Abstract in English:Abstract Background Borderline intelligence function (BIF) and specific learning disorder (SLD) are common diagnoses in children who are brought up for learning problems and school failure. Objective The aim of our study was to determine whether there were distinctive aspects of cognitive testing routinely used in evaluating SLD and BIF and investigate emotion regulation skills and minor neurologic symptoms. Method Sixty children (30 SLD and 30 BIF) who are currently attending primary school are selected for study. Visual Aural Digit Span Test – Form B, Gessel Figure Drawing Test, Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Perception Test, WISC-R, Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS) and Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) was administered. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in cognitive tests. The emotional regulation ability measured by the emotional regulation subscale was better in the SLD group than the BIF group (p = 0.014). In the NES, sensory integration (p = 0.008), motor coordination (p = 0.047) and other (p < 0.001) subscales showed higher scores in the BIF group. Discussion It has been shown that cognitive tests don’t have distinguishing features in the evaluation of SLD and BIF. Emotion regulation subscale score of ERS and sensory integration, motor coordination, and total scores of NES can be used in both discrimination of groups.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background The identification of facial emotions is a key skill as it promotes rapid and accurate recognition of emotions and enables better communication and greater social adaptation. More recent studies have suggested that impaired social interactions may be related to deficits in social cognition and therefore in the recognition of facial expressions, contributing to social disturbance among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Objective To present the results of an empirical study assessing the recognition of facial emotion expressions in women with BPD, having as reference a group of healthy women from the general population. Methods The subjects (40 female with BPD and 40 controls) were assessed with a dynamic task on a computer screen for recognition of facial expressions of emotion. Results The BPD group had a lower accuracy in perceiving emotions of fear and surprise and slowness in recognising happiness. Logistic regression analyses also identified an association between BPD and higher sensitivity in the recognition of anger. Discussion Women with BPD made more mistakes in the recognition of negative emotions, which can bias the behaviour and regulation of affective states, favouring in turn the emergence of some typical symptoms associated with BPD.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background This study was carried out at Punjab Institute of Mental Health and Centre for Nuclear Medicine Mayo Hospital, Lahore. It is aimed at the possible association of thyroid malfunctioning with suicide attempts of patients. Objective Determination of thyroid function status of suicidal psychiatric patients and their comparison with psychiatric patients without suicide attempt or ideation. Methods Total 54 patients with either past history of suicide attempt or current suicidal ideation were selected for analysis of their thyroid function status (age 15-55 years). Age matched 50 non-suicide psychiatric patients were included for comparison. Results Two patients with suicide attempt had overt thyroid dysfunction. Remaining patients had serum FT4, FT3 and TSH level within normal range. Suicide attempter patients had lower FT4 but increased FT3 and TSH levels compared to suicidal ideation patients. Serum FT4 and TSH levels in suicidal patients were not different from psychiatric patients. Serum FT3 in suicidal patients was lower than psychiatric patients (3.7 ± 0.8 vs. 4.3 ± 0.5; p < 0.05). Female suicidal patients had lower FT3 levels compared to male patients (3.4 ± 0.6 vs. 3.9 ± 0.8 pmol/L; p < 0.05). Discussion Local suicidal patients have higher incidence of overt thyroid disorder and lower FT3 levels compared to non-suicidal psychiatric patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Delusional characteristics have been largely ignored in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Objectives To review the literature on delusional features in AN from phenomenological, neurobiological, and clinical viewpoints. Methods Data were obtained through searches of Medline, PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane Library. Results Distorted beliefs in AN may range from an overvalued idea to an overt delusion, involving affective, personality and/or psychotic disorders. Studies confirm alterations in monoaminergic systems. It has also been seen a decreased integration of visual/proprioceptive information, and alterations in neural networks involved in body processing. It is known that body image distortion may present “delusional proportions” as a consequence of great concern about body. Concomitantly, “embodied defence hypothesis” has been proposed. Restrictive AN exhibits higher levels of delusionality, and a particular delusional type of AN has been suggested, associated with a worse long-term outcome. Low doses of atypical antipsychotics are recommended combined with cognitive techniques. Discussion Delusional thinking in AN is likely a dynamic and dimensional phenomenon that can vary, both in nature and/or severity, whereas high insight levels, before and after refeeding, result in positive outcomes. Neurobiological research on this topic must be encouraged, since clinical and phenomenological approaches are comparatively more frequently reported.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogenic preparation traditionally used by indigenous populations of Northwestern Amazonian countries for ritual and therapeutic purposes. It is rich in β-carboline alkaloids and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Preclinical, observational, and experimental studies suggest that ayahuasca and its alkaloids have anxiolytic and antidepressive effects. We recently reported in an open-label trial that ayahuasca administration was associated with significant decreases in depression symptoms for 2-3 weeks after the experimental session in 17 patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Objectives To investigate if the experiment had any long-lasting effects on patients Methods Eight patients were interviewed 4 to 7 years after ayahuasca intake. Results Our results suggest that ayahuasca was well tolerated and that symptom reductions were limited to a few weeks. Importantly, most patients believed that the experience was among the most important of their lives, even 4-7 years later. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first long-term follow-up of a clinical sample that participated in an ayahuasca trial. Further studies with different and repeated dosing should be designed to further explore the antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca.