New anamorphic species of Pucciniales (Fungi, Basidiomycota) collected in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazil

Mauricio Salazar-Yepes Anibal Alves de Carvalho JúniorAbout the authors

Abstract

Eight new anamorphic species of Pucciniales belonging to the genera Aecidium, Caeoma, Malupa, Milesia, Physopella and Uredo are proposed. The new species were collected in the Itatiaia National Park in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on the plant families Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Menispermaceae, Salicaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae.

Key words
biodiversity; Minas Gerais; Rio de Janeiro; rust fungi; Uredinales

Resumo

Oito novas espécies anamorficas de Pucciniales pertencentes aos gêneros Aecidium, Caeoma, Malupa, Milesia, Physopella e Uredo são propostos. As novas espécies foram coletadas no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia nos estados de Minas Gerais e Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, crescendo sobre espécimes das famílias botânicas Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Menispermaceae, Salicaceae, Solanaceae e Verbenaceae.

Palavras-chave
biodiversidade; Minas Gerais; Rio de Janeiro; ferrugens; Uredinales

Introduction

The Itatiaia National Park is located in the Mantiqueira Mountains, near the cities of Itatiaia and Resende in Rio de Janeiro state, and near Itamonte and Bocaina de Minas in Minas Gerais state, in the Atlantic Rainforest domain (ICMBIO 2014ICMBIO (2014) Plano de Manejo - Itatiaia National Park. V. 1, encartes 1, 2, 3 and 4. Available at <https://www.gov.br/icmbio/pt-br/assuntos/biodiversidade/unidade-de-conservacao/unidades-de-biomas/mata-atlantica/lista-de-ucs/parna-do-itatiaia>. Access on 26 March 2018.
https://www.gov.br/icmbio/pt-br/assuntos...
). Rainfall and temperature gradients and the historical colonization of plants reflect the altitudinal and microclimatic factors influencing regional biodiversity and endemism (Safford 1999Safford HD (1999) Brazilian paramos I. An introduction to the physical environment and vegetation of the campos de altitude. Journal of Biogeography 26: 693-712.).

According to Salazar & Carvalho (2009Salazar YM & Carvalho Jr AA (2009) Two new Uredinales in the Phakopsoraceae on Fabaceae from Brazil. Mycologia 101: 196-199., 2010aSalazar YM & Carvalho Jr AA (2010a) Novos registros de ferrugens (fungi, Uredinales) para o Brasil, coletados no Itatiaia National Park. Acta Botanica Brasilica 24: 378-385.,bSalazar YM & Carvalho Jr AA (2010b) Ferrugens: diversidade de Uredinales do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brasil. Technical Books Editora, Rio de Janeiro. 201p., 2012Salazar YM & Carvalho Jr AA (2012) Caetea, a new genus of Pucciniales on Piptadenia (Fabaceae) from Brazil. Mycologia 104: 911-914., 2014Salazar YM & Carvalho Jr AA (2014) Two new rust species on Fabaceae from Brazil. Mycotaxon 128: 17-23.), the Pucciniales (rust fungi) biota in the Itatiaia National Park is composed of 192 species growing on 60 botanical families, with Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae being the most diverse host species. Those same authors reported a new teleomorphic genus, 4 new teleomorphic species, and 9 new species occurrences in Brazil.

We present here eight new anamorphic species of Pucciniales from Brazil that were collected during the project “Uredobiota (fungi) of the Itatiaia National Park”.

Materials and Methods

Treatment of collected materials follows Cummins & Hiratsuka (2003)Cummins GB & Hiratsuka Y (2003) Illustrated genera of rust fungi. Third Edition. American Phytophatological Society, St Paul. 225p. : samples of host plants with rust fungi symptoms and signs were collected in the Itatiaia National Park (Parque Nacional do Itatiaia). The material was herborized and taken to the Mycology Laboratory at the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden. The symptoms and signs were observed and recorded, and slides prepared by the scraping and cutting the samples in lactophenol and chloral hydrate while viewing under a Leica S6E stereomicroscope. A Zeiss “Axioskop 40” microscope was used to observe the rust structures, and a coupled Zeiss “Axiocam MRc” camera was used for image capturing and spore measurements with Axiovision Rel. 4.6 program software. The rusts were identified by their morphological characteristics, host range, and by consulting the specialized literature (Order Pucciniales).

