Abstract in English:Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Brazil was formerly considered a country with intermediate hepatitis B endemicity, with large heterogeneity between Brazilian regions and areas of high prevalence, especially in the Amazon basin. Systematic vaccination of children was initiated in 1998. Between 2004 and 2009, a large population-based study reported decreased prevalence in all regions of Brazil. This review analyzed the current hepatitis B epidemiological situation in Brazil through a systematic search of the scientific literature in MEDLINE, LILACS, and CAPES thesis database, as well as disease notifications to the Information System for Notifiable Diseases. The search strategy identified 87 articles and 13 theses, resulting in 100 total publications. The most recent results indicate reduced hepatitis B prevalence nationwide, classifying Brazil as having low endemicity. Most studies showed HBV carrier prevalence less than 1%. However, there are still isolated regions with increased prevalence, particularly the Amazon, as well as specific groups, such as homeless people in large cities and isolated Afro-descendant communities in the center of the country. This review alsao detected successful vaccination coverage reported in a few studies around the country. The prevalence of anti-HBs alone ranged from 50% to 90%. However, isolated and distant localities still have low coverage rates. This review reinforces the downward trend of hepatitis B prevalence in Brazil and the need to intensify vaccination strategies for young people and adults in specific regions with persisting higher HBV infection prevalence.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have addressed the primary characteristics of patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the general population, especially those living in small- and medium-sized cities in Brazil. We aimed to determine the clinical, demographic, and epidemiologic characteristics of patients diagnosed with HBV who were followed up at an infectious diseases clinic of a public hospital in State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Medical records of patients aged >18 years and diagnosed with HBV infection between January 2000 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were enrolled with male-female main infection-associated risk factors; 9 (12%) were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 5 (6.7%) with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 3 (4%) were co-infected with both HIV and HCV. Antiviral HBV therapy was applied in 21 (28%) patients and tenofovir monotherapy was the most prescribed medication. After approximately 2 years of antiviral treatment, the HBV-DNA viral load was undetectable in 12 (92.3%) patients and lower levels of alanine aminotransferase were found in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 13-year interval, very few individuals infected with HBV were identified, highlighting the barriers for caring for patients with HBV in developing countries. New measures need to be implemented to complement curative practices.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to the importance that Howler monkeys have on the yellow fever (YF) epidemiological sylvatic cycle in Brazil, more accurate morphological diagnostic criteria needs to be established, especially considering the differences that may exist between the genera of Brazilian non-human primates (NHPs) involved in yellow fever virus (YFV) epizootics. METHODS: Records of YF epizootics in NHPs in Brazil between 2007 and 2009 were obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health database to select YF positive (n=98) Howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) for this study. The changes described in the histopathological reports were categorized by organ and their frequencies calculated. RESULTS: The most frequent lesions observed in the animals with YF were hepatocyte apoptosis (Councilman body formation), midzonal hepatocyte necrosis, steatosis, liver hemorrhage, inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltration of the liver, renal acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Midzonal hepatocyte necrosis, steatosis and hemorrhage presented positive correlations with apoptosis of hepatocytes, suggesting strong YFV pathogenic effect association; they were also the main histopathological changes in the Alouatta sp. A pronounced negative correlation between apoptosis of hepatocytes and hepatic mononuclear cell infiltration pointed to significant histopathological differences between YFV infection in Howler monkeys and humans. CONCLUSIONS: The results warn that NHPs may exhibit different response patterns following YFV infection and require a more careful diagnosis. Presumptive diagnosis based on primate histopathological lesions may contribute to public health service control.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus diseases are emerging human diseases caused by Hantavirus spp. of the Bunnyaviridae family. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) has been detected in the Federal District (DF) of Brazil since 2004. Among the 27 Brazilian Federal Units, DF has the highest fatality rate. More than 10 years have already passed since then, with confirmation of cases caused by the Araraquara and Paranoa species. The reservoir is Necromys lasiurus. METHODS: Local surveillance data of the confirmed cases were analyzed, including age, sex, month and year of occurrence, clinical symptoms, syndromes and outcomes, and probable transmission place (PTP). The cases were mainly confirmed by IgM detection with a capture enzyme immunoassay. The cases were classified as autochthonous if PTPs were in the DF area. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2013, in the DF, 126 cases of hantavirus were confirmed, and the cumulative incidence was 5.