Abstract in English:Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. Sexual transmission occurs more efficiently from men to women than women to men and might be enhanced by sexually transmitted diseases that cause ulcers and result in mucosal ruptures, such as syphilis, herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2), and chancroid. Other sexually transmitted diseases might result in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and could increase the risk of HTLV-1 acquisition and transmission. Additionally, factors that are associated with higher transmission risks include the presence of antibodies against the viral oncoprotein Tax (anti-Tax), a higher proviral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased cervicovaginal or seminal secretions. Seminal fluid has been reported to increase HTLV replication and transmission, whereas male circumcision and neutralizing antibodies might have a protective effect. Recently, free virions were discovered in plasma, which reveals a possible new mode of HTLV replication. It is unclear how this discovery might affect the routes of HTLV transmission, particularly sexual transmission, because HTLV transmission rates are significantly higher from men to women than women to men.
Abstract in English:Introduction Torque teno virus (TTV) and SEN virus are circular single-stranded DNA viruses that cause blood-borne infections. The SEN virus (SEN-V) was originally detected in the serum of an injection drug user infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recently TTV was discovered as a potential causative agent of non-A-E hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the SEN-V-D/H and TTV in HIV patients and healthy blood donors in Iran. Methods One hundred and fifty HIV patients with a mean age of 50.46 ± 18.46 years and 150 healthy blood donors with a mean age of 48.16 ± 13.73 years were included in this study. TTV and SEN-V were detected by the PCR and were quantitatively assayed by competitive PCR (nested and semi-nested PCR). Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used to determine the heterogeneity of TTV. Results TTV and SEN-V were detected 96 (64%) and 84 (56%) of 150 HIV patients respectively. These rates were 34% (n=51) and 37.33% (n=56) in healthy blood donors (significant, p<0.05). PCR detected SEN-V/TTV DNA from 32 of the healthy blood donors (21.33%), while 65 (43.33%) of HIV patients were positive for SEN-V/TTV DNA. Of 150 HIV patients, 32.66% and 23.33% were positive for SEN-V-H and SEN-V-D, respectively and 18.66% (n=28) were co-infected with SEN-V-D/H. Conclusions The prevalence of SEN-VD/H and TTV is higher in HIV patients than in healthy blood donors in Southern Iran. Our results suggest that TTV and SEN-V might play a role in the development of liver disease in patients with immunodeficiency diseases.
Abstract in English:Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT). Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43), Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64), and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26) monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42) of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64) of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26) of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23) of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Introduction Molecular biology procedures to detect, genotype and quantify hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in clinical samples have been extensively described. Routine commercial methods for each specific purpose (detection, quantification and genotyping) are also available, all of which are typically based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the HCV 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR). This study was performed to develop and validate a complete serial laboratory assay that combines real-time nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques for the complete molecular analysis of HCV (detection, genotyping and viral load) in clinical samples. Methods Published HCV sequences were compared to select specific primers, probe and restriction enzyme sites. An original real-time nested RT-PCR-RFLP assay was then developed and validated to detect, genotype and quantify HCV in plasma samples. Results The real-time nested RT-PCR data were linear and reproducible for HCV analysis in clinical samples. High correlations (> 0.97) were observed between samples with different viral loads and the corresponding read cycle (Ct - Cycle threshold), and this part of the assay had a wide dynamic range of analysis. Additionally, HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 were successfully distinguished using the RFLP method. Conclusions A complete serial molecular assay was developed and validated for HCV detection, quantification and genotyping.
Abstract in English:Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is primarily transmitted via contact with the blood of infected patients, although the form of contact has not been identified for a significant percentage of carriers. The present study evaluated possible risk factors for HCV transmission in a medium-sized town located in the northwest region of the State of São Paulo. Methods This was a case-control study, with the case group consisting of 190 chronic HCV carriers older than 18 years residing in the municipality of Catanduva. The control group also consisted of 190 individuals with HCV-negative serology. The groups were paired (1:1) for gender, age range (± five years), and place of residence. The same structured questionnaire was applied to all subjects, who gave written informed consent to participate in the study. The data were statistically analyzed using crude and adjusted logistic regression, and the results were expressed as odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. Results The demographic profiles of the groups indicated a predominance of males (68.9%) and mean ages of 47.1 years (case group) and 47.3 years (control group). After adjusting for conditional regression, the following factors were found to represent risks for HCV: history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and blood transfusion; accidents with syringes and/or needles; tattoos; and the use of non-injectable drugs and injectable medications. Conclusions The transmission of HCV via the blood route has been well characterized. Other forms of contact with human blood and/or secretions are likely to transmit the virus, although with a lower frequency of occurrence.