Results and Discussion

Were found eight new anamorphic Pucciniales species on host plants in the families Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Menispermaceae, Salicaceae, Solanaceae, and Verbenaceae. Their descriptions are presented as follows:

1. Aecidium aspidospermatis Salazar & A.A. Carvalho sp. nov.

MycoBank: MB826691

Type: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Itamonte, on Aspidosperma sp. (Apocynaceae), na trilha vale Santa Clara - Campos de altitude, 22º19.290’S, 44º37.297’W, 1,615 m altitude, 14.VII.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 443-07 (Holotype RB480620!, Isotype MMUNM, MB826691). Fig. 1a-e

Figure 1
a-e. Aecidium aspidospermatis – a. spermogonia; b-c. peridium cells – b. median focus; c. surface focus; d-e. aeciospores – d. median focus; e. surface focus. f-j. Aecidium disciphaniae – f. spermogonia; g-h. peridium cells – g. median focus; h. surface focus; i-j. aeciospores – i. median focus; j. surface focus. Bars: a,f = 50 µm; b-e = 20 µm; g-j = 20 µm.

Spermogonia on adaxial side of the leaves. Inner wall of peridium verrucose-striated, outer wall smooth. Aecia (Aecidium type), aeciospores wall verrucose, 1–2 μm of uniform thickness.

Etymology: After Aspidorperma, the host genus.

Spermogonia of group V (type 4), on adaxial side of leaves, abundant, systemic, in chlorotic areas along the nervure, or rounded, up to 1 cm in diameter, pale yellow at the base and cinnamon-brown at the apex. Aecia (Aecidium type) on abaxial side of leaves, associated with spermogonia, grouped, cupulate, 275–350 × 235–275 μm, from white to pale yellow, cells rhomboid, rectangular, variable in shape and size, 27–39 × 18–24 μm, inner wall verrucose-striated, outer wall smooth, colorless; aeciospores highly variable, generally polyhedral, 15–27 μm in diameter, wall verrucose, 1–2 μm of uniform thickness, colorless.

Additional specimens examined (Paratypes): BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Bocaina de Minas, Aspidosperma sp. (Apocynaceae), trilha Cachoeira do Escorrega, Campos de Altitude, 22º21.225’S, 44º37.233’W, 1,862 m altitude, 15.II.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 94-07 (RB480649!). RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, entrada da trilha Rio Campo Belo - Prateleiras (trilha Ruy Braga), 22º25.747’S, 44º37.627’W, 1,400 m altitude, 5.XII.2006, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 465-06 (RB480623!); entrada da trilha Três Picos, 22º26.136’S, 44º36.547’W, 1,100 m altitude, 15.II.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 112-07 (RB480580!); trilha Três Picos, 22º25.315’S, 44º35.446’W, 1,545 m altitude, 7.VIII.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 509-07 (RB480629!).

Sydow & Sydow (1924)Sydow P & Sydow H (1924) Monographia Uredinearum. Vol. 4. Leipsig, Borntraeger. Reprint Bibliotheca Mycologica, 1971. J. Cramer, New York. 671p. described nine species of Aecidium parasitizing the Apocynaceae family. Among them, five species were recorded for the American continent, none of them on the genus Aspidosperma. In Brazil, Hennen et al. (2005)Hennen JF, Figueiredo MB, Carvalho Júnior AA & Hennen PG (2005) Catalogue of species of plant rust fungi (Uredinales) of Brazil. Available at <http://www.jbrj.gov.br/em publicações/publicações gerais>. Access on 27 September 2016.
http://www.jbrj.gov.br/em publicações/pu...
recorded only Aecidium ochraceum Speg. on the host genus Tabernaemontana spp. Salazar & Carvalho (2010b)Salazar YM & Carvalho Jr AA (2010b) Ferrugens: diversidade de Uredinales do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brasil. Technical Books Editora, Rio de Janeiro. 201p. recorded A. ochraceum and its spermogonia for the first time in the Itatiaia National Park. A. ochraceum is very close to the new species, but differs by having spermogonia on both sides of the leaves (mainly on adaxial face), inner walls of the peridium with large verrucae, and outer walls of the peridium with diminutive verrucae. Additionally, the walls of the aeciospores are finely verrucose, 6–12 μm thick at apex. A. aspidospermatis differs from the other four species present on the American continent by the following: A. apocyni Schwein. (USA) shows spermogonia on both sides of the leaves, inner peridial cells verrucose, outer peridial cells striated, and aeciospores walls finely verrucose; spermogonia not known in A. leporidium Arthur (Mexico) (uredinia of the Aecidium type), inner and outer cells of the peridium are verrucose, and urediniospore walls are finely verrucose, without uniform thicknesses; spermogonia are also unknown in A. aegeridae Arthur (Mexico) (uredinia of the Aecidium type), urediniospores sub-hyaline with finely verrucose walls, without uniform thicknesses; A. thevetiae Sacc. (Mexico) also with unknown spermogonia, inner peridial cells verrucose, outer peridial cells striated, and urediniospores sub-hyaline with thin verrucose walls without uniform thicknesses.

