Considerations about the control of the vectors of Chagas' disease are made in the State of Sao Paulo, mainly those activities that led to the elimination of T. infestans. First of all, the authors discuss different aspects of the biology of T.infestans mainly those that permited it to adapt itself in rural areas of the State in the first middle of the century. Secondary factors that helped the control such as rural exodus are also analysed. The article shows that since 1965 the control became a campaing with different phases due to the epidemiological situation, the acquired knowledge and the entomological surveillance. After 25 years of work, the elimination of all the foccus of T. infestans was finally reached and the campaing was ended. However, due to the possibility of reintroduction of the vector in rural areas by passive transportation besides the presence of secondary vectors (T. sordida and P. megistus) in several localities, the vector control activities were not interrupted and the surveillance is continuous.
Triatominae; T. infestans; Prophylaxis; Chemical control; Chagas disease