantas endêmicas da Mata Atlântica: novos registros para a Bahia. Agrotrópica 25: 109-116.) and Beltraniella botryospora Shirouzu & Tokum. (Santos et al. 2014Santos, M.V.O.; Barbosa, F.R.; Magalhães, D.M.A.; Luz, E.D.M.N. & Bezerra, J.L. 2014. Beltraniella species associated with leaf litter of the Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia, Brazil. Mycotaxon 129: 1-6.). This study aimed to describe and illustrate Beltraniopsis rhombispora for the first time in Brazil and to report the first record of Hemibeltrania decorosa for Atlantic Forest.

Materials and Methods

Collecting expedition was undertaken on August 2012 to the Reserva Biológica de Una (15º10.630'S and 39º03.478'W), municipality of Una, Bahia state, Brazil. Leaf litter was collected from 10 plants: five from Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. (Myrtaceae) and five from Pera glabrata (Schott) Poepp. ex Baill. (Peraceae). The samples were stored in Kraft paper bags and sent to the laboratório de Diversidade de Fungos of the Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau (Cepec), Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira (Ceplac), Ilhéus, Bahia.

In the laboratory, samples were washed for one hour in running water and incubated at 25ºC in moist chambers (Castañeda Ruiz et al. 2006aCastañeda Ruiz, R.F.; Gusmão, L.F.P.; Abarca, G.H. & Saikawa, M. 2006a. Some hyphomycetes from Brazil. Two new species of Brachydesmiella, two new combinations for Repetophragma, and new records. Mycotaxon 95: 261-270., with modifications). The samples were examined at regular intervals for the presence of conidial fungi. Reproductive structures were located on the substrates with a dissecting microscope and removed to a glass slide where they were mounted in polyvinyl alcohol, lactic acid and glycerol (PVLG) resin (Silva & Grandi 2011Silva, P. & Grandi, R.A.P. 2011. A new species of Thozetella (anamorphic fungi) from Brazil. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 32: 359-363.). Morphological characters were used to identify species (Ellis 1971Ellis, M.B. 1971. Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew. 608p.; Castañeda Ruiz & Kendrick 1991Castañeda Ruiz, R.F. & Kendrick, W.B. 1991. Ninetynine conidial fungi from Cuba and three from Canada. University of Waterloo, Biology Series 35: 1-132.; Matsushima 1993Matsushima, T. 1993. Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7. Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7: 1-141.; Seifert et al. 2011Seifert, K.; Morgan-Jones, G.; Gams, W. & Kendrick, B. 2011. The genera of hyphomycetes. CBS Biodiversity Series 9. CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht. 997p.) and the permanent slides were deposited in Herbarium CEPEC. Pictures of fungi were obtained using DP25 camera attached to the microscope with Imaging Software Cellsens - 2.3 version, build 7045 and Combine ZP 1.0 version.

Results and Discussion

1. Beltraniopsis rhombispora Matsush., Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7: 44 (1993). Fig. 1

Figure 1
Beltraniopsis rhombispora - a-b. conidiophores; c-e. conidia. Scale bars: a-e = 20 µm.

Setae absent. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, setiform, single, branched or not, smooth-walled, erect to slightly flexuous, septate, arising from lobated basal cell, brown to subhyaline towards the apex, apical cell slightly inflated, 69.6-204 tall, 4-6.4 µm wide at the base. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, discrete, sympodial, lateral and intercalate, denticulate, pale brown, 5.4-9.4 × 4-5.6 µm. Separating cells absent. Conidia solitary, smooth, simple, biconic, 0-septate, not rostrate, transverse band absent, pale olivaceo,18.6-22 × 3.4-4.2 µm.

Material examined: Una, 26.VIII.2012, on decomposing leaves of Pera glabrata, M.V.O. dos Santos 26 (CEPEC 2442).

Geographical distribution: Peru (Matsushima 1993Matsushima, T. 1993. Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7. Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7: 1-141.), Brazil (this paper).

Comments: The examined material has setiforms conidiophores bigger and wider (70-130 × 3.5-5 µm) and conidia bigger [12- (15-21) µm] than those in the original description (Matsushima 1993Matsushima, T. 1993. Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7. Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7: 1-141.).

Beltraniopsis rhombispora is similar to B. aquatica R.F. Castañeda & M. Stadler by having lateral conidiogenous cells, conidia without rostrum and transverse band and separating cells absent. However, B. aquatica has conidiophore with inflated basal cell, and conidia brown, fusiform to navicular, slightly constricted in the middle region, smooth or minimally verruculose (Castañeda Ruiz et al. 2006bCastañeda Ruiz, R.F.; Minter, D.W.; Stadler, M.; Saikawa, M. & Camino-Vilaró, M. 2006b. Anamorphic fungi from submerged leaves in Cuba: Brevicatenospora enteroproliferata gen. et sp. nov. and Beltraniopsis aquatica sp. nov. Mycotaxon 96: 151-158.).