The species is distributed in Brazil , and its life cycle is unknown.

2. Aecidium disciphaniae Salazar & A.A. Carvalho sp. nov.

MycoBank: MB826692

Type: BRAZIL. RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, on Disciphania sp. (Menispermaceae), entrada da trilha Três Picos, 22º26.136’S, 44º36.547’W, 1,100 m altitude, 16.II.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 114-07 (Holotype RB480582!, Isotype MMUNM). Fig. 1f-j

Spermogonia on adaxial side of leaves. Aecia (Aecidium type), peridial cells rectangular or rhomboid, 30–45 × 18–21 µm. Aeciospores 18–33 µm in diameter, walls verrucose.

Etymology: After Disciphania, the host genus.

Spermogonia on adaxial side of leaves, Group V (Type 4), in groups, in rounded chlorotic areas, 5–15 mm diameter, cinnamon-brown to black. Aecia (Aecidium type), sori on abaxial face of leaves, densely grouped, rounded, associated with spermogonia, cupulate, 250–300 × 200–250 µm, pale yellow, peridial cells rectangular or rhomboid, 30–45 × 18–21 µm; walls verrucose, colorless; aeciospores ellipsoids, oblong-ellipsoids or angular, 18–33 µm in diameter, walls verrucose, 1–2 µm thick, colorless.

Additional specimens examined (Paratypes): BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Itamonte, on Disciphania sp. (Menispermaceae), ao redor da Garganta do Registro, 22º22.558’S, 44º45.627’W, 1,670 m altitude, 20.II.2008, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 50-08 (RB480629!); trilha Vale Santa Clara, Alto dos Brejos, 22º18.022’S, 44º36.159’W, 1,515 m altitude, 21.II.2008, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 101-08 (RB480576!). RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, ao redor do Hotel Donati, 22º26.491’S, 44º36.053’W, 1,010 m altitude, 22.II.2008, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 113-08 (RB480581!).

The differences between A. disciphaniae and A. usterianum Speg. (the only other species reported growing on Menispermaceae and collected in São Paulo state, Brazil) (Spegazzini 1908Spegazzini C (1908) Fungi aliquot Paulistani. Revista del Museo de La Plata 15: 7-48.) are the absence, in A. usterianum, of spermogonia, smaller peridium cells (up to 35 µm), and aeciospores smaller and with smooth walls.

The species is distributed in Brazil, and its life cycle is unknown.

3. Caeoma sapium Salazar & A.A. Carvalho sp. nov.

MycoBank: MB826693

Type: BRAZIL. RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, on Sapium sp. (Euphorbiaceae): estrada para o Hotel Donati, 22º26.680’S, 44º36.550’W, 955 m altitude, 7.XII.2006, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 501-06 (Holotype RB480628!, Isotype MMUNM). Fig. 2a-d

Figure 2
a-d. Caeoma sapium – a. spermogonia; b. aeciosori; c-d. aeciospores – c. median focus; d. surface focus. e-h. Malupa dyssochromatis – e. symptoms on adaxial (left) and on abaxial face of leaves (right); f. general view of uredinia; g. paraphyses; h. urediniospores. i-l. Milesia crotonis-salutaris – i. general view of uredinia; j. paraphyse; k-l. urediniospores – k. median focus; l. surface focus. Bars: a = 500 µm; e = 2 cm; i = 50 µm; b,f = 100 µm; c-d, g-h = 20 µm; j-l = 10 µm.

