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Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Volume: 46, Issue: 1, Published: 2013
  • Investment in drugs for neglected diseases: a portrait of the last five years Editorial

    Brito, Monique Araújo de
  • Clinical research monitoring: scenarios and challenges Review Article

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    Abstract in English:

    Clinical research is essential for the development of new drugs, diagnostic tests and new devices. Clinical monitoring is implemented to improve the quality of research and attain high ethical and scientific standards. This review discusses the role of clinical monitors, taking into account the variety of scenarios in which medical research is developed, and highlights the challenges faced by research teams to ensure that patients rights are respected and that the social role of scientific research is preserved. Specific emphasis is given to the ethical dilemmas related to the multiple roles which clinical monitors play in the research framework, mainly those involving the delicate equilibrium between the loyalty to the sponsor and to the research subjects. The essential role of clinical monitoring for research developed in poor healthcare scenarios is highlighted as an approach to get the local infrastructure strengthening needed to achieve an adequate level of good clinical practices.
  • Perceptions of the usefulness of external support to immunization coverage in Guinea-Bissau: a Delphi analysis of the GAVI-Alliance cash-based support Major Article

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Dramé, Mohamed; Biai, Sidu; Lopes, Orlando; Sousa Jr, Fernando de; Lerberghe, Wim Van

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Although many countries have improved vaccination coverage in recent years, some, including Guinea-Bissau, failed to meet expected targets. This paper tries to understand the main barriers to better vaccination coverage in the context of the GAVI-Alliance (The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation) cash-based support provided to Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The analysis is based on a document analysis and a three round Delphi study with a final consensus meeting. RESULTS: Consensus attributed about 25% of the failure to perform better to implementation problems; and about 10% to governance and also 10% to scarce resources. The qualitative analysis validates the importance of implementation issues and upgraded the relevance of the human resources crisis as an important drawback. The recommendations were balanced in their upstream-downstream focus but were blind to health information issues and logistical difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: It is commendable that such a fragile state, with all sorts of barriers, manages to sustain a slow steady growth of its vaccination coverage. Not reaching the targets set reflects the inappropriateness of those targets rather than a lack of commitment of the health workforce. In the unstable context of countries such as Guinea-Bissau, the predictability of the funds from global health initiatives like the GAVI-Alliance seem to make all the difference in achieving small consistent health gains even in the presence of other major bottlenecks.
  • Current status of herpesvirus identification in the oral cavity of HIV-infected children Major Article

    Pinheiro, Raquel dos Santos; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho; Nóbrega, Flávia; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira; Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de; Castro, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araujo

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Some viruses of the Herpesviridae family are frequently the etiologic agents of oral lesions associated with HIV. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus type 6, type 7 and type 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8) in the oral cavity of HIV-infected children/adolescents and verify the association between viral subtypes and clinical factors. METHODS: The cells of oral mucosa were collected from 50 HIV infected children/adolescents, 3-13 years old (mean age 8.66). The majority (66%) of selected were girls, and they were all outpatients at the pediatric AIDS clinic of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Nested-PCR was used to identify the viral types. RESULTS: Absence of immunosuppression was observed in 66% of the children. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was used by 72.1% of selected and moderate viral load was observed in 56% of the children/adolescents. Viral types were found in 86% of the children and the subtypes were: HSV-1 (4%), HSV-2 (2%), VZV (4%), EBV (0%), HCMV (24%), HHV6 (18%), HHV-7 (68%), HHV8 (0%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of HAART has helped to reduce oral lesions, especially with herpes virus infections. The health professionals who work with these patients should be aware of such lesions because of their predictive value and the herpes virus can be found circulating in the oral cavity without causing lesions.
  • Evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatitis C in coinfected patients (HIV/HCV): a study of cases from a hospital for chronic liver diseases in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon Major Article

    Amaral, Ivanete do Socorro Abraçado; Móia, Lizomar de Jesus Maués Pereira; Barbosa, Maria Silvia de Brito; Demachki, Samia; Araújo, Marialva Tereza Ferreira de; Soares, Manoel do Carmo

