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First report of Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from the State of Acre, Brazil, and the Brazilian Western Amazon Region

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

This communication reports the occurrence of Rhodnius neglectus in the State of Acre, Brazil.

METHODS

An adult male R. neglectus specimen was collected from the Catuaba Experimental Reserve, which is located in the municipality of Senador Guiomard.

RESULTS

This increases the number of triatomine species reported from the State of Acre to eight and is also the first report of R. neglectus from the Brazilian Western Amazon Region.

CONCLUSIONS

The occurrence of R. neglectus is alarming because even though the species is wild, it can invade and colonize human dwellings and peridomiciles, thereby increasing Chagas disease transmission.

Keywords:
Rhodnius neglectus; Chagas disease; Western Amazon

American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease, is an infectious illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas 1909, which is transmitted by triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)11. Meneguetti DUO, Castro GVS, Castro MALR, Souza JL, Oliveira J, Rosa JA, et al. First report of Rhodnius stali (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2016;49(3):365-8.. In Brazil, the Triatominae is represented by ten genera, including Alberprosenia, Belminus, Cavernicola, Eratyrus, Microtriatoma, Panstrongylus, Parabelminus, Psammolestes, Rhodnius, and Triatoma22. Meneguetti DUO, Tojal SD, Miranda PRM, Rosa JA, Camargo LMA. First report of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop . 2015;48(4):471-3.. However, only four genera (seven species: Rhodnius montenegrensis22. Meneguetti DUO, Tojal SD, Miranda PRM, Rosa JA, Camargo LMA. First report of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop . 2015;48(4):471-3., Rhodnius robustus33. Barata JMS, Rocha RM, Rodrigues VLCC, Ferraz-Filho AN. Primeiro caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no Estado do Acre (Brasil) e sua correlação com as cepas isoladas do caso humano e de triatomíneos silvestres da área. Rev Saude Publica. 1988;22(5):401-10., Rhodnius stali11. Meneguetti DUO, Castro GVS, Castro MALR, Souza JL, Oliveira J, Rosa JA, et al. First report of Rhodnius stali (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2016;49(3):365-8., Rhodnius pictipes44. Gurgel-Gonçalves R, Galvão C, Costa J, Peterson AT. Geographic distribution of Chagas disease vectors in Brazil based on ecological niche modeling. J Trop Med. 2012;1-15., Panstrongylus geniculatus44. Gurgel-Gonçalves R, Galvão C, Costa J, Peterson AT. Geographic distribution of Chagas disease vectors in Brazil based on ecological niche modeling. J Trop Med. 2012;1-15., Eratyrus mucronatus55. Obara MT, Cardoso AS, Pinto MCG, Souza CR, Silva RA, Gurgel-Gonçalves R. Eratyrus mucronatus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): First report in the State of Acre, Brazil, and updated geographic distribution in South America. Check List. 2013;9(4):851-4., and Triatoma sordida66. Ramos LJ, Souza JL, Souza CR, Oliveira J, Rosa JAD, Camargo LMA, et al. First report of Triatoma sordida, Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Western Amazon. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop . 2018;51(1)77-9.) have been reported to occur in the State of Acre. The aim of the present study is to report, for the first time, the occurrence of an additional species, Rhodnius neglectus, in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Western Amazon Region.

An adult male R. neglectus (Figure 1) and seven R. robustus specimens were collected from the Catuaba Experimental Reserve, which is located in the municipality of Senador Guiomard, State of Acre, Brazil (10° 09' 03" S; 67° 44' 09" W), and belongs to the Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC). Triatomines were collected from palm (Attalea sp.) trees during June 2016 by individually removing most of the palm bracts, and the identities of the collected triatomines were confirmed at the Insectarium of the Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, State of São Paulo, Brazil, according to genital morphology77. Galvão C. Vetores da Doença de Chagas no Brasil. Curitiba: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia; 2014. 289p.,88. Lent H, Jurberg J. O gênero Rhodnius Stal, 1859 com um estudo sobre a genitália das espécies (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae). Rev Bras Biol. 1969;29(4):487-560. (Figure 2).

FIGURE 1:
Rhodnius neglectus.A) Dorsal view. B) Ventral view.

FIGURE 2:
Male genitalia of Rhodnius neglectus. A) Phallosoma, ventral view. B) Phallosoma, drawing from Lent & Jurberg 1969. C) Median process of pygophore, drawing from Lent & Jurberg 1969. D) Median process of pygophore. E) Parameres, drawing from Lent & Jurberg 1969. F) Parameres, dorsal view.