Spermogonia on both sides of leaves, numerous, associated with aecia; aecia (Caeoma type), aeciospores catenulate, walls verrucose, 1–1.5 µm thick.

Etymology: After Sapium, the host genus.

Spermogonia on both sides of leaves, numerous, on rounded necrotic areas of the leaves, 1–2 mm in diameter, associated with aecia, pale cinnamon-brown to cinnamon-brown. Aecia (Caeoma type) on adaxial face of leaves, grouped, surrounding the spermogonia, confluent, conspicuously rupturing the epidermis, powdery, pale yellow; aeciospores catenulate, oblong-ellipsoids or angular, 24–30 × 21–24 µm; walls verrucose, 1–1.5 µm thick, golden-yellow; germ pores 3, equatorial.

Two rust species were recorded by Sydow & Sydow (1910)Sydow P & Sydow H (1910) Monographia Uredinearum. Vol. 2. Leipsig, . Reprint Bibliotheca Mycologica, 1971. J. Cramer, New York. 396p. parasitizing the genera Sapium (Euphorbiaceae): the first, Uromyces globosus Dietel & Holway has a microcyclic life cycle; the second, Uromyces cisneroanus Speg., has only uredinia and telia known. The new species, C. sapium, has numerous spermogonia associated with the aecia. That stage shows non-pedicellate and verrucose aeciospores.

As the sample collected in the Itatiaia National Park does not show any features that could be a complement of the life cycle of U. cisneroanus, we consider it a new anamorphic species.

The species is distributed in Brazil, and its life cycle is unknown.

4. Malupa dyssochromatis Salazar & A.A. Carvalho sp. nov.

MycoBank: MB826694

Type: BRAZIL. RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, on Dyssochroma viridiflora (Sims) Miers (Solanaceae): entrada da trilha Rio Campo Belo-Prateleiras (trilha Ruy Braga), 22º25.711’S, 44º37.186’W, 1,145 m altitude, 19.X.2006, M. Salazar Yepes, A.A. Carvalho Jr. & C.M. Sakuragui 336-06 (Holotype RB480604!, Isotype MMUNM, MB826694). Fig. 2e-h

Uredinia (Malupa type) on abaxial face of the leaves; paraphyses cylindrical, surrounding the sori on the hymenium, colorless; urediniospores 30–51 × 21–27 µm; germ pores 2–4, equatorial.

Etymology: After Dyssochroma, the host genus.

Uredinia (Malupa type) on abaxial face of the leaves, solitary or grouped, 250–800 µm in diameter, subepidermal in origin, covered by the epidermis, opening by a central pore, cinnamon-brown; hymenium curved; paraphyses cylindrical, surrounding the sori on the hymenium, up to 60 µm long, colorless; urediniospores obovoid, piriform, 30–51 × 21–27 µm; walls thin, echinulate, and uniformly arranged, 1–2 mm thick, pale yellow; germ pores 2–4, equatorial.

Additional specimens analyzed (Paratypes): BRAZIL. RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, on Dyssochroma viridiflora (Sims) Miers, ao redor da ponte sobre o Rio Campo Belo, 22º25.685’S, 44º37.159’W, 1,109 m altitude, 19.X.2006, M. Salazar Yepes, A.A. Carvalho Jr. & C.M. Sakuragui 339-06 (RB480605!); 06.VIII.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 460-07 (RB480622!); 8.X.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 588-07 (RB480635!); trilha Três Picos, 22º25.315’S, 44º35.446’W, 1,545 m altitude, 7.VIII.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 508-07 (RB480630!); 9.X.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 608-07 (RB480637!).