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic response of hepatitis C in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). METHODS: A retrospective study of 20 patients coinfected with HIV-1/HCV who were treated in the outpatient liver clinic at the Sacred House of Mercy Foundation Hospital of Pará (Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará - FSCMPA) from April 2004 to June 2009. Patients were treated with 180µg PEG interferon-α2a in combination with ribavirin (1,000 to 1,250mg/day) for 48 weeks. The end point was the sustained virological response (SVR) rate (HCV RNA negative 24 weeks after completing treatment). RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 40±9.5 years, of which 89% (n=17) were male, and the HCV genotypes were genotype 1 (55%, n=11/20), genotype 2 (10%, n=2/20) and genotype 3 (35%, n=7/20). The mean CD4+ lymphocyte count was 507.8, and the liver fibrosis stages were (METAVIR) F1 (25%), F2 (55%), F3 (10%) and F4 (10%). The early virological response (EVR) was 60%, the end-of-treatment virological response (EOTVR) was 45% and the SVR was 45%. CONCLUSIONS: The median HCV viral load was high, and in 85% of cases in which highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was used, none of the patients with F3-F4 fibrosis responded to treatment. Of the twenty patients treated, 45% achieved SVR and 45% achieved EOTVR. Studies that include cases from a wider region are needed to better evaluate these findings.
  • Epidemiology of the viral hepatitis B and C in female prisoners of Metropolitan Regional Prison Complex in the State of Goiás, Central Brazil Major Article

    Barros, Láiza Alencar Santos; Pessoni, Grécia Carolina; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Souza, Sandra Maria Brunini de; Matos, Marcos André de; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Del-Rios, Nativa Helena Alves; Matos, Márcia Alves Dias de; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Little information regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian female prisoners exists. This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infections and identified viral genotypes among female prisoners in Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: Women incarcerated in the largest prison in the State of Goiás were invited to participate in the study. All female prisoners were interviewed and tested for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs), against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibody against HCV (anti-HCV) by ELISA. HBsAg and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for HBV DNA and HCV RNA and genotyped, respectively. RESULTS: Participants (n=148; 98.6%) completed the study with an overall HBV prevalence of 18.9%. Age >30 years, a low education level, sex with a sexually transmitted diseases carrier, and a male sexual partner serving in the same penitentiary were associated with HBV infections. Only 24% of the women were anti-HBs positive suggesting previous HBV vaccination. Nine female prisoners (6.1%) were anti-HCV positive. Age >40 years, injecting drug use and length of incarceration were statistically associated with anti-HCV antibodies. Five samples were HCV RNA positive and classified as genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a; n=3 and 1b; n=1) and 3 (subtype 3a; n=1). The HBsAg-reactive sample was HBV DNA positive and genotype A. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the necessity of public policies to control hepatitis B and C infections and emphasize the importance of hepatitis B vaccination in prison environments.
  • Serologic survey of hantavirus in a rural population from the northern State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Major Article

    Santos, Ioni Oliveira; Figueiredo, Glauciane Garcia de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Azevedo, Maria Regina Andrade de; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Vaz, Celidéia Aparecida Coppi

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13%) of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.
  • Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying SCCmec type IV in southern Brazil Major Article

    Gelatti, Luciane Cristina; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Inoue, Fernanda Matsiko; Carmo, Mirian Silva do; Becker, Ana Paula; Castrucci, Fernanda Marques da Silva; Pignatari, Antônio Carlos Campos; d' Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen commonly associated with nosocomial infections. However, it has also been associated with community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections (CA-MRSA). There are few data on the identification and prevalence of CA-MRSA infections in Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 104 patients with community-acquired skin infections attending two health care centers in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. MRSA isolates were characterized by molecular methods, including detection of the mecA gene by PCR, gene SCCmec typing, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) detection, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). RESULTS: From the 104 samples, 58 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained, of which five (8.6%) had a CA-MRSA-resistant profile. All five isolates had the mecA gene and amplified to SCCmec type IV. Analysis of chromosomal DNA by PFGE revealed the presence of two clusters related to international clones (OSPC and USA 300), with a Dice similarity coefficient >80%. The study was complemented by MLST, which detected three different strains: ST30, ST8, and ST45, the latter not presenting any relation with the clones compared in PFGE. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CA-MRSA reveals an important change in the epidemiology of this pathogen and adds new elements to the knowledge of the molecular biology of infections by MRSA with SCCmec type IV in southern Brazil.
  • Antimicrobial use, incidence, etiology and resistance patterns in bacteria causing ventilator-associated pneumonia in a clinical-surgical intensive care unit Major Article

    Moreira, Michel Rodrigues; Guimarães, Munick Paula; Rodrigues, Aurélia Aparecida de Araújo; Gontijo Filho, Paulo Pinto

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION : Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing threat in hospitalized patients, and inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy is known to adversely affect outcomes in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial usage, incidence, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance trends for prominent nosocomial pathogens causing ventilator-associated pneumonia in a clinical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS : Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus causing VAP, as well as their antimicrobial resistance patterns and data on consumption (defined daily dose [DDD] per 1,000 patient days) of glycopeptides, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and carbapenems in the unit were evaluated in two different periods (A and B). RESULTS: Antimicrobial use was high, mainly of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, with a significant increase in the consumption of glycopeptides (p < 0.0001) and carbapenems (p < 0.007) in period B. For Acinetobacter baumannii and members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, 5.27- and 3.06-fold increases in VAPs, respectively, were noted, and a significant increase in resistance rates was found for imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (p = 0.003) and third-generation cephalosporins-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (p = 0.01) isolates in this same period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is a link between antibiotics usage at institutional levels and resistant bacteria. The use of carbapenems was related to the high rate of resistance in A. baumannii and therefore a high consumption of imipenem/meropenem could play a major role in selective pressure exerted by antibiotics in A. baumannii strains.
  • Impact of the introduction of an automated microbiologic system on the clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains Major Article

    Callefi, Luciana Azevedo; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo de; Furtado, Guilherme Henrique Campos

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Enterobacteriaceae strains are a leading cause of bloodstream infections (BSI). The aim of this study is to assess differences in clinical outcomes of patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains before and after introduction of an automated microbiologic system by the microbiology laboratory. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the impact of the introduction of an automated microbiologic system (Phoenix(tm) automated microbiology system, Becton, Dickinson and Company (BD) - Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD, USA) on the outcomes of BSIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains. The study was undertaken at Hospital São Paulo, a 750-bed teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains before the introduction of the automated system were compared with patients with BSI caused by the same pathogens after the introduction of the automated system with regard to treatment adequacy, clinical cure/improvement and 14- and 28-day mortality rates. RESULTS: We evaluated 90 and 106 patients in the non-automated and automated testing periods, respectively. The most prevalent species in both periods were Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. Clinical cure/improvement occurred in 70% and 67.9% in non-automated and automated period, respectively (p=0.75). 14-day mortality rates were 22.2% and 30% (p=0.94) and 28-day mortality rates were 24.5% and 40.5% (p= 0.12). There were no significant differences between the two testing periods with regard to treatment adequacy, clinical cure/improvement and 14- and 28-day mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of the BD Phoenix(tm) automated microbiology system did not impact the clinical outcomes of BSIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains in our setting.
  • Impact of an intervention in the use of sequential antibiotic therapy in a Brazilian university hospital Major Article

