To report a case of a 4-month old girl that required 0.7 mg/kg/day (5 mg) of warfarin and discuss relevant risk factors for requiring higher doses.
In November 2015, a 5 kg female infant (36-week preterm) was admitted to the hospital due to status epilepticus and fever. Diazepam, phenytoin and ceftriaxone were prescribed. Cerebrospinal fluid contained 7 leukocytes, 150 mg/dL proteins, 1 mg/dL glucose and gram positive cocci were observed. Cranial tomography suggested hypodense signs in the cerebellum, right temporal lobe and left basal nuclei, which was consistent with pneumococcal meningitis-induced infectious vasculitis. She required low molecular weight heparin and warfarin for post-encephalitis thrombosis. About 10 days were required to achieve therapeutic INR, and warfarin was adjusted five times since the initial prescription.
The risk factors for higher warfarin doses were age and enteral tube feeding. Phenobarbital and prednisone might also have contributed with one of the highest warfarin dose ever reported. Despite current importance given to genetics testing, clinicians should attempt to identify common contributing factors for prolonged non-therapeutic INR, to minimize the risk of coagulation, and to reduce costs of hospital stay and laboratory exams.
Warfarin; Pediatric; Bleeding; Thrombosis; Child; Drug interactions