It is uncommon to find the rust family Phakopsoraceae parasitizing the plant family Solanaceae in the neotropics. Only Crossopsora uleana (Sydow & P. Sydow) Peterson has been recorded parasitizing the genera Cyphomandra and Solanum in Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador (Buriticá 1999bBuriticá P (1999b) La familia Phakoporaceae (Uredinales) en el Neotrópico IV, Géneros: Crossopsora, Cerotelium, Phragmidiella y Catenulopsora. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 23: 407-431.; Hennen et al. 2005Hennen JF, Figueiredo MB, Carvalho Júnior AA & Hennen PG (2005) Catalogue of species of plant rust fungi (Uredinales) of Brazil. Available at <http://www.jbrj.gov.br/em publicações/publicações gerais>. Access on 27 September 2016.
http://www.jbrj.gov.br/em publicações/pu...
). But C. uleana differs by having flexed and pale yellow paraphyses and smaller urediniospores (up to 30 µm) and 3 supra-equatorial germ pores.

This is the first record of a rust on the host Dyssochroma viridiflora Miers, a native Brazilian plant.

The species is distributed in Brazil, and its life cycle is unknown.

5. Milesia crotonis-salutaris Salazar & A.A. Carvalho sp. nov.

MycoBank: MB826695

Type: BRAZIL. RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, on Croton salutaris Casar. (Euphorbiaceae), ao redor da ponte sobre o Rio Campo Belo, 22º25.685’S, 44º37.159’W, 1,109 m altitude, 14.VIII.2006, M. Salazar Yepes, A.A. Carvalho Jr. & I. França 96-06 (Holotype RB480650!, Isotype MMUNM). Fig. 2i-l

Spermogonia unknown; uredinia (Milesia type); paraphyses in the hymenia, abundant, small, walls thin and cinnamon-brown; urediniospores golden-yellow, echinulate, echinulae up to 2.5 µm long, few and irregularly arranged, wall thick (1–5 µm); germ pores not seen.

Etymology: After Croton salutares, the host genus.

Spermogonia unknown. Uredinia (Milesia type), on abaxial face of leaves, solitary or grouped, small, conspicuously rupturing the epidermis, cinnamon-brown; hymenia subepidermal and planar; peridia hyphoid, persistent, golden yellow; paraphyses in the hymenia, abundant, small, up to 24 μm long, walls thin and cinnamon-brown; urediniospores sessile obovoid, ellipsoids, 24–30 × 15–21 µm; wall echinulate, lateral wall thick (1–5 µm), and apical wall thick (2–6 µm), golden-yellow, echinulae up to 2.5 µm long, few and irregularly arranged; germ pores not seen.

Additional specimens examined (Paratypes): BRAZIL. RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, on Croton salutaris Casar, ao redor da ponte sobre o Rio Campo Belo, 22º25.685’S, 44º37.159’W, 1,109 m altitude, 19.X.2006, M. Salazar Yepes, A.A. Carvalho Jr. & C.M. Sakuragui 340-06 (RB480607!); trilha Cachoeiras Véu de Noiva-Itaporani, 1,180 m altitude, 23.IV.2007, M. Salazar Yepes, A.A. Carvalho Jr. & F. Santoro 209-07 (RB480592!).

Buriticá (1998Buriticá P (1998) La familia Phakopsoraceae en el Neótropico II. Géneros: Arthuria, Nothoravenelia, Uredopeltis, Kweilingia, Aplopsora, y Pucciniostele. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 22: 325-334., 1999aBuriticá P (1999a) La familia Phakopsoraceae en el Neotrópico III, Géneros: Batistopsora y Phakopsora. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 23: 271-305.) recorded 10 Pucciniales species of the genera Arthuria, Milesia and Phakopsora on Croton hosts in the neotropics. Arthuria comprises four species: A. catenulata Jackson & Holway, A. columbiana (Kern & Whetzel) Cummins, A. demicicla Buriticá & Hennen, and A. micra Buriticá & Hennen, all with an Aeciure-type, anamorph genus different from Milesia that we are suggested here.

Two species of Milesia were published as new combinations by Buriticá (1999a)Buriticá P (1999a) La familia Phakopsoraceae en el Neotrópico III, Géneros: Batistopsora y Phakopsora. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 23: 271-305.. M. valentula (Jackson & Holway) Buriticá & Hennen differs from the new specie by having spermogonia, no paraphyses (neither Jackson 1931Jackson HS (1931). The rusts of South America based on the Holway collection-V. Mycologia 23: 463-503. , nor Buriticá 1999aBuriticá P (1999a) La familia Phakopsoraceae en el Neotrópico III, Géneros: Batistopsora y Phakopsora. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 23: 271-305., described paraphyses) and also has urediniospores with 3 supraequatorial germ pores. M. venezuelanae (Kern & Thurston) Buriticá & Hennen also differs by having spermogonia, no paraphyses, and spores yellow-brown.

The four species of the genus Phakopsora recorded here also show anamorphs as in Milesia, which suggests that the new species is more closely related to that rust group. P. argentinensis differs from the new species by having few and colorless paraphyses, urediniospores with many and short echinulae, as well as walls only 1–1.5 μm thick. P. crotonis (Burrill) Arthur is similar to the new species but has spermogonia, few and colorless paraphyses up to 1.5 μm thick on the dorsal face and apex and urediniospores, with many and short echinulae, walls 0.5–1.5 μm thick, and 4 germ pores. P. mexicana (Arthur) Arthur and P. pavida Buriticá & Hennen are similar to M. crotonis-salutaris, but P. mexicana has a non-persistent and hypoid peridium, paraphyses few and colorless, walls thick on the dorsal face and apex; P. pavida Buriticá & Hennen has paraphyses colorless, wall 1–3 μm thick at apex, urediniospores with few and short echinulae, and 4 germ pores.

This is the first record of a rust on the host Croton salutaris Casar., a native Brazilian plant.

The species is distributed in Brazil, and its life cycle is unknown.

Dichotomous key of the rust on Croton in the neotropics with anamorphs of the Milesia type (anamorphs associated with spermogonium are considered aeciospores)

  1. 1. Anamorph associated with spermogonium....................2

  2. 1’. Anamorph not associated with spermogonium....................4

    1. 2. Aecia without paraphyses....................3

    2. 2’. Aecia with paraphyses....................Phakopsora crotonis

      1. 3. Aeciospores not with visible germ pores....................Milesia venezuelanae

      2. 3’. Aeciospores with visible germ pores....................Milesia valentula

        1. 4. Uredinia with few paraphyses....................5

        2. 4’. Uredinia with many paraphyses....................6

          1. 5. Urediniospores with many and short echinulae....................Phakopsora argentinensis

          2. 5’. Urediniospores with many and large echinulae....................Phakopsora mexicana

            1. 6. Urediniospores with many and short echinulae, but associated with colorless paraphyses....................Phakopsora pavida

            2. 6’. Urediniospores with few and large echinulae and associated with cinnamon-brown paraphyses....................Milesia crotonis-salutaris

6. Milesia rolliniae Salazar & A.A. Carvalho sp. nov.

MycoBank: MB826696

Type: BRAZIL. RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, on Rollinia dolabripetala (Raddi) R.E Fr. (Annonaceae): entrada trilha Três Picos, 22º26.136’S, 44º36.547’W, 1,100 m altitude, 16.II.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 109-07 (Holotype RB480579!, Isotype MMUNM). Fig. 3a-b

Figure 3
a-b. Milesia rolliniae – a. two focal planes (surface and median) of the uredinios, subepidermal hymenium (arrow); b. urediniospores at median focus (left) and at surface focus (right). c-g. Physopella citharexyli – c. general view of uredinia; d-e. paraphyses – d. around the sori; e. paraphyses; f-g. urediniospores – f. median focus; g. surface focus. h-k. Uredo abatiae – h. general view of uredinia; i. paraphyses; j-k. urediniospores – j. median focus; k. surface focus. Bars: a,d,f-g,j-k = 20 µm; b,e,i = 10 µm; c,h = 50 µm.

Uredinia (Milesia type), subepidermal in origin, opening by a pore, peridia hyphoid evident at first; without paraphyses; urediniospores sessile.

Etymology: After Rollinia, the host genus.

Uredinia (Milesia type) on abaxial face of leaves, solitary or grouped, small, 100–165 µm in diameter, subepidermal in origin, opening by a pore, hymenia subepidermal and planar; peridia hyphoid evident at first; without paraphyses; urediniospores sessile, obovoid, ellipsoids, angular, 15–25 × 12–15 µm, echinulate walls arranged uniformly, 0.5–1 µm uniformly thick, pale yellow; germ pores not seen.