    Rodrigues, Raquel Melo; Fontes, Astrídia Marília de Souza; Mantese, Orlando César; Martins, Renata Souza; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Sequential antibiotic therapy (SAT) is safe and economical. However, the unnecessary use of intravenous (IV) administration usually occurs. The objective of this work was to get to know the effectiveness of an intervention to implement the SAT in a teaching hospital in Brazil. METHODS: This was a prospective and interventional study, historically controlled, and was conducted in the Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a high complexity teaching hospital having 503 beds. In each of the periods, from 04/04/05 to 07/20/05 (pre-intervention) and from 09/24/07 to 12/20/07 (intervention), 117 patients were evaluated. After the pre-intervention period, guidelines were developed which were implemented during the intervention period along with educational measures and a reminder system added to the patients' prescription. RESULTS: In the pre-intervention and intervention periods, the IV antibiotics were used as treatment for a average time of 14.8 and 11.8 days, respectively. Ceftriaxone was the antibiotic most prescribed in both periods (23.4% and 21.6% respectively). Starting from the first prescription of antibiotics, the average length of hospitalization time was 21.8 and 17.5 days, respectively. The SAT occurred only in 4 and 5 courses of treatment, respectively, and 12.8% and 18.8% of the patients died in the respective periods. CONCLUSIONS: Under the presented conditions, the evaluated intervention strategy is ineffective in promoting the exchange of the antibiotic administration from IV to oral treatment (SAT).
  • Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and phlebotomine sandfly population, in the municipality of Monte Negro, State of Rondônia, Brazil Major Article

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Basano, Sergio Almeida; Zagonel-Oliveira, Marcelo; Campos, Jimmy Joy; Oliveira, Arley Faria José de; Freitas, Rui Alves de; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Barral, Aldina; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction: This work was carried out on the purpose of identifying the species of phlebotomine sandflies in the municipality of Monte Negro, state of Rondonia, Brazil, that may have been transmitting the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and concisely describe epidemiological aspects of disease. METHODS: The epidemiologic and socioeconomical indicators were obtained from government institutions and the local Municipal Secretary of Health. Phlebotomine sandflies were captured using CDC light traps between July 2006 to July 2008. The total of 1,240 of female sandflies were examined by PCR method directed to k-DNA. RESULTS: There has been a significant decrease in the incidence of ACL of about 50% over the last ten years in the municipality. A total of 1,935 specimens of 53 sandfly species were captured, three of the genus Brumptomyia genus and 50 of the genus Lutzomyia. The predominant species was Lutzomyia acanthopharynx, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia geniculata and Lutzomyia davisi. None were positive for Leishmania sp. CONCLUSIONS: Four sandflies species were found in the State of Rondonia for the first time: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia tarapacaensis, Lutzomyia melloi and Lutzomyia lenti. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, was also captured. Socioeconomical improvement of Brazilian economy and the increase of environmental surveillance in the last 15 years collaborated in the decrease of people exposed to vectors, reducing the incidence of ACL.
  • Plasmodium vivax malaria: related factors to severity in the State of Maranhão, Brazil Major Article

    Raposo, Camila Cristina Bastos Silva; Santos, João Barberino; Santos, Gisele Maria Campelo dos; Gonçalves, Eloísa da Graça do Rosário; Silva, Antonio Rafael da

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax species has shown signs of severity, recorded with increasing frequency in the medical literature. This study aimed to characterize the signs of severe malaria by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: A descriptive cohort study of patients assisted in the field and a historical and concurrent study of a series of cases among hospitalized patients were undertaken to identify the clinical and laboratory signs of severity. RESULTS: A total of 153 patients were included in the study, 13 of whom were hospitalized. Males made up the majority, numbering 103 (67.3%). The age of the patients ranged from 10 to 70 years, 92.2% were natives of the State of Maranhão, and 65% of the patients had had malaria before. The average time elapsed between symptom onset and diagnosis among outpatients was three days, while among hospitalized patients this average reached 15.5 days, a statistically significant difference (p=0.001). The parasitemia ranged from 500 to 10,000 parasites/µl in 92.8% of cases. The clinical and laboratory manifestations of severity were vomiting and diarrhea, jaundice, drowsiness, mental confusion, seizures, loss of consciousness, agitation, bleeding, pale skin, coughing and dyspnea, thrombocytopenia, anemia, elevation of nitrogenous compounds, and elevated transaminases and bilirubin. CONCLUSIONS: The monitoring of malaria patients with Plasmodium vivax showed the possibility of aggravation, the intensity of which varied in different circumstances, especially the interval time between falling ill and diagnostic confirmation.
  • Oral coinfection can stress peripheral lymphocyte to inflammatory activity in leprosy Major Article

    Motta, Ana Carolina Fragoso; Simão, João Carlos Lopes; Furini, Renata Bazan; Ferreira, Maria Aparecida Nunes; Palma, Patrícia Vianna Bonini; Komesu, Marilena Chinali; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the intracellular profile of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from leprosy patients based on oral infections presence to determine whether these coinfections could be associated with pro-inflammatory activity in leprosy. METHODS: Leprosy patients regardless of clinical form and specific leprosy treatment (n=38) were divided into two groups: Group I - leprosy patients with oral infections (n=19), and Group II - leprosy patients without oral infections (n=19). Non-leprosy patients presenting oral infections were assigned to the control Group (n=10). Intracellular IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ production was evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS) before and 7 days after controlling the oral infection in the Group I, before and 7 days after dental prophylaxis in the Group II, and during oral infection process in control Group. RESULTS: Low percentages of CD3+ lymphocytes bearing IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ were observed in the Group I and Group II at baseline and 7 days after therapy or prophylaxis compared to controls. Group I showed reduced percentages of IL-4 at baseline and 7 days after therapy compared to controls, or at baseline of Group II, and the Group II showed reduced percentages of CD3+ cells bearing IL-4 compared to control. An increase of the percentages of CD3+cells bearing IL-4 was observed in the Group I after the oral infections treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of oral infections favors the intracellular cytokines expression and, probably, the inflammatory reaction operating as a stimulatory signal triggering the leprosy reactions.
  • Efficacy of voriconazole in experimental rat paracoccidioidomycosis Major Article

    Granzoto, Daniela Silva; Vitali, Lúcia Helena; Martinez, Roberto

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Amphotericin B, azole or sulfamide drugs are used for treatment of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Among the azole drugs, voriconazole was active in vitro against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and showed efficacy in the treatment of patients infected with this fungus.In the present study the antifungal activity of voriconazole and of other drugs was compared in a rat model of paracoccidioidomycosis. METHODS: Wistar rats were inoculated intravenously with the BOAS strain of P. brasiliensis and antifungal drugs were administered to the animals by gavage at the following doses (mg/kg weight/day): voriconazole (5 to 20), ketoconazole (12 to 15), fluconazole (6), itraconazole (4), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (120 to 150). The antifungal activity of the drugs was assessed by determining the P. brasiliensis colony forming units in the lungs and spleen of the animals at the end of treatment and by a survival study. RESULTS: Voriconazole reduced the total tissue fungal burden of P. brasiliensis, particularly at doses of ≥10mg/kg weight/day but its antifungal activity was less intense than that of fluconazole, itraconazole and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The mean survival of animals treated with the last three drugs, 29.1±10.7, 26.1± 10.1 and 28.4±9.6 days, respectively, was higher than that achieved with voriconazole 10mg/kg weight/day (18.5±8.3 days) and that observed in untreated animals (15.7±3.6 days). CONCLUSIONS: At doses similar to those used for clinical treatment, voriconazole showed lower antifungal activity in experimental rat paracoccidioidomycosis than that obtained with itraconazole and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim.
  • Larvicidal activity of crude extracts from Larrea cuneifolia (Zygophyllaceae) and of its metabolite nordihydroguaiaretic acid against the vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Short Communication

    Batallán, Gonzalo; Torre, Romina; Flores, Fernando; Konigheim, Brenda; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Tonn, Carlos; Contigiani, Marta; Almirón, Walter

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to analyze the larvicidal activity of different crude extracts of Larrea cuneifolia and its most abundant lignan, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), against Culex quinquefasciatus. METHODS: Chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts from L. cuneifolia and NDGA were tested against larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The chloroform extract showed the highest larvicidal effect, with an estimated LC50 of 0.062 mg/ml. NDGA also demonstrated significant larvicidal activity with an estimated LC50 of 0.092 mg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the chloroform extract of L. cuneifolia and NDGA are promising insecticides of botanical origin that could be useful for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus.
  • Demographic determinants of survival of people living with HIV attending an outpatient reference unit in the city of Três Lagoas, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the period 1984-2009 Short Communication

