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Lipodystrophy in HIV/AIDS patients with different levels of physical activity while on antiretroviral therapy

Lipodistrofia em pacientes com HIV/AIDS com diferentes hábitos de atividade física, em uso de terapia antirretroviral

INTRODUCTION: Lipodystrophy is related to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and can cause aesthetic stigma and increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity may be a valid alternative for the treatment and prevention of lipodystrophy. However, few studies address this issue. The objective of this study was to assess lipodystrophy related to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS patients with different physical activity habits. METHODS: The sample was composed of 42 HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART medication who were visiting the Counseling and Testing Center (CTC) in Presidente Prudente. The level of physical activity was obtained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); lipodystrophy was diagnosed using a self-report questionnaire that was administered to the patient and then followed up by medical confirmation. The percentage of trunk fat was estimated by dual X-Ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Information about sex, age, length of HAART treatment, CD4+ T lymphocyte count (CD4) and viral load was also collected. RESULTS: A higher prevalence of lipodystrophy was observed in the sedentary group when compared to the physically active group, which indicates that physical activity may be a protective factor in relation to the occurrence of lipodystrophy. The group that had a higher CD4 had a higher proportion of lipodystrophy and a higher proportion of younger and physically active individuals. The patients with lipodystrophy had a higher percentage of trunk fat and were more sedentary than active individuals. CONCLUSIONS: A physically active lifestyle has a protective effect against the occurrence of lipodystrophy related to HAART.

Body composition; Lipodystrophy; HIV/AIDS; Physical activity

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