Additional specimens examined (Paratypes): BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Bocaina de Minas, on Rollinia dolabripetala (Raddi) R.E Fr.: na trilha a Cachoeira do Alcantilado, 22º17.628’S, 44º33.513’W, 1,285 m altitude, 26.IV.2007, M. Salazar Yepes, A.A. Carvalho Jr. & F. Santoro 342-07 (RB480609!). RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, trilhas Três Picos, 22º26.003’S, 44º36.408’W, 1,165 m altitude, 7.VIII.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 493-07 (RB480625!); ao redor do Hotel Donati, 22º26.491’S, 44º36.053’W, 1,010 m altitude, 22.II.2008, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 115-08 (RB480583!); na estrada ao Hotel Donati, 22º26.680’S, 44º36.550’W, 955 m altitude, 18.VI.2008, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 178-08 (RB480587!).

According to Cummins & Hiratsuka (2003)Cummins GB & Hiratsuka Y (2003) Illustrated genera of rust fungi. Third Edition. American Phytophatological Society, St Paul. 225p. , the genera of Pucciniales that parasitizes the Annonaceae family in the tropics are: Batistopsora, Ceratocoma, Dasyspora, Hennenia, Phakopsora, Sphaerophragmium, and Sphenospora. Ceratocoma and Dasyspora are microcyclic, as only teliospores are found in their life cycles. Hennenia has a demicyclic life cycle, with unknown uredinia, while the other genera are macrocyclic, with long life cycles with all of their stages known. The genera Sphaerophragmium and Sphenospora have uredinia with an Uredostilbe morphology, with peridium and without paraphyses, and are therefore different from Milesia and Batistopsora. The three most frequent anamorphic genera in the genus Phakopsora are Malupa, Milesia, and Physopella (Buriticá & Hennen 1994Buriticá P & Hennen JF (1994) Familia Phakopsoraceae (Uredinales) I Géneros anamórficos y teliomórficos. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 19: 47-62.), to which Beenken (2014)Beenken L (2014) Pucciniales on Annona (Annonaceae) with special focus on the genus Phakopsora. Mycol Progress 13: 791-809. added Uredo. Only two species of the genus Phakopsora have been reported on the plant genus Annona: Phakopsora neocherimoliae (Cummins) Buriticá & J.F. Hennen, (with an anamorph of the Physopella type) and Phakopsora rolliniae (W.T. Dale) Beenken (with an anamorph of the Uredo type), thus differing from the new anamorphic species.

The species M. rolliniae is the first record of a rust on the plant genus Rollinia, and the first species of the genus Milesia found on the Annonaceae family.

The species is distributed in Brazil, and its life cycle is unknown.

7. Physopella citharexyli Salazar & A.A. Carvalho sp. nov.

MycoBank: MB826698

Type: BRAZIL. RIO DE JANEIRO: Itatiaia, on Citharexylum sp. (Verbenaceae), ao redor do Abrigo 4 (Mata Atlântica), 22º27.108’S, 44º36.663’W, 815 m altitude, 6.VIII.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 476-07 (Holotype RB480624!, Isotype MMUNM). Fig. 3c-g

Uredinia (Physopella type), hymenia planar; paraphyses abundant, curved, surrounding the sorus and on the hymenia, thickened on the dorsal side; urediniospores 24–39 × 18–24 μm; walls thin, evenly echinulate, pale yellow to pale brown; germinative pores not seen.

Etymology: After Citharexylum, the host name.

Uredinia (Physopella type) on abaxial face of the leaves, solitary or grouped, small, 180–250 µm in diameter, subepidermal in origin, rupturing of the epidermis conspicuous, pulverulent, pale yellow; hymenia planar, cinnamon-brown; paraphyses abundant, curved, small, surrounding the sorus and on the hymenia, up to 30 μm in long, thickened on the dorsal side, up to 5 μm thick, initially colorless, later dark yellow; urediniospores obovoid, ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid, 24–39 × 18–24 μm; walls thin, 0.5–1 μm, of uniform thickness, evenly echinulate, pale yellow to pale brown; germinative pores not seen.

