An HIV seroprevalence and molecular study was conducted among 935 subjects: 723 female commercial sex workers, 92 men who have sex with men and 120 HIV-positive volunteers. The reported injection drug use rates were 0.7% in female commercial sex workers and 3% in men who have sex with men. Sexually transmitted infections were reported in 265 (37%) of the female commercial sex workers and 38 (41%) of the men who have sex with men. A total of 20 (2.8%) female commercial sex workers and 12 (13%) men who have sex with men became HIV infected during the study period. A history of sexually transmitted infection increased the risk of subsequent HIV infection twofold (adjusted odds ratio of 2.5) among the female commercial sex workers, while cocaine use had an adjusted odds ratios of 6.61 among men who have sex with men. From 130 samples, and based on heteroduplex mobility assaying for the env gene, with sequencing of part of pol and/or full genomes, subtype B was the predominant subtype identified (66%); followed by subtype F (22%) and subtype C (4%). Recombinant CRF12-BF strains were identified in 6% and CRF17_BF was identified in 2%.
HIV/AIDS; Paraguay; Epidemiology; HIV genotypes; Developing countries