Abstract in English:Introduction This study confirmed the absence of natural infection with Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) or XMRV-related disease in human populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin. We demonstrated that 803 individuals of both sexes, who were residents of Belem in the Brazilian State of Pará, were not infected with XMRV. Methods Individuals were divided into 4 subgroups: healthy individuals, individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), individuals infected with human T-lymphotrophic virus, types 1 or 2 (HTLV-1/2), and individuals with prostate cancer. XMRV infection was investigated by nested PCR to detect the viral gag gene and by quantitative PCR to detect pol. Results There was no amplification of either gag or pol segments from XRMV in any of the samples examined. Conclusions This study supports the conclusions of the studies that eventually led to the retraction of the original study reporting the association between XMRV and human diseases.
Abstract in English:Introduction Triatoma carcavalloi is a wild species that is found in sympatry with Triatoma rubrovaria and Triatoma circummaculata, which are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi currently found in rural areas of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods Fertility was assessed and to determine the incubation period, the eggs were observed until hatching. The first meal was offered to 1st stage nymphs. The intermolt period was also determined. The number of blood meals was quantified at each nymphal stage and the resistance to fasting as the period between ecdysis and death. Mortality was assessed and longevity was determined by recording the time that elapsed from molting to the adult stage and until death. The developmental cycle was assessed by recording the length in days of each stage from molting to adult hood. Results The average incubation period was 22.7 days. The average first meal occurred 3.1 days after hatching. The 5th stage nymph to adult intermolting period was the longest at 193.4 days. The average number of feedings during nymphal development was 13.4. The resistance to fasting assay indicated that the 3rd, 4th and 5th stage nymphs presented higher resistance than did adults. The highest mortality rate was observed in the 3rd stage nymphs (22.2%). The average length of adult survival was 25.6 weeks, and the average total life cycle lasted 503.4 days. Conclusions This study is the first report on the biology of T. carcavalloi that fed on mice. The presented findings expand the bionomic knowledge of these species.
Abstract in English:Introduction The diverse and complex environmental conditions of the Amazon Basin favor the breeding and development of Anopheles species. This study aimed to describe the composition, abundance and temporal frequency of Anopheles species and to correlate these factors with precipitation, temperature and relative humidity. Methods The study was conducted in the District of Coração, State of Amapá, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly during three consecutive nights, from 6:00 PM to 10:00 PM, from December 2010 to November 2011. In addition, four 12-hour collections (i.e., 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM) were performed during this period. Results A total of 1,230 Anopheles specimens were collected. In the monthly collections, Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species, followed by An. braziliensis and An. albitarsis s.l., whereas An. darlingi, An. peryassui and An. braziliensis were the most frequent species collected in the 12-hour collections. The greatest number of anophelines was collected in September (the dry season). The highest frequency of anophelines was observed for An. darlingi during September, when there were the least rainfalls of the year, along with lower relative humidity and higher temperatures. There was little variation in the abundance of this species in other months, with the exception of slight increases in February, July and August. Conclusions The major malaria vectors, An. darlingi and An. albitarsis s.l. (likely An. marajoara), were the most abundant species collected in the study area. Consequently, prevention and control measures should be taken to prevent malaria outbreaks in the District of Coração.