Feces and urine from the specimen were diluted in saline solution, prepared on microscope slides, and then examined using an optical microscope (640× magnification), for analysis of trypanosomatid infection.

Rhodnius neglectus (Figure 1) is 17.5 to 20.5 mm in length, dark brown in color, lacking a mottled appearance, and possesses a head that is substantially longer than the pronotum, a third antennal segment (with dark basal portion and clear apical portion) that is shorter than the second, a second frontal segment that does not reach the posterior margin of the head, anteriorly projected pronotal anterolateral angles, a posterior pronotal lobe with two dark longitudinal bands and a single clear band between the submedial carenas, legs with no spots or dark rings, trochanters that are more clear than the femurs, slender previous femurs, and a clear connexivum with well-defined dark rectangular spots99. Jurberg J, Rodrigues JMS, Moreira FFF, Dale C, Cordeiro IRS, Lamas Jr VD, et al. Atlas Iconográfico dos Triatomíneos do Brasil (Vetores da Doença de Chagas). Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 2014. 58p.. In addition, the species’ genital morphology is characterized by a median pygophore process that is short and triangular with a rounded tip, hairy and thin-tipped parameres, and a phallosome with a broad plaque and rounded upper region.

The internal genitalia of the putative male R. neglectus specimen presented were consistent with the morphological description of Lent & Jurberg88. Lent H, Jurberg J. O gênero Rhodnius Stal, 1859 com um estudo sobre a genitália das espécies (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae). Rev Bras Biol. 1969;29(4):487-560.. However, no trypanosomatids were detected.

Despite the lack of infection in the collected specimen, R. neglectus is frequently infected by T. cruzi and T. rangeli1010. Gurgel-Gonçalves R, Cura C, Schijman AG, Cuba CA. Infestation of Mauritia flexuosa palms by triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in the Brazilian savanna. Acta Trop. 2012;121(2):105-11. and is the most common Rhodnius species to invade houses in Brazil. Recent data also indicate that R. neglectus plays an important role in maintaining the enzootic circulation of T. cruzi and T. rangeli in the Brazilian savanna1111. Gurgel-Gonçalves R, Abad-Franch F, Ferreira JBC, Santana DB, Cuba CA. Is Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae) invading houses in central Brazil?. Acta Trop . 2008;107(2):90-8.. This study increases the number of triatomine species reported from the State of Acre to eight and is also the first report of R. neglectus from the Brazilian Western Amazon Region. The occurrence of R. neglectus is alarming because, even though the species is wild, it can invade and colonize human dwellings and peridomiciles1212. Rodrigues VLCC, Pauliquevis Jr C, da Silva RA, Wanderley DMV, Guirardo MM, Rodas LAC, et al. Colonization of palm trees by Rhodnius neglectus and household and invasion in an urban area, Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo. 2014;56(3):213-8.,1313. Carvalho DB, Almeida CE, Rocha CS, Gardim S, Mendonça VJ, Ribeiro AR, et al. A novel association between Rhodnius neglectus and the Livistona australis palm tree in an urban center foreshadowing the risk of Chagas disease transmission by vectorial invasions in Monte Alto City, São Paulo, Brazil. Acta Trop . 2014;130:35-8., with colonies even reported from the tenth floor of a building in Araçatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil1414. Rodrigues VLCC, Silva RA, Wanderley DMV, Carvalho ME, Pauliquevis Jr C. Detecção de triatomíneos da espécie Rhodnius neglectus em área urbana de municípios da região de Araçatuba. Bol Epidemiol Paul. 2009;6(63):20-3.. The present study also confirms the findings of Gurgel-Gonçalves et al.1515. Gurgel-Goncalves R, Cuba CA. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) based on ecological niche modeling. J Med Entomol. 2009;46(4):952-60., who reported that R. neglectus occurs in human environments in the Brazilian the States of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Tocantins, among others, and predicted that R. neglectus was also present in the State of Acre. Another alarming issue regarding the occurrence of R. neglectus in the State of Acre is that the species is often observed to colonize homes with palm thatch roofs1414. Rodrigues VLCC, Silva RA, Wanderley DMV, Carvalho ME, Pauliquevis Jr C. Detecção de triatomíneos da espécie Rhodnius neglectus em área urbana de municípios da região de Araçatuba. Bol Epidemiol Paul. 2009;6(63):20-3., which are common among homes in the Amazon region and may facilitate the domiciliation of R. neglectus.

