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Deguelia tenuiflora (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae), a remarkable new species from the Brazilian Amazon

Abstract

A new species of Deguelia from north of Manaus (Amazonas state), Brazil, is described and illustrated here as Deguelia tenuiflora. It is vegetatively similar to D. amazonica, while its flowers resemble D. negrensis and D. scandens. This new species exhibits the following unique characteristics: mostly unifoliolate leaves covered abaxially by a peculiar indumentum, and calyx with vexillary lobes triangular-depressed, which allows for its recognition as a distinct species. We provide a table of characters for distinguishing the new species from congeners and a distribution map of the new taxon.

Key words
Fabaceae; liana; PDBFF; terra firme; unifoliolate

Resumo

Uma nova espécie de Deguelia encontrada perto de Manaus (Amazonas), Brasil é descrita e ilustrada aqui como Deguelia tenuiflora. Esta espécie é similar à D. amazonica vegetativamente enquanto suas flores se assemelham à D. negrensis e D. scandens. Esta nova espécie apresenta características únicas: folhas geralmente unifolioladas com pilosidade peculiar abaxialmente e cálice com os lobos vexilares triangular-deprimidos, o que permite o seu reconhecimento como uma espécie distinta. Uma tabela com caracteres selecionados é fornecida para distinguir as espécies deste gênero, além de um mapa de distribuição para este novo táxon.

Palavras-chave
Fabaceae; liana; PDBFF; terra firme; unifoliolada

Introduction

According to its current circumscription, Deguelia Aubl. is represented by 21 species, found only in the neotropics (Camargo & Tozzi 2014aCamargo RA & Tozzi AMGA (2014a) A synopsis of the genus Deguelia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae) in Brazil. Brittonia 66: 12-32., 2014bCamargo RA & Tozzi AMGA (2014b) A new species of Deguelia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) for the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Phytotaxa 184: 160-164., 2016Camargo RA & Tozzi AMGA (2016) Taxonomic placement of Millettia occidentalis (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae), a rare liana from the Amazon Basin. Phytotaxa 261: 75-81., 2018Camargo RA & Tozzi AMGA (2018) New combinations in Deguelia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) for the Guiana Shield. Phytotaxa 356: 285-290.). The genus was described by Aublet (1775)Aublet JBCF (1775) Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise. Vol. 2. Pierre François Didot Jeune, Paris. Pp. 750-753. from French Guiana and later synonymized with Derris by Bentham (1860)Bentham G (1860) Synopsis of Dalbergieae, a tribe of Leguminosae. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Botany 4 Supp.: 1-134.. The species were later described in or combined with Lonchocarpus Kunth in Humboldt et al. (1824Kunth CS (1824) [1823] Lonchocarpus. In: von Humboldt FWHA, Bonpland AJA & Kunth CS (eds.) Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 6. Gide Filium, Paris. Pp. 383-385.) by Bentham (1839Bentham G (1839) Enumeration of the plants collected by Mr. Schomburgk in British Guiana. Annals of Natural History 3: 427-438., 1850Bentham G (1850) Report on the dried plants collected by Mr. Spruce in the neighbourhood of Pará in the months of july, august, and september, 1849. Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 233-244., 1860Bentham G (1860) Synopsis of Dalbergieae, a tribe of Leguminosae. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Botany 4 Supp.: 1-134., 1862Bentham G (1862) Leguminosae I. In: von Martius CFP, Endlicher S, & Urban I (eds.) Flora brasiliensis. Frid. Fleischer, Monachii, Lipsiae. Vol. 15, pars. 1, 350p.), Pittier (1917Pittier H (1917) The Middle American species of Lonchocarpus. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 20: 37-93., 1923Pittier H (1923) Contribuciones para la flora de Venezuela. Arboles y arbustos nuevos de Venezuela. Segunda y tercera decadas. Tipografia Vargas, Caracas. 43p.), Harms (1921)Harms H (1921) Einige neue Lonchocarpus - Arten aus dem tropischen Amerika. Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 17: 320-325., Ducke (1925Ducke A (1925) Plantes nouvelles ou peu connues de la région amazonienne III. Arquivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 4: 318-320., 1942Ducke A (1942) Lonchocarpus, subgenus Phacelanthus Pittier, in Brazilian Amazonia. Tropical Woods 69: 2-7.), Killip & Smith (1930)Killip EP & Smith AC (1930) The identity of South American fish poisons, “cube” and “timbó”. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 20: 74-81., Kleinhoonte in Pulle (1933)Kleinhoonte A (1933) Leguminosae. In: Pulle A (ed.) Novitates taxonomicae I. Recueil des travaux botaniques néerlandais 30: 167-175., Smith in Krukoff & Smith (1937)Krukoff BA & Smith AC (1937) Rotenone-yielding plants of South America. American Journal of Botany 24: 573-587., Hermann (1947)Hermann FJ (1947) The Amazonian varieties of Lonchocarpus nicou, a rotenone-yielding plant. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 37: 111-113., Lemée (1952)Lemée A (1952) Papilionacées. Flore de la Guyane Française. Vol. 2. Librarie Le Chevelier, Paris. Pp. 106-128.; Derris by Bentham (1860, 1862), Killip (1934Killip EP (1934) New plants mainly from western South America-IV. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 24: 42-52., 1936Killip EP (1936) New plants mainly from western South America-V. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 26: 358-361.), Macbride (1943)Macbride JF (1943) Flora of Peru. Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 13: 28-267., Ducke (1944Ducke A (1944) New or noteworthy Leguminosae of the Brazilian Amazon. Boletim Técnico do Instituto Agronômico do Norte 2: 1-33., 1949Ducke A (1949) Notas sobre a Flora Neotropica - II. As leguminosas da Amazônia brasileira. Boletim Técnico do Instituto Agronômico do Norte 18: 171-200.); and Millettia by Ducke (1953)Ducke A (1953) Millettia occidentalis, nova leguminosa provavelmente ictiotóxica do Amazonas. Boletim Técnico do Instituto Agronômico do Norte 28: 35-38.. Deguelia was reestablished by Geesink (1984)Geesink R (1984) Scala Millettiearum. A survey of the genera of Millettieae (Legum.-Pap.) with methodological considerations. Leiden Botanical Series 8. E.J. Brill & Leiden University Press, Leiden. 131p., who recognized it as distinct from Derris and Lonchocarpus. Previously, most of the Deguelia species had been described in these other genera.

The genus Deguelia includes plants that are highly variable in habit, presence and type of floral dots, indumentum covering the corolla, number of ovules, and type of fruit. The genus can only be characterized by its inflorescence type: a pseudoraceme in which the secondary axes form brachyblasts (shoots with little internode elongation) containing more than five flowers (Camargo & Mansano, unpublished). Phylogenetic studies suggest a drastic reduction in the number of species in the genus, while the inflorescence type, also typical in many Phaseoleae genera, seems to have appeared in Millettieae at least three different times (Camargo & Mansano, unpublished).

A recently updated analysis shows that Deguelia should be restricted to species that show a defined suite of characters, instead of just the inflorescence type (Camargo & Mansano, unpublished). That important characters defining the genus include the presence of darkened dots smaller than 0.1 mm on the calyx and corolla (although absent in one species), lack of indumentum on the corolla, a membranaceous corolla, a standard lacking basal callosities, keel petals subequal to the wings, fewer than six ovules (usually up to four), indehiscent fruits with an evident wing along the adaxial suture (lacking in one species, which bears elastically dehiscent fruits). These restrictions result in reducing the number of Deguelia species to four (Camargo & Mansano, unpublished).

A new species of Deguelia, conforming to the new circumscription, was collected by one of the authors at PDBFF (Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project) north of Manaus, in an Area of Relevant Ecological Interest (ARIE) between Manaus and Rio Preto da Eva in the state of Amazonas. Here we provide a full description of the new species, its known ecological preferences, IUCN status, a distribution map, taxonomic comments, and a table of morphological characters that distinguish this species from others of the genus.

Materials and Method

The discovery of the new species occurred during an ecological study of intact and fragmented forests within the PDBFF, executed by the second author. Sterile and fertile specimens were collected and sent for identification to the first and third authors (Leguminosae specialists), who recently had completed a revision of Deguelia (Camargo & Mansano, unpublished). Once determined to be a new species, it was described using terminology based on Radford et al. (1974)Radford AE, Dickison WC, Massey JR & Bell CR (1974) Vascular plant systematics. Harper & Row, New York. 891p. and Font Quer (1985)Font Quer P (1985). Diccionario de botânica. Editorial Labor, Barcelona. 1244p.. The microscopic measurements were taken with the aid of a stereoscopic microscope and a Starfer 150 × 0.02 mm caliper. The specimens collected during the fieldwork are deposited in UEC and INPA herbaria. Preliminary values for conservation status were based on IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee (2022)IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee (2022) Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 15. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Committee. Available at <https://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf>.
https://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/Re...
, and the scenarios were evaluated using the GEOCAT tool (Bachman et al. 2011Bachman S, Moat J, Hill, AW, de la Torre J & Scott B (2011) Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool. In: Smith V & Peney L (eds.) e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity Science. ZooKeys 150: 117-126.).

Taxonomic treatment

Deguelia tenuiflora R.A. Camargo, R.J. Burnham & Mansano sp. nov. Type: BRAZIL. AMAZONAS: Manaus, BR-174, km 64, east on ZF-03 about 0.5 km before km 37, along roadside in treefall, 02º24’19”S, 59º52’30”W, 31.V.2017, fl., R.J. Burnham & J.B. da Silva 8009 (Holotype: INPA!; Isotype: UEC!). Fig. 1

Figure 1
a-j. Deguelia tenuiflora – a. habit; b. stipel; c. leaflet indumentum on the abaxial side; d. pedicel with calyx and bracteoles attached; e. bract; f. bracteole; g. calyx showing the indumentum on the abaxial side; h. corolla (standard, wings and keel petals); i. staminal tube sheathing the ovary; j. carpel showing ovary and style indumentum (a-j, R.J. Burnham 8009, UEC - drawn from isotype by Klei Sousa).

The species differs from all others in the genus mainly by the presence of almost exclusively unifoliolate leaves, present on the reproductive branches and rarely up to five leaflets on sterile branches, presence of stipels and leaflets abaxially covered by a long, dense ferrugineous tomentum (unique in the genus).

Lianas to scandent shrubs, robust with a usually 1–3 cm diameter terete trunk, however the largest stem found was 7.2 cm in diameter. Young branches densely tomentose, becoming sparser in older material. Stipules lanceolate-acuminate, usually caducous. Leaves with 1(–5) leaflets, pulvinus 0.4–1(–1.3) cm, petiole (0.9–)1.8–5.6 (–9.2) cm long and rachis (1–)7.8–9.5 long (only present in 3-foliolate and 5-foliolate specimens), striate and adaxially sulcate, densely tomentose. Stipels caducous, 1.5–2.1 mm, linear, tomentose, petiolules 0.8–1.1 cm, densely tomentose. Leaflets 8.3–19.9 × 3.9–10.2 cm, elliptic, apex obtuse to acuminate (sometimes with a long acumen), base obtuse, adaxially glabrous, sometimes with sparse, short trichomes over the veins, abaxially dense-ferrugineous tomentose on primary and secondary veins, dark green and shiny adaxially, pale olive abaxially, primary and secondary veins adaxially immersed, abaxially strongly prominent. Pseudoracemose inflorescence 7.4–14.2 cm, axillary, 2–3 per node, densely ferrugineous tomentose, brachyblasts 6.1–6.3 mm, subterete, tomentose, bracts 1.4–2.6 × 0.7–1.6 mm, ovate to deltoid, acuminate, abaxially tomentose, bracteoles 1.2–1.5 × 0.4–0.6 mm, ovate, acuminate, abaxially tomentose. Flowers fragile, falling off readily, pedicel 2.7–5.8 mm, tomentose, calyx 5-dentate, ferrugineous-tomentose, almost totally united, 0.8–0.9 mm, triangular-depressed, apex obtuse, lateral carinal teeth 0.6–0.7 mm, shallowly-triangular, apex acuminate, central carinal tooth slightly longer 0.8–0.9 mm, shallowly-triangular, apex acuminate, corolla pale cream, drying yellowish; standard 5.7–6.7 × 3.2–4.2 mm, obovate to obovate-panduriform, apex emarginate, base attenuate to sub-auriculate, glabrous, wings 5.2–6.1 × 1.5–1.8 mm, oblong, apex round, base oblique (vexillary side hastate and carinal side attenuate), keel petals 5.1–6.7 × 2.1–2.4 mm, elliptic-falcate, apex round, base oblique (vexillary side hastate and carinal side attenuate), stamens pseudomonadelphous, filaments 1.2–2.7 mm, membranaceous, glabrous; anthers 0.2–0.5 × 0.2–0.3 mm, oblong, elliptic to suborbicular, ovary 3.1–3.6 mm long, velutinous, two ovules, stipe very short: 0.3–0.4 mm in length; disc absent; style 1.8–2.8 mm long, slightly reflexed on the proximal half (distal half straight), forming a 90 to 120º angle with the ovary, trichomes sparse on the first half, stigma short. Fruit unknown.