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. The occurrence of cases was predominantly from April to August. At least 75% of the cases were autochthonous. Acute respiratory failure was reported in 47.5% of cases, and the fatality rate was 40%. CONCLUSIONS: In the DF, the cumulative incidence of HPS was one of the highest worldwide. A seasonal pattern of hantavirus disease in the dry season is clear. There was a high frequency of severe clinical signals and symptoms as well as a high fatality rate. For the near future, visitors and inhabitants of DF rural areas, particularly male adults, should receive continuous education about hantavirus transmission and prevention.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION This paper aims to describe the dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the autochthonous occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Northwest region of the State of São Paulo between 2007 and 2013 and to analyze their expansion. METHODS Information about the vector and associated cases was described using maps. The incidence, mortality, and lethality of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) were calculated. In municipalities in which more than one HVL case occurred, incidences were calculated according to census sector, and spatial and spatiotemporal clusters were identified. RESULTS The first case of HVL was reported in the municipality of Jales in 2007. By 2013, the vector and the disease had expanded from west to east, with the vector being detected in 29 municipalities. A total of 11 municipalities had cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), and six had cases of HVL. Vector expansion occurred by vicinity with previously infested municipalities, and the expansion of VL was related to the major highways and the capital municipalities of the micro-regions in the study area. The highest incidence of HVL occurred in children between 0-4 years old, and the highest mortality and lethality occurred among persons aged 60 and older. The occurrence of HLV was more intense in the peripheral areas of municipalities with the disease. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study may be useful for improving VL surveillance and control activities by slowing VL expansion and/or mitigating VL effects when they occur.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial pathogen in community settings. MRSA colonized individuals may contribute to its dissemination; the risk of MRSA infection is increased in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, although the prevalence of colonization in this group is not well established. The present study addressed this issue by characterizing MRSA isolates from HIV/AIDS patients and their healthcare providers (HCPs) to determine whether transmission occurred between these two populations. METHODS: A total of 24 MRSA isolates from HIV-infected patients and five from HCPs were collected between August 2011 and May 2013. Susceptibility to currently available antimicrobials was determined. Epidemiological typing was carried out by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and Staphylococcus cassette chromosome (SCCmec) typing. The presence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) and heterogeneous daptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (hDRSA) was confirmed by population analysis profile. Isolates characterized in this study were also compared to isolates from 2009 obtained from patients at the same hospital. RESULTS: A variety of lineages were found among patients, including ST5-SCCmecII and ST30-SCCmecIV. Two isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive, and hVISA and hDRSA were detected. MRSA isolates from two HCPs were not related to those from HIV/AIDS patients, but clustered with archived MRSA from 2009 with no known relationship to the current study population. CONCLUSIONS: ST105-SCCmecII clones that colonized professionals in 2011 and 2012 were already circulating among patients in 2009, but there is no evidence that these clones spread to or between HIV/AIDS patients up to the 7th day of their hospitalization.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION Natural and artificial ecotope infestation by the kissing bug triatomines and their colonization and infection by Trypanosoma cruzi , the Chagas disease agent, were evaluated in nine municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. METHODS Following identification, triatomine intestinal contents were analyzed by direct microscopic examination, xenoculture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for parasite detection. Trypanosoma cruzi isolates were genotyped using three different markers. RESULTS Of 842 triatomines captured, 65% were Triatoma brasiliensis , 17.8% Triatoma pseudomaculata , 12.5% Panstrongylus lutzi , and 4.7% Rhodnius nasutus . Triatoma brasiliensis and P. lutzi adults were found in the intradomicile. T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata , and R. nasutus nymphs and adults were found in the peridomicile and wild environment. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary infestation indexes were 5.6% and 33.7%, respectively. In the peridomicile, chicken coops were the most infested ecotope. The T. cruzi triatomine infection rate was 30.2%, of which PCR detected 29%. P . lutzi (78.1%), T . brasiliensis (24.5%), and T . pseudomaculata (22.7%) were the most infected species. TcII and III genotypes were detected in T. brasiliensis and TcIII in P. lutzi . CONCLUSIONS T. brasiliensis was found in all environments and most ecotopes with high T. cruzi infection rates. High infection rates were also detected in T . pseudomaculata and P. lutzi , suggesting their role in the interchange between the wild and peridomestic transmission cycles. The combination of PCR, microscopic examination, and xenoculture contributed to improving T. cruzi infection evaluation in triatomine bugs. The TcII and TcIII genotypes were predominant in the study area.