Anathallis comprises ca. 165 Neotropical species. Based on fieldwork and study of Brazilian and foreign herbaria, 17 species of Anathallis are recognized for Paraná. They are assigned to four informal groups: “Acuminatae” (Anathallis rubens and A. sclerophylla), “Alatae” (A. citrina, A. dryadum, A. ferdinandiana, A. gert-hatschbachii, A. heterophylla, and A. obovata), “Margaritifera” (A. linearifolia and A. piratiningana), and “Panmorphia” (A. adenochila, A. aristulata, A. bleyensis, A. corticicola, A. microphyta, A. modesta, and A. vitorinoi). The genus is recorded in different areas in the state, mostly inhabiting areas of the Primeiro Planalto in the Floresta Ombrófila Mista, and in the Estepe Gramíneo Lenhosa. According to IUCN criteria, most taxa are considered “Endangered.” Four new synonyms are proposed: Anathallis kleinii as a synonym for A. corticicola; A. microblephara as a synonym for A. modesta; A. pabstii as a synonym for A. gert-hatschbachii, and A. ypirangae as a synonym for A. ferdinandiana. A lectotype and an epitype are selected for Pleurothallis microblephara Schltr. A key for species identification, descriptions, illustrations, list of specimens examined, distribution maps and conservation status for all taxa are herein provided.
biodiversity; floristics; IUCN; Atlantic Forest