Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in women and newborns in the immediate postpartum period

Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso do Prado Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira Karine Franklin Assis Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro Pedro Paulo do Prado Junior Luciana Ferreira da Rocha Sant'Ana Silvia Eloiza Priore Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini About the authors

Abstract

Objective:

To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors in women and their newborns in the postpartum period.

Methods:

This cross-sectional study evaluated vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in 226 women and their newborns in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, BR) between December 2011 and November 2012. Cord blood and venous maternal blood were collected to evaluate the following biochemical parameters: vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone. Poisson regression analysis, with a confidence interval of 95%, was applied to assess vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with 25(OH)D deficiency in the newborns and women from the study. The criteria for variable inclusion in the multiple linear regression model was the association with the dependent variable in the simple linear regression analysis, considering p<0.20. Significance level was α<5%.

Results:

From 226 women included, 200 (88.5%) were 20-44 years old; the median age was 28 years. Deficient/insufficient levels of vitamin D were found in 192 (85%) women and in 182 (80.5%) neonates. The maternal 25(OH)D and alkaline phosphatase levels were independently associated with vitamin D deficiency in infants.

Conclusions:

This study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in women and newborns and the association between maternal nutritional status of vitamin D and their infants' vitamin D status.

Keywords
Vitamin D deficiency; Newborns; Women; Postpartum period

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