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania . Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form, with millions of new cases worldwide each year. Treatments are ineffective due to the toxicity of existing drugs and the resistance acquired by certain strains of the parasite. METHODS: We evaluated the activity of sodium nitroprusside in macrophages infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis . Phagocytic and microbicidal activity were evaluated by phagocytosis assay and promastigote recovery, respectively, while cytokine production and nitrite levels were determined by ELISA and by the Griess method. Levels of iNOS and 3-nitrotyrosine were measured by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Sodium nitroprusside exhibited in vitro antileishmanial activity at both concentrations tested, reducing the number of amastigotes and recovered promastigotes in macrophages infected with L. amazonensis . At 1.5µg/mL, sodium nitroprusside stimulated levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide, but not IFN-γ. The compound also increased levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, but not expression of iNOS, suggesting that the drug acts as an exogenous source of nitric oxide. CONCLUSIONS: Sodium nitroprusside enhances microbicidal activity in Leishmania -infected macrophages by boosting nitric oxide and 3-nitrotyrosine.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Geographic information systems (GIS) enable public health data to be analyzed in terms of geographical variability and the relationship between risk factors and diseases. This study discusses the application of the geographic weighted regression (GWR) model to health data to improve the understanding of spatially varying social and clinical factors that potentially impact leprosy prevalence. METHODS: This ecological study used data from leprosy case records from 1998-2006, aggregated by neighborhood in the Duque de Caxias municipality in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the GWR model, the associations between the log of the leprosy detection rate and social and clinical factors were analyzed. RESULTS: Maps of the estimated coefficients by neighborhood confirmed the heterogeneous spatial relationships between the leprosy detection rates and the predictors. The proportion of households with piped water was associated with higher detection rates, mainly in the northeast of the municipality. Indeterminate forms were strongly associated with higher detections rates in the south, where access to health services was more established. CONCLUSIONS: GWR proved a useful tool for epidemiological analysis of leprosy in a local area, such as Duque de Caxias. Epidemiological analysis using the maps of the GWR model offered the advantage of visualizing the problem in sub-regions and identifying any spatial dependence in the local study area.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is mainly transmitted among family members who share genetic and ambient factors. The clinical form of leprosy in the index case and kinship could be risk factors for leprosy transmission. High antibody levels in household contacts (HC) in the absence of neural or skin lesions may characterize latent infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between seropositivity for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I immunoglobulin M antibodies (APGL-I) in HC and the clinical classification of the index case and to analyze the association between APGL-I positivity with other factors such as age, kinship, and gender. METHODS: We performed a survey among 320 HC of 120 leprosy patients who were evaluated and followed-up in a leprosy outpatient clinic of a university hospital. All HC underwent complete skin examination, peripheral nerve palpation, skin sensory tests, and serologic tests for the detection and quantification of APGL-I. RESULTS: The overall seropositivity rate was 20%, and was greatly affected by kinship. APGL-I seropositivity was higher in siblings (41%), followed by parents (28%), spouses (26%), other (19%), and offspring (14%). Independent risk factors for seropositivity were being siblings (OR 3.3) and being a HC of an index case with indeterminate leprosy (OR 5.3). APGL-I seropositivity was associated with index cases with a bacillary index of 4 (88%; p<.001). Seropositivity among HC was not significantly associated with their gender and age. There was no statistical difference in the seropositivity rates of HC of index patients with paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy. CONCLUSIONS: Strict evaluation and follow-up of HC with positive results for APGL-I is recommended. Special attention should be paid during the screening of siblings of the index cases, HC of patients with a high bacillary index, and HC of patients with indeterminate leprosy.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its association with oral candidiasis and clinical parameters of periodontitis (CPP) in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Periodontal examinations for the 113 HIV-infected patients were recorded using the Community Periodontal Index. A cytological smear from the lateral borders of the tongue was performed to evaluate candidiasis. RESULTS: The frequency of hypovitaminosis D was 23.9%. In multivariate analysis, only the duration of exposure to HIV was associated with CPP [OR 4.72 (95% CI: 0.97-23.00)]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 23.9% and was not related with oral candidiasis or CPP.