The new species Physopella citharexyli constitutes the first record of a rust on the genus Citharexylum, and the first species of the genus Physopella on the Verbenaceae family. Verbenaceae is host of rust fungi from the families Chaconiaceae (Hemileia) (Ritschel 2005Ritschel A (2005) Monograph of the genus Hemileia (Uredinales). Bibliotheca Mycologica. Vol. 200. J. Cramer Verlag, Berlin, Stuttgart. 132p.), Pucciniaceae (Aecidium and Puccinia) (Sydow & Sydow 1904Sydow P & Sydow H (1904) Monographia Uredinearum. Vol. 1. Leipsig, . Reprint Bibliotheca Mycologica, 1971. J. Cramer, New York. 972p.), and Uropyxidaceae (Prospodium) (Cummins 1940Cummins GB (1940) The genus Prospodium (Uredinales). Lloydia 3: 1-78.; Carvalho & Hennen 2010) - all without any relationship to the genus Physopella.

The species is distributed in Brazil, and its life cycle is unknown.

8. Uredo abatiae Salazar & A.A. Carvalho sp. nov.

MycoBank: MB826699

Type: BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Itamonte, on Abatia americana (Gardner) Eichler (Salicaceae), km 2 na estrada Garganta do Registro-Agulhas Negras, 22º22.279’S, 44º45.212’W, 1,835 m altitude, 25.IV.2007, M. Salazar Yepes, A.A. Carvalho Jr. & F. Santoro 300-07 (Holotype RB480603!, Isotype MMUNM). Fig. 3h-k

Uredinia (Uredo type), paraphyses cylindrical, surrounding the sori and on the hymenia, up to 39 μm long, wall 1–1.5 mm thick; urediniospores 18–24 × 15–18 µm; wall with thin and uniformly arranged echinulae, 1 µm uniform thickness; germ pores not seen.

Etymology: After Abatia, the host genus.

Uredinia (Uredo type) on abaxial face of leaves, solitary or grouped, 120–250 µm in diameter, small, subepidermal in origin, conspicuously rupturing the epidermis, pulverulent, orange; paraphyses cylindrical, surrounding the sori and on the hymenia, 30–39 × 9–15 µm, wall 1–1.5 mm thick, colorless; urediniospores globose, obovoid or oblong-ellipsoid, 18–24 × 15–18 µm; wall with thin and uniformly arranged echinulae, 1 µm uniform thickness, pale yellow or colorless; germ pores not seen.

Additional specimens examined (Paratypes): BRAZIL. MINAS GERAIS: Itamonte, on Abatia americana (Gardner) Eichler, km 2 na estrada Garganta do Registro-Agulhas Negras, 22º22.279’S, 44º45.212’W, 1,835 m altitude, 13.VI.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr 431-07 (RB480619!); km 3 da estrada Garganta do Registro-Agulhas Negras, 22º22.516’S, 44º45.078’W, 1,940 m altitude, 10.X.2007, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 624-07 (RB480638!); ao redor do Brejo da Lapa, 22º21.262’S, 44º44.081’W, 2,130 m altitude, 19.II.2008, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 04-08 (RB480575!); km 6 na estrada Garganta do Registro-Agulhas Negras, ao redor da casa de Pedra, 22º22.123’S, 44º44.705’W, 2,055 m altitude, 20.II.2008, M. Salazar Yepes & A.A. Carvalho Jr. 75-08 (RB480645!).

This new species, Uredo abatiae, is the first record of a rust on the plant genus Abatia. In Brazil, Hennen et al. (2005) recorded five species of genus Melampsora on the family Salicaceae: Melampsora epitea, M. larici-populina, M. medusae, M. occientalis, and M. populnea are clearly different from the new species because all of them have capitate paraphyses up to 80 μm long, thick apical walls, and urediniospores with walls aculeate-verrucose and echinulate-verrucose.

The species is distributed in Brazil, and its life cycle is unknown.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, for the infrastructure and logistical support, and their botanists for the identifications of botanical material; the study committee of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia; and the Itatiaia National Park (IBAMA), for support during the field work.

References

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    20 Sept 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    16 June 2020
  • Accepted
    30 July 2020
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