Further studies should investigate the ecology and distribution of R. neglectus in the State of Acre, with the purpose of a future georeferencing and prophylaxis of vector transmission for this and other species that have been registered in this region.

Ethical considerations

All specimens were collected with permission from the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA), permanent license no. 52260-1]

Acknowledgments

Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Acre (FAPAC). Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação da Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC). Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Meneguetti DUO, Castro GVS, Castro MALR, Souza JL, Oliveira J, Rosa JA, et al. First report of Rhodnius stali (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2016;49(3):365-8.
  • 2
    Meneguetti DUO, Tojal SD, Miranda PRM, Rosa JA, Camargo LMA. First report of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop . 2015;48(4):471-3.
  • 3
    Barata JMS, Rocha RM, Rodrigues VLCC, Ferraz-Filho AN. Primeiro caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no Estado do Acre (Brasil) e sua correlação com as cepas isoladas do caso humano e de triatomíneos silvestres da área. Rev Saude Publica. 1988;22(5):401-10.
  • 4
    Gurgel-Gonçalves R, Galvão C, Costa J, Peterson AT. Geographic distribution of Chagas disease vectors in Brazil based on ecological niche modeling. J Trop Med. 2012;1-15.
  • 5
    Obara MT, Cardoso AS, Pinto MCG, Souza CR, Silva RA, Gurgel-Gonçalves R. Eratyrus mucronatus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): First report in the State of Acre, Brazil, and updated geographic distribution in South America. Check List. 2013;9(4):851-4.
  • 6
    Ramos LJ, Souza JL, Souza CR, Oliveira J, Rosa JAD, Camargo LMA, et al. First report of Triatoma sordida, Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Western Amazon. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop . 2018;51(1)77-9.
  • 7
    Galvão C. Vetores da Doença de Chagas no Brasil. Curitiba: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia; 2014. 289p.
  • 8
    Lent H, Jurberg J. O gênero Rhodnius Stal, 1859 com um estudo sobre a genitália das espécies (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae). Rev Bras Biol. 1969;29(4):487-560.
  • 9
    Jurberg J, Rodrigues JMS, Moreira FFF, Dale C, Cordeiro IRS, Lamas Jr VD, et al. Atlas Iconográfico dos Triatomíneos do Brasil (Vetores da Doença de Chagas). Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 2014. 58p.
  • 10
    Gurgel-Gonçalves R, Cura C, Schijman AG, Cuba CA. Infestation of Mauritia flexuosa palms by triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in the Brazilian savanna. Acta Trop. 2012;121(2):105-11.
  • 11
    Gurgel-Gonçalves R, Abad-Franch F, Ferreira JBC, Santana DB, Cuba CA. Is Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae) invading houses in central Brazil?. Acta Trop . 2008;107(2):90-8.
  • 12
    Rodrigues VLCC, Pauliquevis Jr C, da Silva RA, Wanderley DMV, Guirardo MM, Rodas LAC, et al. Colonization of palm trees by Rhodnius neglectus and household and invasion in an urban area, Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo. 2014;56(3):213-8.
  • 13
    Carvalho DB, Almeida CE, Rocha CS, Gardim S, Mendonça VJ, Ribeiro AR, et al. A novel association between Rhodnius neglectus and the Livistona australis palm tree in an urban center foreshadowing the risk of Chagas disease transmission by vectorial invasions in Monte Alto City, São Paulo, Brazil. Acta Trop . 2014;130:35-8.
  • 14
    Rodrigues VLCC, Silva RA, Wanderley DMV, Carvalho ME, Pauliquevis Jr C. Detecção de triatomíneos da espécie Rhodnius neglectus em área urbana de municípios da região de Araçatuba. Bol Epidemiol Paul. 2009;6(63):20-3.
  • 15
    Gurgel-Goncalves R, Cuba CA. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) based on ecological niche modeling. J Med Entomol. 2009;46(4):952-60.
  • Financial support: Programa Pesquisa Para o Sistema Único Saúde: Gestão Compartilhada em Saúde (PPSUS) 001/2015 - Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Acre (FAPAC).

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Mar-Apr 2018

History

  • Received
    05 Aug 2017
  • Accepted
    17 Nov 2017
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