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION Malaria is not considered endemic in State of Piauí. METHODS Malaria epidemiology was examined using surveillance data. RESULTS: During 2002-2013, of the 484 cases of malaria, 217 were classified as probably acquired in Piauí, most frequently in the Campo Largo, Buriti dos Lopes, and Luzilândia municipalities, and 267 were considered probably imported, from the States of Pará, Maranhão, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. Probably-imported cases occurred throughout the year, while 80.2% of the probably-acquired cases occurred in April-August, peaking at the end of the rainy season. CONCLUSIONS Malaria surveillance should be intensified. Further ecoepidemiological and entomological studies are needed.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Conjunctival swab PCR was evaluated as a tool to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. METHODS: Conjunctival swab PCR was compared to indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and blood PCR. RESULTS: Indirect immunofluorescence was significantly correlated with conjunctival swab PCR (p < 0.05), but not with blood PCR (p > 0.05). In addition, conjunctival swab PCR was significantly associated with presence of clinical symptoms (p < 0.05), whereas blood PCR was associated with absence of clinical symptoms (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that conjunctival swab PCR is useful in epidemiological surveys of canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, culling of seropositive dogs is one of the recommended strategies to control visceral leishmaniasis. Since infectiousness is correlated with clinical signs, control measures targeting symptomatic dogs could be more effective. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,410 dogs, predictive models were developed based on clinical signs and an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. RESULTS: The validated predictive model showed sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 70.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Predictive models could be used as tools to aid control programs in focusing on a smaller fraction of dogs contributing more to infection dissemination.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization endorses the BACTEC Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT)(tm) system as a rapid, sensitive, and specific method to diagnostic of tuberculosis. Here, we compared the performance of this system against Ogawa-Kudoh cultures and microscopy. METHODS: A total of 927 samples were obtained between December 2011 and December 2013 from 652 cases of suspected tuberculosis at the School Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande in Brazil. RESULTS: The MGIT system confirmed tuberculosis in more cases in less time. CONCLUSIONS: The MGIT system is an effective tool for early diagnosis of tuberculosis, especially in patients with HIV/AIDS.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION Mansonella ozzardi is a widely distributed filaria worm in the Amazon region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of M. ozzardi infection in riverine communities of Lábrea municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. METHODS A diagnostic blood filtration method in a polycarbonate membrane was used. RESULTS M. ozzardi was found in 50.3% of the sample, with the highest prevalence in farmers/fishermen (69.4%; χ 2 = -19.14, p<0.001). The prevalence was higher in longer-term residents (≥11 years; 60.2%). CONCLUSIONS M. ozzardi infection rates are high near the Purus River, much greater than those previously reported based on diagnosis using thick blood smears.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have described the risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in the Amazon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a City of the State of Amazonas (Brazil) to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and determine the risk factors for helminth infections. RESULTS: Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. The main risk factors determined were: not having a latrine for A. lumbricoides infection; being male and having earth or wood floors for hookworm infection; and being male for multiple helminth infections. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a high prevalence of intestinal parasites and determined some poverty-related risk factors.
Abstract in English:Abstract: A case of dengue virus 3 (DENV-3) genotype I infection with neurological manifestations occurred in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais in October 2012. The serotype was detected by PCR, and the genotype was assessed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the C-prM region. The virus causing neurological manifestations clustered with other sequences of DENV-3 genotype I. Because neurological manifestations of DENV are possibly misdiagnosed in Brazil, this study serves as an alert of the importance of DENV diagnoses in CNS infections.
Abstract in English:Abstract: New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a bacterial enzyme that renders the bacteria resistant to a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. A 20-year-old man was hospitalized several times for surgical treatment and complications caused by a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Although the patient acquired several multidrug-resistant infections, this study focuses on the NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection. As it was resistant to all antimicrobials tested, the medical team developed a 20-day regimen of 750mg/day metronidazole, 2,000,000IU/day polymyxin B, and 100mg/day tigecycline. The treatment was effective, and the patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital.