Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo), Volume: 47, Issue: 2, Published: 2020
  • G protein gene variants in schizophrenia Original Article

    GOKCE, HATICE HUMEYRA YAVUZ; DASDEMIR, SELCUK; KUCUKALI, CEM ISMAIL; IPLIK, ELIF SINEM; CAKMAKOGLU, BEDIA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Various studies demonstrating enhanced vulnerability to apoptosis may contribute to the pathobiology of schizophrenia. Objective Thus, G proteins may provide an intriguing link between the signal transduction, and apoptotic hypotheses of schizophrenia. In the light of these findings, we investigated whether G protein gene polymorphisms (GNAS1-T393C and GNB3-C825T) accounted for an increased risk of schizophrenia. Methods The present analyses were based on 100 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, and on 100 unrelated healthy controls. The genotyping of GNAS1-T393C, and GNB3-C825T gene polymorphisms were performed using the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: We demonstrated the positive association of GNB3-C825T gene variants with schizophrenia risk (p: 0.023). In our study, more prevalent CC genotype frequencies were detected in GNB3 in patients compared with the frequencies in the controls. The individuals with GNB3-C825T CC genotype had 2 fold increased risk for schizophrenia (p: 0.011, c2: 6.39, OR:2.14, 95% CI: 1.18-3.90). Discussion Our study results suggested that GNB3-C825T polymorphism might be associated with schizophrenia.
  • Parent-teacher report reliability on the fourth edition of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham scale in a Brazilian clinical sample of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Original Article

    MORAES, PRISCILA CORÇÃO B.; DAMÁSIO, BRUNO FIGUEIREDO; LIMA, GABRIEL CARDOSO MEDEIROS DE; SUDO, FELIPE KENJI; MATTOS, PAULO EDUARDO LUIZ DE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Parents and teachers can be valuable sources of information for characterizing children’s ADHD-related impairments in different environments. However, evidence indicated that those categories of informants often provide conflicting responses in formal assessment scales, which may challenge diagnostic decisions regarding the condition. Objective: We aimed to investigate reliability rates between parents and teachers of children and adolescents with and without ADHD using SNAP IV. Methods 199 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years were evaluated for ADHD symptoms using parent-rated and teacher-rated SNAP IV scales. Intraclass correlation coefficients were analyzed for ADHD domains (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), as well as for defiant-oppositional behavior. Results Reports from parents and teachers showed low reliability for all ADHD domains. Parents’ scores on the SNAP IV were higher than those of teachers. Parents and teachers provided highly discrepant responses concerning to the presence and severity of ADHD in children and adolescents, which might result from intrinsic aspects related to their daily functioning in different settings. Discussion Clinicians should consider those trends in parental and teachers’ responses when interpreting results from informant-based instruments for detecting ADHD.
  • Mediating role of childhood abuse for the relationship between schizotypal traits and obsessive-compulsive disorder Original Article

    MEMIS, CAGDAS OYKU; DOGAN, BILGE; SEVINCOK, DOGA; ASHIK, ISMET; SEVINCOK, LEVENT

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background The mediating role of childhood trauma in the relationship between schizotypal symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was not sufficiently investigated to date. Objectives In the present study, our major goal was to analyse the mediator role of childhood abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual), and neglect (emotional and physical) on the link between schizotypal symptoms and OCD, after controlling for duration of OCD, the mean number of comorbid Axis I disorders, and current anxiety. Methods One hundred fifteen patients (aged 18-65 years) who had primary diagnosis of OCD and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score ≥16 were assessed using the short form of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire questionnaire (CTQ-SF), Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results The all types of schizotypal symptoms were significantly correlated with the scores of childhood abuse and neglect, and BAI. The childhood abuse as a mediator significantly predicted the total YBOCS scores (p = 0.02) after when BAI scores were controlled. However, childhood neglect was not multivariately related to current OCD severity, and did not mediate the relationship between schizotypal traits and total YBOCS scores. Discussion We suggested that childhood trauma mediated the schizotypal traits in relationship with current OCD severity independent from anxiety severity.
  • Depression, PTSD and alexithymia in victims of intimate partner violence: a case-control study Original Article

    SIGNORELLI, MARIA SALVINA; FUSAR-POLI, LAURA; ARCIDIACONO, ELEONORA; CAPONNETTO, PASQUALE; AGUGLIA, EUGENIO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) regards millions of women worldwide and can lead to serious psychopathological consequences. Objective We aimed to evaluate differences between a group of abused women and controls, and potential predictors of depression and PTSD in the IPV group. Methods We recruited 57 women who experienced IPV and 57 age-matched controls from the general population. After collecting socio-demographic characteristics, we administered the following scales: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Revised-Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2). Results Our results showed differences between women who experienced IPV and controls in the socio-economic status, employment and educational levels, childhood abuse and early terminations of pregnancy. Notably, the rates of depression, PTSD, and alexithymia were significantly different between the two groups. Linear regression models revealed that sexual coercion was an independent positive predictor of depressive symptoms, while alexithymia played a role in the development of PTSD in the group of abused women. Discussion Given the prevalence of depression and PTSD in victims of IPV, it is important to always investigate for IPV in women seeking for help in mental health services. Alexithymia in victims of IPV deserves to be further investigated by researchers.
  • An analytical study of iboga alkaloids contained in Tabernanthe iboga-derived products offered by ibogaine treatment providers Original Article

    BOUSO, JOSÉ CARLOS; FORNÍS, IVAN; VILAMALA, MIREIA VENTURA; LOENEN, BENJAMIN DE; SAINZ-CORT, ALBERTO; JIMÉNEZ-GARRIDO, DANIEL F; SANTOS, RAFAEL GUIMARÃES DOS; HALLAK, JAIME E. C; ALCÁZAR-CÓRCOLES, MIGUEL ÁNGEL; JENKS, CHRISTOPHER W

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Therapeutic properties of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction are attracting both clinicians and patients to its use. Since ibogaine is not an authorized medicine, the quality of these products is not always known, increasing the probability of adverse reactions. Objective This study collects different types of iboga-derived samples from treatment providers, vendors and online buyers to analyse their content. Methods Analysis of iboga products (n = 16) was performed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry methods (GC/MS). Products included Iboga root bark, Total Alkaloids (TA), Purified Total Alkaloids (PTA HCl), ibogaine hydrochloride (ibogaine HCl) and one Voacanga africana root bark. Results The content of ibogaine was highly variable, ranging from 0.6% to 11.2% for products sold as iboga root bark, from 8.2% to 32.9% for products sold as TA, 73.7% for one sample sold as PTA and from 61.5% to 73.4% for products sold as ibogaine HCl. One sample did not show any iboga alkaloids. Other alkaloids and unknown substances were found in almost all samples. Discussion The purity of iboga products is highly variable. These results should be taken into consideration by suppliers and users, especially regarding correct dosing to avoid overdose, as well as potential interactions with other substances.
  • Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in catatonia Original Article

    SAHIN, SENGUL KOCAMER; YAŞAMALI, CELAL; ÖZYÜREK, MUHAMMET BERKAY; ELBOĞA, GÜLÇIN; ALTINDAĞ, ABDURRAHMAN; ŞAHIN, AHMET ZIYA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background There is growing evidence of subclinical inflammation in mental disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate frequency of symptoms of catatonia and the newly diagnosed subclinical inflammatory markers which are neutrophil/lymphocyte (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte (PLR), monocyte/lymphocyte (MLR) ratios in catatonia patients due to mental disorders. Methods: Patients who were admitted to psychiatry clinic with the diagnosis of catatonia according to DSM 5 in the last two years and equal number of control group were included in this retrospective study. Univariate analysis of covariance controlled for possible confounders was used to compare NLR, PLR, MLR ratios between patients and the control group. Results A total of 34 catatonia patients and 34 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients’ mean age was 30.88 + 13.4. NLR value was significantly higher in the patient group than control group. There was no significant difference between the patients and control group according to PLR, MLR values. Discussion The presence of subclinical inflammation in catatonic syndrome due to mental disorders should be considered. Subclinical inflammation that was observed in numerous mental disorders continues in catatonia due to mental disorders. Large-scale studies are needed to determine the role of inflammation in catatonia.
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