Abstract in English:Abstract This review focuses on reports of hepatitis E virus, hantavirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and arenavirus in synanthropic rodents (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus) within urban environments. Despite their potential impact on human health, relatively few studies have addressed the monitoring of these viruses in rodents. Comprehensive control and preventive activities should include actions such as the elimination or reduction of rat and mouse populations, sanitary education, reduction of shelters for the animals, and restriction of the access of rodents to residences, water, and food supplies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Since its re-emergence in the late 1990s, there have been reports of Chikungunya fever (CHIK-F) presenting with severe or atypical findings. There is little knowledge regarding the clinical events leading to the death of patients with CHIK-F. This study aimed to systematically review the literature regarding CHIK-F and identify clinical features preceding death. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Lilacs, and IsiWeb for case-reports, case-series, or cohorts of CHIK-F reporting at least one death, up to December 2019. Fifty-seven reports were analyzed, including 2140 deaths. Data about specific clinical events that precede death are scarce. The central tendency of time between disease onset and death ranged from 2 days to 150 days. The most common clinical findings among decedents were fever (22.0%), arthralgia (15.7%), myalgia (10.7%), and headache (8.2%). Excluding pediatric populations, the reported central tendency of age among the decedents was 53 or older, with a non-weighted median of 67, ranging up to 80 years old. Authors mentioned organic dysfunction in 91.2% reports. Among all the 2140 decedents, the most common dysfunctions were cardiovascular (7.2%), respiratory (6.4%), neurological (5.4%), renal (4.2%), liver (3.0%), and hematological (1.3%) dysfunction. Exacerbation of previous diabetes (5.6%) or hypertension (6.9%) was mentioned as conditions preceding death. Currently, older age, primary neurological, cardiovascular, or respiratory dysfunction and a previous diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension are the main clinical events preceding death.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a zoonotic disease with complex transmission cycle. Some environmental and socioeconomic factors are known to be the major determinants of the transmission process, which are involved in configuring the spatiotemporal patterns and thus can be delimiting. However, the relevance of these socioeconomic and environmental determinants is still not well understood. In this study, we aimed to identify the major environmental and socioeconomic determinants of CL in Brazil by articulating a systematic literature review of studies that are based on this subject. The methodology included a search for studies according to a structured protocol using the scientific platforms, such as Scielo and PubMed. The references of each identified article were who referred to CL determinants were further screened, and so on. We extracted information from 41 articles and the determinants were grouped accordingly. Two measures were evaluated as follows: a) the frequency of citations of the determinants; and b) the proportion of determinants identified as having "significant association in analytical studies" with respect to the total number of determinants analyzed in other analytical studies using the same concept. The analyzed articles covered most of the regions of Brazil and 7 other countries bordering Brazil. We found 43 concepts of determinants. However, the final selection resulted in the identification of 14 major determinants. These results therefore contribute in the identification of major CL determinants and this information can be used to establish strategies for identifying risk prone areas for disease surveillance.