Currently, the genus has nine species (Batista & Bezerra 1960Batista, A.C. & Bezerra, J.L. 1960. Beltraniopsis - novo gênero de fungos dematiaceae. Publicações do Instituto de Micologia da Universidade do Recife 296: 1-13.; Matsushima 1971Matsushima, T. 1971. Microfungi of the Solomon Islands and Papua-New Guinea. Published by the author, Kobe. 78p.; 1993Matsushima, T. 1993. Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7. Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7: 1-141.; Pirozynski 1972Pirozynski, K.A. 1972. Microfungi of Tanzania. Mycological Papers 129: 1-64.; Castañeda Ruiz & Arnold 1985Castañeda Ruiz, R.F. & Arnold, G.R.W. 1985. Deuteromycotina de Cuba. I. Hyphomycetes. Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional 6: 47-67.; Rambelli & Ciccarone 1985Rambelli, A. & Ciccarone, C. 1985. Two new dematiaceous hyphomycetes from humid tropic forest litter. Giornale Botanico Italiano 119: 291-294.; Gusmão et al. 2000Gusmão, L.F.P.; Grandi, R.A.P. & Milanez, A.I. 2000. A new species of Beltraniopsis from Brazil, with a key to the known species. Mycological Research 104: 251-253.; Castañeda-Ruiz et al. 2006bCastañeda Ruiz, R.F.; Minter, D.W.; Stadler, M.; Saikawa, M. & Camino-Vilaró, M. 2006b. Anamorphic fungi from submerged leaves in Cuba: Brevicatenospora enteroproliferata gen. et sp. nov. and Beltraniopsis aquatica sp. nov. Mycotaxon 96: 151-158.; Crous et al. 2014bCrous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z. & Summerell, B.A. 2014b. Beltraniopsis neolitseae Crous & Summerell, sp. nov. Persoonia 32: 208-209.). Beltraniopsis esenbeckiae Bat. & J.L. Bezerra (Batista & Bezerra 1960Batista, A.C. & Bezerra, J.L. 1960. Beltraniopsis - novo gênero de fungos dematiaceae. Publicações do Instituto de Micologia da Universidade do Recife 296: 1-13.) and B. miconiae Gusmão & Grandi (Gusmão et al. 2000Gusmão, L.F.P.; Grandi, R.A.P. & Milanez, A.I. 2000. A new species of Beltraniopsis from Brazil, with a key to the known species. Mycological Research 104: 251-253.) have been described in Brazil, and B. ramosa R.F. Castañeda has previously been found in Brazil (Gusmão & Grandi 1996Gusmão, L.F.P. & Grandi, R.A.P. 1996. Espécies do grupo Beltrania (hyphomycetes) associadas a folhas de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae) em Maringá, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 23: 91-102.). This is the second record of B. rhombispora in the world and the first record of this species in Brazil on Pera glabrata leaf litter.

2. Hemibeltrania decorosa R.F. Castañeda & W.B. Kendr., Univ. Waterloo Biol. Ser. 35: 57 (1991)

Descriptions and illustrations: Castañeda Ruiz & Kendrick (1991)Castañeda Ruiz, R.F. & Kendrick, W.B. 1991. Ninetynine conidial fungi from Cuba and three from Canada. University of Waterloo, Biology Series 35: 1-132.; Almeida et al. (2011)Almeida, D.A.C.; Santa Izabel, T.S. & Gusmão, L.F.P. 2011. Fungos conidiais do bioma Caatinga I. Novos registros para o continente americano, Neotrópico, América do Sul e Brasil. Rodriguésia 62: 43-53..

Material examined: Una, 26.VIII.2012, on decomposing leaves of Myrcia splendens, M.V.O. dos Santos 18 (CEPEC 2434).

Geographical distribution: Cuba (Castañeda Ruiz & Kendrick 1991Castañeda Ruiz, R.F. & Kendrick, W.B. 1991. Ninetynine conidial fungi from Cuba and three from Canada. University of Waterloo, Biology Series 35: 1-132.), Mauritius (Dulymamode et al. 2001Dulymamode, R.; Cannon, P.F. & Peerally, A. 2001. Fungi on endemic plants of Mauritius. Mycological Research 105: 1472-1479.) and Brazil (Almeida et al. 2011Almeida, D.A.C.; Santa Izabel, T.S. & Gusmão, L.F.P. 2011. Fungos conidiais do bioma Caatinga I. Novos registros para o continente americano, Neotrópico, América do Sul e Brasil. Rodriguésia 62: 43-53.).