Abstract in English:Introduction Surveillance of nosocomial infections (NIs) is an essential part of quality patient care; however, there are few reports of National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and none in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of NIs, causative organisms, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in a large cohort of neonates admitted to the NICU during a 16-year period. Methods The patients were followed 5 times per week from birth to discharge or death, and epidemiological surveillance was conducted according to the NHSN. Results From January 1997 to December 2012, 4,615 neonates, representing 62,412 patient-days, were admitted to the NICU. The device-associated infection rates were as follows: 17.3 primary bloodstream infections per 1,000 central line-days and 3.2 pneumonia infections per 1,000 ventilator-days. A total of 1,182 microorganisms were isolated from sterile body site cultures in 902 neonates. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (34.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.6%) were the most common etiologic agents isolated from cultures. The incidences of oxacillin-resistant CoNS and Staphylococcus aureus were 86.4% and 28.3%, respectively. Conclusions The most important NI remains bloodstream infection with staphylococci as the predominant pathogens, observed at much higher rates than those reported in the literature. Multiresistant microorganisms, especially oxacillin-resistant staphylococci and gram-negative bacilli resistant to cephalosporin were frequently found. Furthermore, by promoting strict hygiene measures and meticulous care of the infected infants, the process itself of evaluating the causative organisms was valuable.
Abstract in English:Introduction This research aimed to identify and quantify potentially pathogenic Vibrio from different cultivations of bivalve shellfish in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and water regions in the South Bay, as well as correlate the incidence of these microorganisms with the physicochemical parameters of marine waters. Methods Between October 2008 and March 2009, 60 oyster and seawater samples were collected from six regions of bivalve mollusk cultivation, and these samples were submitted for Vibrio counts. Results Twenty-nine (48.3%) oyster samples were revealed to be contaminated with one or more Vibrio species. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus counts in the samples ranged from < 0.5 log10 Most Probable Number (MPN) g–1 to 2.3 log10 MPN g–1 oyster and from < 0.5 log10 MPN g–1 to 2.1 log10 MPN g–1 oyster, respectively. Of the 60 seawater samples analyzed, 44 (73.3%) showed signs of contamination with one or more vibrio species. The counts of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in the samples ranged from < 0.3 log10 MPN·100mL–1 to 1.7 log10MPN·100mL–1 seawater and from < 0.3 log10 MPN·100mL–1 to 2.0 log10 MPN·100mL–1 seawater, respectively. A positive correlation between V. vulnificus counts and the seawater temperature as well as a negative correlation between the V. parahaemolyticus counts and salinity were observed. Conclusions The results suggest the need to implement strategies to prevent vibrio diseases from being transmitted by the consumption of contaminated bivalve shellfish.
Abstract in English:Introduction Congenital syphilis is an important health problem in Brazil. This study assessed measures aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis in the State of Mato Grosso and its capital, Cuiabá. Methods A descriptive study cross-sectional and of time trends assessing the congenital syphilis was performed in Cuiabá and Mato Grosso between 2001 and 2011. We compared maternal sociodemographic characteristics and health care utilization related to cases of congenital syphilis during the periods from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2011. We assessed the temporal trends in this disease's incidence using a simple linear regression. Results Between 2001 and 2006 in Mato Grosso, 86.8% of the mothers who had live births with congenital syphilis received prenatal care, 90.6% presented with a nontreponemal test reagent at delivery, 96.2% had no information regarding a treponemal confirmatory test at delivery, and 77.6% received inadequate treatment for syphilis; additionally, 75.8% of their partners were not treated. There was a statistically significant reduction in prenatal visits (p = 0.004) and an increase in the proportion of mothers reactive to nontreponemal tests at delivery (p = 0.031) between the two periods. No other variables were found to differ significantly between the periods. In Cuiabá, we observed a similar distribution of variables. In the state and in the capital, the increasing trend of congenital syphilis was not statistically significant. Conclusions The high incidence of congenital syphilis in Mato Grosso and the low levels of health care indicators for pregnant women with syphilis suggest the need to improve the coverage and quality of prenatal care.
