Abstract in English:Abstract Background The States of Consciousness Questionnaire (SOCQ) was developed to assess the occurrence features of the change in consciousness induced by psilocybin, and includes the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), developed to assess the ocurrence of mystical experiences in altered states of consciousness. Objective To translate the SOCQ to Brazilian Portuguese and validate the 30-item MEQ. Methods The SOCQ was translated to Brazilian Portuguese and backtranslated into English. The two English versions were compared and differences corrected, resulting in a Brazilian translation. Using an internet-survey, 1504 Portuguese-speaking subjects answered the translated version of the SOCQ. The 4-factor version of MEQ30 was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis. Results A Brazilian Portuguese version of the SOCQ was made available. Goodness-of-fit indexes indicated that data met the factorial structure proposed for the English MEQ30. Factors presented excellent to acceptable reliability according to Cronbach’s alpha: mystical (0.95); positive mood (0.71); transcendence of time/space (0.83); and ineffability (0.81). Discussion The Brazilian Portuguese version of the MEQ30 is validated and it fits in the factorial structure performed on the original English version. The SOCQ is also available to the Brazilian Portuguese speaking population, allowing studies in different languages to be conducted and compared systematically.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Seborrheic dermatitis is a skin disease in which psychological factors play a central role in its onset, exacerbation and remission. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate personality traits and common psychiatric conditions in patients with SD. Methods Outpatients who were admitted to the Bozok School of Medicine Department of Dermatology complaining of SD and who volunteered for study were included. Symptom Checklist 90 – Revised (SCL-90-R) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised Short Form (EPQ-RSF) were administered before treatment to 50 patients who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the study. Results compiled from the 50 subjects were compared to a control group that was comprised of 50 healthy volunteers. Results Of the 50 patients that were included in the study, 25 were female and 25 were male. The Global Symptom Index (GSI; Z = -6.96, P < 0.001), Somatization (Z = -6.59, P < 0.001), Depression (Z = -7.11, P < 0.001), and Anxiety (Z = -6.64, P < 0.001) subscales of the SCL-90-R were evaluated. Statistically significantly higher scores were obtained from patients with SD in comparison with the control group on all of these subscales. In addition, the EPQ-RSF Neuroticism subscale was statistically significantly higher (Z = -4.99, P < 0.001) in patients with SD. Discussion Our results showed that common psychiatric conditions are considerably frequent in SD patients. More importantly, neurotic personality characteristics were much more frequent in these patients. These findings suggest SD to be a psychosomatic disorder that requires a multi-disciplinary approach.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background DSM-5 introduced some modifications on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) criteria. The instruments developed for the assessment of aspects related to PTSD needed a reformulation, as was the case of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL). Objectives To present the process of transcultural adaptation of the three forms of the PCL-5 to Brazilian Portuguese, as well as its face validity. Methods The procedure involved independent translations, a synthesis version, back translation by an independent translator, evaluation by the original author, analysis by an expert committee, and a pretesting study (10 subjects with/without experience of a traumatic situation). The last two steps formed the face validity procedure. Results The synthesis version was approved by the original author and the agreement percentage by the expert committee was excellent, with only two items showing < 90%. The pretesting study showed that the Brazilian version was well understood and linguistically and culturally accepted by the participants, which did not make significant suggestions for changes. Discussion Transcultural adaptation of the PCL-5 for Brazilian Portuguese followed a rigid and standardized procedure. Therefore, after having its face validity assessed by an expert committee and by the target population, it is apt to be used.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background There is growing interest in the role of religion in psychiatric disorders. Impulsivity is a psychological trait associated with acting without thinking, with a decision process favoring short-term outcomes without further consideration of its consequences, and is a risk factor for the development of mental disorders. Objective In this study, the objective was to analyze the role of religiosity as a possible moderator between the association of impulsivity and internalizing psychiatric symptoms. Methods The hypothesis was assessed in a cross-sectional study enrolling 366 adults evaluated using the abbreviated version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20, and the Duke Religion Index. Results Internalizing symptoms were significantly influenced by an interaction between religiosity and impulsivity. Religiosity acted as a protective factor against internalizing symptoms only for participants with high impulsivity. Discussion The results suggest a moderation role of religiosity in the association of impulsivity with internalizing symptoms.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Secondary interventions are implemented within a short interval following the occurrence of traumatic events with the purpose of preventing the onset of PTSD. Objective Analyze the results of studies that assessed post-trauma interventions in adults aimed at preventing the onset of PTSD or symptoms related to PTSD. Methods We performed literature searches using the search expression [(Early intervention OR secondary prevention) AND (Post traumatic stress disorder OR PTSD)] for articles published until October 2016. Among the references found, 29 fulfilled the selection criteria established for the review. Data were divided and analyzed according to the type of intervention: pharmacological or psychological. Results Psychological measures used in the studies lack homogeneity regarding the type of intervention and the assessment of intervention outcomes. Pharmacological interventions were less frequent and findings require replication, together with an expansion in the types of substances investigated. In general, many of the studies reviewed suggest that both pharmacological and psychological interventions are effective in the prevention of PTSD. Discussion Future trials should be focused on determining the best interventions for the secondary prevention of PTSD. The combination of psychological and pharmacological interventions for post-trauma patients poses opportunities and challenges that remain unexplored.