Comments: The first record of this species in Brazil was on leaf litter of an unidentified dicotyledonous in Caatinga Biome, Bahia state (Almeida et al. 2011)Almeida, D.A.C.; Santa Izabel, T.S. & Gusmão, L.F.P. 2011. Fungos conidiais do bioma Caatinga I. Novos registros para o continente americano, Neotrópico, América do Sul e Brasil. Rodriguésia 62: 43-53.. The examined material has conidiophores bigger and wider than those in the description presented by Almeida et al. (2011)Almeida, D.A.C.; Santa Izabel, T.S. & Gusmão, L.F.P. 2011. Fungos conidiais do bioma Caatinga I. Novos registros para o continente americano, Neotrópico, América do Sul e Brasil. Rodriguésia 62: 43-53.. Hemibeltrania decorosa is distinguished from other species of the genus, especially H. saikawae and H. cymbiformis, by morphology and peculiarities of the conidiophores and conidia, respectively.

Hemibeltrania decorosa was initially reported in Cuba on leaf litter of Myrica cerifera L. (Myricaceae) (Castañeda Ruiz & Kendrick 1991Castañeda Ruiz, R.F. & Kendrick, W.B. 1991. Ninetynine conidial fungi from Cuba and three from Canada. University of Waterloo, Biology Series 35: 1-132.).This is the first report of the species in the Atlantic Forest and on Myrcia splendens leaf litter.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), for fellowships awarded to the first and to the last two authors, respectively. We would also like to thank to Dr. Luís Fernando Pascholati Gusmão and José Lima da Paixão, the Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau (CEPEC), the ICMBio, the REBIO-Una and the Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia de Fungos of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), for logistical support to this research.

References

  • Almeida, D.A.C.; Santa Izabel, T.S. & Gusmão, L.F.P. 2011. Fungos conidiais do bioma Caatinga I. Novos registros para o continente americano, Neotrópico, América do Sul e Brasil. Rodriguésia 62: 43-53.
  • Barbosa, F.R.; Maia, L.C. & Gusmão, L.F.P. 2009. Fungos conidiais associados ao folhedo de Clusia melchiorii Gleason e C. nemorosa G. Mey. (Clusiaceae) em fragmento de Mata Atlântica, BA, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 23: 79-84.
  • Batista, A.C. & Bezerra, J.L. 1960. Beltraniopsis - novo gênero de fungos dematiaceae. Publicações do Instituto de Micologia da Universidade do Recife 296: 1-13.
  • Castañeda Ruiz, R.F. & Arnold, G.R.W. 1985. Deuteromycotina de Cuba. I. Hyphomycetes. Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional 6: 47-67.
  • Castañeda Ruiz, R.F. & Kendrick, W.B. 1991. Ninetynine conidial fungi from Cuba and three from Canada. University of Waterloo, Biology Series 35: 1-132.
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  • Castañeda Ruiz, R.F.; Minter, D.W.; Stadler, M.; Saikawa, M. & Camino-Vilaró, M. 2006b. Anamorphic fungi from submerged leaves in Cuba: Brevicatenospora enteroproliferata gen. et sp. nov. and Beltraniopsis aquatica sp. nov. Mycotaxon 96: 151-158.
  • Castro, C.C.; Gutiérrez, A.H. & Sotão, H.M.P. 2012. Fungos conidiais em Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro) na Ilha do Combu, Pará-Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 26: 761-771.
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  • Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z. & Zhang, Y. 2014c. Beltrania pseudorhombica Crous & Y. Zhang ter, sp. nov. Persoonia 32: 266-267.
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  • Gusmão, L.F.P. & Grandi, R.A.P. 1996. Espécies do grupo Beltrania (hyphomycetes) associadas a folhas de Cedrela fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae) em Maringá, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 23: 91-102.
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  • Shanthi, S. & Vittal, B.P.R. 2012. Fungal diversity and the pattern of fungal colonization of Anacardium occidentale leaf litter. Mycology 3: 132-146.
  • Silva, P. & Grandi, R.A.P. 2011. A new species of Thozetella (anamorphic fungi) from Brazil. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 32: 359-363.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Oct-Dec 2016

History

  • Received
    05 Nov 2015
  • Accepted
    12 Feb 2016
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