Abstract in English:Introduction Thrombocytopenia is a common complication in malaria patients. The relationship between abnormal platelet profile and clinical status in malaria patients is unclear. In low and unstable endemic regions where vivax malaria predominates, the hematologic profiles of malaria patients and their clinical utility are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the thrombograms of malaria patients from Colombia, where Plasmodium vivax infection is common, and to explore the relationship between thrombograms and clinical status. Methods Eight hundred sixty-two malaria patients were enrolled, including 533 (61.8%) patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum, 311 (36.1%) patients infected with Plasmodium vivax and 18 (2.1%) patients with mixed infections. Results The most frequently observed changes were low platelet count (PC) and high platelet distribution width (PDW), which were observed in 65% of patients; thrombocytopenia with <50,000 platelets/µL was identified in 11% of patients. Patients with complications had lower PC and plateletcrit (PT) and higher PDW values. A higher risk of thrombocytopenia was identified in patients with severe anemia, neurologic complications, pulmonary complications, liver dysfunction, renal impairment and severe hypoglycemia. The presence of thrombocytopenia (<150,000 platelets/µL) was associated with a higher probability of liver dysfunction. Conclusions Young age, longer duration of illness and higher parasitemia are associated with severe thrombocytopenia. Our study showed that thrombocytopenia is related to malaria complications, especially liver dysfunction. High PDW in patients with severe malaria may explain the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia that is common in this group of patients.
Abstract in English:Introduction In 1999, Birigui and Araçatuba were the first municipalities in the State of São Paulo to present autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis in humans (VLH). The aim of this study was to describe the temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal behaviors of VLH in Birigui. Methods Secondary data were obtained from the Notifiable Diseases Information System from 1999 to 2012. The incidence, mortality and case fatality rates by sex and age were calculated. The cases of VLH were geocoded and grouped according to census tracts. Local empirical Bayesian incidence rates were calculated. The existence of spatial and spatiotemporal clusters was investigated using SaTScan software. Results There were 156 confirmed cases of autochthonous VLH. The incidence rate was higher in the 0-4-year-old children, and the mortality and case fatality rates were higher in people aged 60 years and older. The peaks of incidence occurred in 2006 and 2011. The Bayesian rates identified the presence of VLH in all of the census tracts in the municipality; however, spatial and spatiotemporal clusters were found in the central area of the municipality. Conclusions Birigui, located in the Araçatuba region, has recently experienced increasing numbers of VLH cases; this increase is contrary to the behavior observed over the entire region, which has shown a decreasing trend in the number of VLH cases. The observations that the highest incidence is in children 0-4 years old and the highest mortality is in people 60 years and older are in agreement with the expected patterns of VLH.
Abstract in English:Introduction Since the launch of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, more than 70% of the endemic countries have implemented mass drug administration (MDA) to interrupt disease transmission. The monitoring of filarial infection in sentinel populations, particularly schoolchildren, is recommended to assess the impact of MDA. A key issue is choosing the appropriate tools for these initial assessments (to define the best intervention) and for monitoring transmission. Methods This study compared the pre-MDA performance of five diagnostic methods, namely, thick film test, Knott's technique, filtration, Og4C3-ELISA, and the AD12-ICT card test, in schoolchildren from Brazil. Venous and capillary blood samples were collected between 11 pm and 1 am. The microfilarial loads were analyzed with a negative binomial regression, and the prevalence and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated for all methods. The accuracies of the AD12-ICT card and Og4C3-ELISA tests were assessed against the combination of parasitological test results. Results A total of 805 schoolchildren were examined. The overall and stratified prevalence by age group and gender detected by Og4C3-ELISA and AD12-ICT were markedly higher than the prevalence estimated by the parasitological methods. The sensitivity of the AD12-ICT card and Og4C3-ELISA tests was approximately 100%, and the positive likelihood ratios were above 6. The specificity of the Og4C3-ELISA was higher than that of the AD12-ICT at different prevalence levels. Conclusions The ICT card test should be the recommended tool for monitoring school-age populations living in areas with ongoing or completed MDA.
Abstract in English:Introduction: Illicit drug users (DUs) are vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The shared use of illicit drugs is the main method of HCV transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Breves, in northern Brazil. We surveyed 187 DUs to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection. Results: The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 36.9%, and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA) was 31%. Hepatitis C virus infection was associated with tattoos, intravenous drug use, shared use of equipment for drug use, drug use for longer than 3 years, and daily drug use. Conclusions: Strategies for preventing and controlling HCV transmission should be implemented among DUs.
Abstract in English:Introduction Hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats play an important role in the rabies lifecycle. This study describes the hematological profile of these bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus. Methods Cells counts were performed in a Neubauer chamber. Results The average values of erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in blood before experimental infections were 9.97 × 106mm3 and 4.80 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 69.9% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 26.9%. Following the experimental infections, the average numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes was 9.43 × 106mm3 and 3.98 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 40% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 59%. Conclusions The hematological profile given in this study can serve as reference values for D. rotundus bats.
Abstract in English:Introduction: This study reports for the first time the infection of Rhodnius montenegrensis by Trypanosoma rangeli. Methods: The triatomines were manually collected in Attalea speciosa in the municipality of Buritis, Rondônia. The identification of the trypanosomatid species was confirmed by multiplex PCR. Results: All of the collected triatomines were R. montenegrensis. The analysis confirmed that all of the adults were infected with the epimastigote form of T. rangeli. Conclusions: This report of a new vector of T. rangeli raises a warning for the State of Rondônia because the simultaneous presence of T. rangeli with T. cruzi in the same geographic region enables the occurrence of mixed infections in hosts and vectors, which complicates the differential diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Introduction. The genera Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are recognized as important Gram-positive human pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Vitek 2 in identifying Gram-positive cocci and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Methods. One hundred four isolates were analyzed to determine the accuracy of the automated system for identifying the bacteria and their susceptibility to oxacillin and vancomycin. Results. The system correctly identified 77.9% and 97.1% of the isolates at the species and genus levels, respectively. Additionally, 81.8% of the Vitek 2 results agreed with the known antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Conclusion. Vitek 2 correctly identified the commonly isolated strains; however, the limitations of the method may lead to ambiguous findings.
Abstract in English:Introduction The control of bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big challenge for China. Methods Negative binomial multivariable regression was used to study relationships between meteorological variables and the occurrence of BD during the period of 2006-2012. Results Each 1°C rise of temperature corresponded to an increase of 3.60% (95%CI, 3.03% to 4.18%) in the monthly number of BD cases, whereas a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of BD cases by 2.85% (95%CI = 3.34% to 2.37% decrease). Conclusions Temperature and atmospheric pressure may be considered as predictors for the occurrence of BD in Guangzhou.
Abstract in English:Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012) was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012) were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.
Abstract in English:Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers. Methods Ten C. albicans isolates recovered from denture wearers were tested using 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 4% R. officinalis essential oil. Results The essential oil from R. officinalis completely inhibited germ tube formation in the investigated C. albicans isolates. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the essential oil of R. officinalis modulates C. albicans pathogenicity through its primary virulence factor (i.e., germ tube formation was suppressed).
Abstract in English:Introduction Sporotrichosis is a mycosis affecting both humans and animals. Within the context of the ongoing sporotrichosis epidemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, sick cats plays an important role in the zoonotic transmission. The aim of this study was to update the number of feline cases diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (2005-2011). Methods The medical records of the cats followed were reviewed; the inclusion criterion was the isolation of Sporothrix spp. in culture. Results In total, 2,301 feline cases were identified. Conclusions These results should alert sanitary authorities to the difficulties associated with sporotrichosis control.
Abstract in English:The authors report a case of a 38-year-old HIV-positive woman, with subcutaneous nodules on the thoracic region with 3 months of evolution. Clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features were evaluated and associated with apparent damage to the T11-T12 vertebrae, identification by imaging tests, positivity in a polymerase chain reaction-based test, and reactivity to the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (PPD-RT 23). The patient was diagnosed with osteoarticular tuberculosis and received treatment for a year, and clinical cure was achieved.
Abstract in English:This report describes the case of a patient with acute Chagas disease in Tocantins, Brazil, who was unaware of her pregnancy during benznidazole treatment. She presented with impaired cardiac function during the acute phase (pericarditis and incomplete right bundle-branch block) that resolved favorably after benznidazole therapy. Serological results also became negative, as determined by hemagglutination assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunofluorescence assays. The child was born without sequelae and showed no evidence of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection at birth or 24 days later.