Additional specimens examined (paratypes): BRAZIL. AMAZONAS: Manaus, BR-174, km 64, east on ZF-03, 50 ha plot at km 37, 3.VII.2011, R.J. Burnham & J.B. da Silva 4202 (INPA); BR-174, km 64, east on ZF-03, 50 ha plot at km 37, 3.VII.2012, R.J. Burnham & J.B. da Silva 5060 (INPA); BR-174, km 80, 5 km west on Dimona Fazenda, 10 ha plot Liana Tag 9588, 21.VII.2016, R.J. Burnham & J.B. da Silva 6900 (INPA); BR-174, km 80, 5 km west on Dimona Fazenda, 10 ha plot Liana Tag 9842, 23.VII.2016, R.J. Burnham & J.B. da Silva 6999 (INPA).

Deguelia tenuiflora is only known from the type locality, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil (Fig. 2). It grows in continuous (unfragmented) “terra firme” forests and is one of the five most abundant liana species in a 25-hectare ForestGEO plot at km 37 in the PDBFF (unpublished data R.J. Burnham). It is notably less common in other forest plots at PDBFF where forest plots are isolated in a matrix of deforested areas. As a preliminary conservation assessment for this species, it can be stated that it is critically endangered (CR) based on criteria B (geographic range; extent of occurrence, area of occupancy). In spite of the well-studied Flora of the Reserva Ducke (Ribeiro et al. 1999Ribeiro JELS, Hopkins MJG, Vicentini A, Sotheres CA, Costa MAS, Brito J, M. Souza MAD, Martins LH, Lohmann LG, Assunção PA, Pereira EC, Silva CF, Mesquita MR & Procópio LC (1999) Flora da Reserva Ducke. Guia de identificação das plantas vasculares de uma floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central. INPA-DFID, Manaus. 800p.) only 65 km away, it has not been reported from that site. For a more refined assessment, additional information must be gathered so other criteria can also be evaluated.

Figure 2
Distribution map of Deguelia tenuiflora showing the locality near Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil) where it was collected.

The species was only found in May with flowers, in spite of being collected in almost every month of the year in sterile form. The etymology refers to its fragile flower parts, in particular the petals and staminal tube.

Deguelia tenuiflora bears the following unique features: regularly unifoliolate leaves, although some sterile individuals may have 1, 3, or 5 leaflets, abaxially dense-tomentose, and a calyx with vexillary lobes triangular-depressed (Tab. 1). Vegetative morphological traits place this species closest to D. amazonica Killip, which bears very distinct flowers, with longer, purple to pink petals (versus pale cream in the new species), and a consistently higher number of leaflets (the new species normally bears just one leaflet on leaves of fertile branches and regularly bears just one leaflet on sterile branches) with a different indumentum type (short-adpressed versus long-tomentose abaxially). The flowers resemble D. negrensis (Benth.) Taub. and D. scandens Aubl. but the new species can be distinguished mainly by its vexillary calyx lobe shape, and vegetative characters, in particular the presence of a dense indumentum on the abaxial surface of leaflets. The new species bears stipels, rarely seen elsewhere in the genus (only in D. amazonica in few specimens with very young leaflets, as they fall off frequently). Field censuses found consistent presence of dark red latex in stems 2 cm and larger in diameter.

Table 1
Morphological table of characters and their variation among Deguelia species.

Deguelia tenuiflora was frequently observed sterile and unifoliolate, being collected only one time with flowers. Few individuals were seen with up to 5 leaflets, such as R.J. Burnham & J.B. da Silva 4202 (3 leaflets), R.J. Burnham & J.B. da Silva 5060 (1–3 leaflets), R.J. Burnham & J.B. da Silva 6900 (1 or 5 leaflets) and R.J. Burnham & J.B. da Silva 6999 (5 leaflets).

Acknowledgements

This study represents number 814 of the Technical Series of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (PDBFF-INPA). The authors thank the PDBFF, for logistical support and especially the work of Sr. João Batista da Silva, who gathered the flowering material. Funding to initiate the census of lianas at PDBFF was provided by the University of Michigan College of LS&A. Herbarium staff at INPA kindly sent specimens for examination to the first and third authors. We also thank UEC staff and PPG-BV UNICAMP, as well as CAPES and CNPq for funding.