    Zuque, Maria Angelina da Silva; Meira, Domingos Alves; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: While the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is increasing in small Brazilian cities, epidemiological studies are often conducted in large urban centers. METHODS: Our group conducted a retrospective analysis of survival determinants among 358 patients who attended a reference unit in a small city. RESULTS: Death risk was lower among men that had sex with men, patients with an HIV-seropositive partner, and those admitted after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was available. CONCLUSIONS: The study documents the striking beneficial effect of HAART. The finding of other groups with improved survival may aid in the development of programmatic strategies.
  • AIDS tendencies in São Mateus microregion, state of Espírito Santo, and Brazil from 1999 to 2008 Short Communication

    Vilela, Ana Paula Martins; Leite, Franciéle Marabotti Costa; Schmildt, Edilson Romais; Carvalho, Simone Mendes; Bubach, Susana; Tristão, Kamila Medani; Amorim, Emanuelle Pires de

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, AIDS has been described as a multi-faceted pandemic. This study aimed to describe the trends of AIDS in São Mateus microregion, in Espírito Santo, and in Brazil, from 1999 to 2008. METHODS: Data were collected from the Notification Offences System, and a trend analysis was made. RESULTS: Microregion-based results are close to the state and national levels but with particular features that indicate the presence of regional sub-epidemics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite progress in nearly thirty years of the epidemic, AIDS remains an incurable disease, and prevention is still the best defense against it together with the implementation of specific public policies.
  • Production and diagnostic application of recombinant domain III of West Nile envelope protein in Brazil Short Communication

    Chávez, Juliana Helena; Reis, Vinicius Pinho dos; Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; Laure, Helen Julie; Rosa, José Cesar; Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes da; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus with a natural cycle involving mosquitoes and birds. Over the last 11 years, WNV has spread throughout the Americas with the imminent risk of its introduction in Brazil. METHODS: Envelope protein domain III of WNV (rDIII) was bacterially expressed and purified. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with WNV rDIII antigen was standardized against mouse immune fluids (MIAFs) of different flavivirus. RESULTS: WNV rDIII reacted strongly with St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) MIAF but not with other flaviviruses. CONCLUSIONS: This antigen may be a potentially useful tool for serologic diagnosis and may contribute in future epidemiological surveillance of WNV infections in Brazil.
  • Hemolytic and urease activities in vibrios isolated from fresh and frozen oysters Short Communication

    Costa, Renata Albuquerque; Araújo, Rayza Lima; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to survey the Vibrio microbiota of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) obtained from restaurants in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, and to identify virulence factors. METHODS: The isolated vibrios were submitted to biochemical identification and were tested for hemolytic and urease activities. RESULTS: The isolated strains belonged to 13 species, with predominance of Vibrio mimicus. Of the strain isolates only from fresh samples, 20.5% and 2.8% showed hemolytic and urease activities, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the little-publicized claim that Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus can represent a health risk to public health.
  • Correlation between microdilution, Etest, and disk diffusion methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole against Candida sp. blood isolates Short Communication

    Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Vasconcelos Júnior, Antônio Alexandre de; Ângelo, Maria Rozzelê Ferreira; Cunha, Maria da Conceição dos Santos Oliveira; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Antifungal susceptibility testing assists in finding the appropriate treatment for fungal infections, which are increasingly common. However, such testing is not very widespread. There are several existing methods, and the correlation between such methods was evaluated in this study. METHODS: The susceptibility to fluconazole of 35 strains of Candida sp. isolated from blood cultures was evaluated by the following methods: microdilution, Etest, and disk diffusion. RESULTS: The correlation between the methods was around 90%. CONCLUSIONS: The disk diffusion test exhibited a good correlation and can be used in laboratory routines to detect strains of Candida sp. that are resistant to fluconazole.
  • In vitro predatory activity of conidia of fungal isolates of the Duddingtonia flagrans on Angiostrongylus vasorum first-stage larvae Short Communication

    Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Mozzer, Lanuze Rose

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that parasitizes molluscs, dogs, and even man. METHODS: The objective was to evaluate the predatory activity of the conidia of two fungal isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 and CG722) on first-stage larvae (L1) of A. vasorum in laboratory conditions. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, there were significant reductions (p<0.01) of 74.5% and 63.2%, on average, in the A. vasorum L1 recovered in the AC001 and CG722 treatment conditions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The two isolates of fungi were efficient in the capture and destruction of A. vasorum L1.
  • Fulminant gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in an AIDS patient Case Report

    Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Feliciano, Cinara; Teixeira, André Costa; Junqueira, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Rossi, Marcos Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an endemic nematode to tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. The parasite is capable of autoinfection, which is limited by an intact immune response. In immunocompromised hosts, hyperinfection and dissemination can occur and have a high index of mortality. A hyperinfection syndrome with dissemination is frequently associated with corticosteroid administration and other conditions (malignancies and organ transplantation). Interestingly, although strongyloidiasis is common among AIDS patients in endemic areas, the hyperinfection syndrome is rarely noted. We report here on a rare manifestation of fulminant gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to hyperinfection of strongyloidiasis in a female drug-abusing, alcoholic HIV/AIDS patient.
  • The first report of infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the bla kpc gene in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Case Report

    Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Lopes, Fernando Aguilar; Tetila, Andyane Freitas; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos

    Abstract in English:

    The increased frequency and dissemination of enterobacteria resistant to various antimicrobials is currently worldwide concern. In January 2010, a 94-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was admitted to the University Hospital. This patient died 21 days after hospitalization due to the clinical worsening. Klebsiella pneumoniae producing of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was isolated of urine culture. This bacterium demonstrated resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem and imipenem. Susceptibility to cefoxitin, cefepime, meropenem, colistin and tigecycline. This study reports the first case of infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the bla kpc gene in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
  • Atypical presentation of sporotrichosis: report of three cases Case Report

    Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Bittencourt, Laura Riffel; Silva, Cláudio Moss da; Vieira, Roseli Stone; Pereira, Hugo Cataud Pacheco

    Abstract in English:

    Sporotrichosis occurs after fungal implantation of Sporothrix spp. in the skin, and is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Here we describe three atypical cases of the disease. The first case report an extra-cutaneous occurrence of the disease with joint infection; the second one describes a patient with bilateral lymphocutaneous form of sporotrichosis; and the third shows a zoonotic cutaneous case with the development of an erythema nodosum as a hypersensitivity reaction. These cases show the disease importance on the region and the necessity of fungal culture to the diagnosis confirmation.
  • Liver transplantation for neotropical polycystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus vogeli: a case report Case Report

    Genzini, Tércio; Siqueira, Nilton Ghiotti de; Noujaim, Huda Maria; Santos, Regina Gomes dos; Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Trevizol, Alisson Paulino; Perosa, Marcelo

    Abstract in English:

    Neotropical polycystic echinococcosis (NPE) is a parasitic disease caused by cestodes of Echinococcus vogeli. This parasite grows most commonly in the liver, where it produces multiples cysts that cause hepatic and vessel necrosis, infects the biliary ducts, and disseminates into the peritoneal cavity, spreading to other abdominal and thoracic organs. In cases of disseminated disease in the liver and involvement of biliary ducts or portal system, liver transplantation may be a favorable option. We present a report of the first case of liver transplantation for the treatment of advanced liver NPE caused by E. vogeli.
  • Anopheles deaneorum: a new potential malaria vector in State of Santa Catarina, Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae) Letter

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Freitas, Vinicios Ferreira de
  • Histoplasmosis associated with Addison's disease Images In Infectious Diseases

    Wilhelm, Lísea; Martins, Nara; Loreto, Érico Silva
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