References

  • Aublet JBCF (1775) Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Françoise. Vol. 2. Pierre François Didot Jeune, Paris. Pp. 750-753.
  • Bachman S, Moat J, Hill, AW, de la Torre J & Scott B (2011) Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool. In: Smith V & Peney L (eds.) e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity Science. ZooKeys 150: 117-126.
  • Bentham G (1839) Enumeration of the plants collected by Mr. Schomburgk in British Guiana. Annals of Natural History 3: 427-438.
  • Bentham G (1850) Report on the dried plants collected by Mr. Spruce in the neighbourhood of Pará in the months of july, august, and september, 1849. Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 2: 233-244.
  • Bentham G (1860) Synopsis of Dalbergieae, a tribe of Leguminosae. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Botany 4 Supp.: 1-134.
  • Bentham G (1862) Leguminosae I. In: von Martius CFP, Endlicher S, & Urban I (eds.) Flora brasiliensis Frid. Fleischer, Monachii, Lipsiae. Vol. 15, pars. 1, 350p.
  • Camargo RA & Tozzi AMGA (2014a) A synopsis of the genus Deguelia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae) in Brazil. Brittonia 66: 12-32.
  • Camargo RA & Tozzi AMGA (2014b) A new species of Deguelia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) for the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Phytotaxa 184: 160-164.
  • Camargo RA & Tozzi AMGA (2016) Taxonomic placement of Millettia occidentalis (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae), a rare liana from the Amazon Basin. Phytotaxa 261: 75-81.
  • Camargo RA & Tozzi AMGA (2018) New combinations in Deguelia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) for the Guiana Shield. Phytotaxa 356: 285-290.
  • Ducke A (1925) Plantes nouvelles ou peu connues de la région amazonienne III. Arquivos do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 4: 318-320.
  • Ducke A (1942) Lonchocarpus, subgenus Phacelanthus Pittier, in Brazilian Amazonia. Tropical Woods 69: 2-7.
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  • Ducke A (1949) Notas sobre a Flora Neotropica - II. As leguminosas da Amazônia brasileira. Boletim Técnico do Instituto Agronômico do Norte 18: 171-200.
  • Ducke A (1953) Millettia occidentalis, nova leguminosa provavelmente ictiotóxica do Amazonas. Boletim Técnico do Instituto Agronômico do Norte 28: 35-38.
  • Font Quer P (1985). Diccionario de botânica. Editorial Labor, Barcelona. 1244p.
  • Geesink R (1984) Scala Millettiearum A survey of the genera of Millettieae (Legum.-Pap.) with methodological considerations. Leiden Botanical Series 8. E.J. Brill & Leiden University Press, Leiden. 131p.
  • Harms H (1921) Einige neue Lonchocarpus - Arten aus dem tropischen Amerika. Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 17: 320-325.
  • Hermann FJ (1947) The Amazonian varieties of Lonchocarpus nicou, a rotenone-yielding plant. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 37: 111-113.
  • IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee (2022) Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 15. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Committee. Available at <https://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf>.
    » https://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf
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  • Killip EP (1934) New plants mainly from western South America-IV. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 24: 42-52.
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  • Kleinhoonte A (1933) Leguminosae. In: Pulle A (ed.) Novitates taxonomicae I. Recueil des travaux botaniques néerlandais 30: 167-175.
  • Krukoff BA & Smith AC (1937) Rotenone-yielding plants of South America. American Journal of Botany 24: 573-587.
  • Kunth CS (1824) [1823] Lonchocarpus In: von Humboldt FWHA, Bonpland AJA & Kunth CS (eds.) Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 6. Gide Filium, Paris. Pp. 383-385.
  • Lemée A (1952) Papilionacées. Flore de la Guyane Française. Vol. 2. Librarie Le Chevelier, Paris. Pp. 106-128.
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  • Pittier H (1917) The Middle American species of Lonchocarpus Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 20: 37-93.
  • Pittier H (1923) Contribuciones para la flora de Venezuela. Arboles y arbustos nuevos de Venezuela. Segunda y tercera decadas. Tipografia Vargas, Caracas. 43p.
  • Radford AE, Dickison WC, Massey JR & Bell CR (1974) Vascular plant systematics. Harper & Row, New York. 891p.
  • Ribeiro JELS, Hopkins MJG, Vicentini A, Sotheres CA, Costa MAS, Brito J, M. Souza MAD, Martins LH, Lohmann LG, Assunção PA, Pereira EC, Silva CF, Mesquita MR & Procópio LC (1999) Flora da Reserva Ducke. Guia de identificação das plantas vasculares de uma floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central. INPA-DFID, Manaus. 800p.

Edited by

Area Editor: Dra. Marli Morim

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    11 Apr 2022
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    25 Feb 2021
  • Accepted
    20 May 2021
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