Abstract in English:Abstract Since the early 20th century, the detection of intestinal parasites has improved with the development of several techniques for parasitic structures recovery and identification, which differ in sensitivity, specificity, practicality, cost, and infrastructure demand. This study aims to review, in chronological order, the stool examination techniques and discuss their advantages, limitations, and perspectives, and to provide professionals and specialists in this field with data that lays a foundation for critical analysis on the use of such procedures. The concentration procedures that constitute the main techniques applied in routine research and in parasitological kits are a) spontaneous sedimentation; b) centrifugation-sedimentation with formalin-ethyl acetate; and c) flotation with zinc sulfate solution. While selecting a technique, one should consider the purpose of its application and the technical-operational, biological, and physicochemical factors inherent in the procedures used in stool processing, which may restrict its use. These intrinsic limitations may have undergone procedural changes driven by scientific and technological development and by development of alternative methods, which now contribute to the improvement of diagnostic accuracy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (ChC) usually progress with fatigue and dyspnea. Exercise tests are valuable for the functional evaluation of these patients. However, information about the applicability of the exercise tests is scattered, and no studies have systematically reviewed the results. Thus, the present review explored the general aspects and prognostic value of exercise tests in patients with ChC. A literature search of the MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and LILACS databases was performed to identify relevant studies. There were no data restrictions, and articles that met the objective of the study were selected. Articles written in English, Portuguese, and Spanish were considered, and 25 articles were finally included. The peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was correlated with demographic and echocardiographic variables. Echocardiographic features of the left ventricular diastolic function and right ventricular systolic function appeared to be determinants of functional capacity, in addition to age and sex. VO2peak was associated with higher mortality, especially in patients with dilated ChC. The minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope (VE/VCO2 slope) was a strong predictor of survival; however, more studies are needed to verify this observation. Field tests showed moderate to strong correlation with VO2peak and thus may be inexpensive tools for the functional evaluation of patients with ChC. However, few studies have verified their prognostic significance. While exercise tests are useful tools for functional assessment, information is scarce regarding further considerations, and many of the criteria are based on guidelines for other heart diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Since the emergence of the chikungunya virus in Brazil in 2014, more than 700,000 cases have been reported throughout the country, corresponding to one-third of all cases reported in the Americas. In addition to its high attack rates, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases, the disease has high chronicity rates with persistent joint manifestations for more than 3 months, which can spread to more than half of the patients affected in the acute phase. Pain associated with musculoskeletal manifestations, often disabling, has an effect on patients’ quality of life at different stages of the disease. Currently, the challenge faced by specialists is identifying the best therapy to be instituted for symptom relief despite the limited number of published intervention studies. In 2016, a multidisciplinary group published pharmacological treatment protocols for pain in patients with chikungunya, which was incorporated into the guidelines for clinical management of the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2017; in that same year, a consensus was published by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology about diagnosis and treatment. After 5 years of experience with chikungunya epidemics, in 2019, specialists involved in the protocols of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology and Brazilian Ministry of Health prepared an update with the main objective of developing flowcharts for the therapeutic approach of musculoskeletal manifestations in adult patients to enable specialists at different levels of healthcare to spread and apply this guideline in a systematic and simplified manner.
Abstract in English:Abstract The incidence and prevalence of lung disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM-LD) has increased worldwide and its diagnosis represents a complex challenge. This article aims to review the tomographic findings of NTM-LD in order to facilitate their definitive diagnosis. The search for publications on the subject was performed in PMC and Scielo using the keywords ‘non-tuberculous mycobacteria’, ‘lung disease and computed tomography (CT)’ and ‘radiological findings’. The radiological findings described by 18 articles on mycobacteriosis were reviewed. In addition, CT images of patients diagnosed with NTM-LD were considered to represent radiological findings. Eighteen publications were used whose main findings were pulmonary cavitation (88.9%), bronchiectasis (77.8%), and pulmonary nodules (55.6%). Despite the overlaps in imaging-related analysis of myocobacterioses with other pulmonary infections, such as tuberculosis, the predominant involvement of the middle lobe and lingula should raise suspicion for NTM-LD.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two decades ago, Robert Proctor coined the term agnotology to refer to the study of ignorance that stems from scientific research. Amid the coronavirus disease pandemic, the world is witnessing the greatest natural experiment ever, and countries have adopted different response strategies. An evaluation of the effectiveness of different policies will play a valuable role in preparing for future public health emergencies. However, controversial issues such as the timing and pathways of viral emergence, the effectiveness of social distancing and lockdown strategies, and the use of antimalarial drugs as therapy have still not been fully resolved. This serves as a fertile breeding ground for agnotological strategies, whereby scientific studies are deliberately or unintentionally designed to create distractions or draw conclusions that are not supported by research findings. Researchers, public health authorities, and healthcare workers should be equipped to identify such agnotological strategies, distinguish them from scientific fraud, and avoid drawing misleading inferences based on an irrational adherence to hypotheses and a lack of criticism of implausible results.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increase in the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in hospital settings has rapidly emerged worldwide as a serious health problem. METHODS: This review synthetizes the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, highlighting resistance mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the genetic mechanisms of resistance as well as the associated risk factors is critical to develop and implement adequate measures to control and prevent acquisition of nosocomial infections, especially in an intensive care unit setting.
Abstract in English:Abstract Consumption of carbapenem has increased due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria spreading. Ertapenem has been suggested as a not carbapenem-resistance inducer. We performed a scoping review of carbapenem-sparing stewardship with ertapenem and its impact on the antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacilli. We searched PubMed for studies that used ertapenem as a strategy to reduce resistance to carbapenems and included epidemiologic studies with this strategy to evaluate susceptibility patterns to cephalosporins, quinolones, and carbapenems in Gram-negative-bacilli. The search period included only studies in English, up to February 2018. From 1294 articles, 12 studies were included, mostly from the Americas. Enterobacteriaceae resistance to quinolones and cephalosporins was evaluated in 6 studies and carbapenem resistance in 4 studies. Group 2 carbapenem (imipenem/meropenem/doripenem) resistance on A. baumannii was evaluated in 6 studies. All studies evaluated P. aeruginosa resistance to Group 2 carbapenem. Resistance profiles of Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa to Group 2 carbapenems were not associated with ertapenem consumption. The resistance rate of A. baumannii to Group 2 carbapenems after ertapenem introduction was not clear due to a lack of studies without bias. In summary, ertapenem as a strategy to spare use of Group 2 carbapenems may be an option to stewardship programs without increasing resistance of Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. More studies are needed to evaluate the influence of ertapenem on A. baumannii.
Abstract in English:Abstract Even though most current recommendations include the general use of masks to prevent community transmission of SARS-Cov-2, the effectiveness of this measure is still debated. The studies on this policy include physical filtering tests with inanimate microparticles, randomized clinical trials, observational studies, ecological analyses, and even computational modeling of epidemics. Much of the so-called evidence is inferred from studies on different respiratory viruses and epidemiological settings. Heterogeneity is a major factor limiting the generalization of inferences. In this article, we reviewed the empirical and rational bases of mask use and how to understand these recommendations compared to other policies of social distancing, restrictions on non-essential services, and lockdown. We conclude that recent studies suggest a synergistic effect of the use of masks and social distancing rather than opposing effects of the two recommendations. Developing social communication approaches that clarify the need to combine different strategies is a challenge for public health authorities.
Abstract in English:Abstract Slit skin smear and histopathological examinations are currently the main laboratory tools used to aid the diagnosis of leprosy. However, their sensitivity is low, and many cases are not detected. New methodologies have been studied to develop more accurate tests. This narrative review aims to raise attention to the results of molecular (polymerase chain reaction) and serological (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) tests applied to the diagnosis of leprosy, and to summarize the available information about the former. Original scientific articles published in indexed international journals, whose study involved aspects of the diagnosis and classification of leprosy cases or home contacts, were selected. The data were extracted independently using a standardized method that dictated the inclusion of the following information: diagnosis in Paucibacillary and Multibacillary cases and in household contacts; sample number; sample type; study design; studied variables; statistical analysis employed; main results; and limitations identified. In clinical practice, the results from molecular and serological tests are assessed separately, with moderate sensitivity and specificity. However, an integrated study of these methodologies has been suggested for greater accuracy in diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the absence of vaccines and effective antiviral drugs, control of the spread of coronavirus disease (Covid-19) relies mainly on the adequacy of public health resources and policies. Hence, failure to establish and implement scientifically reliable control measures may have a significant effect on the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, severity of the disease, and death toll. The average number of secondary transmissions from an infected person, or reproduction numbers (R0 and R), and the points at which the collective immunity begins to reduce the transmission of the infection, or herd immunity thresholds, are important epidemiological tools used in strategies of Covid-19 control, suppression, and mitigation. However, SARS-CoV-2 transmission through asymptomatic carriers and, possibly, aerosols, has been ignored, and this may affect the effectiveness of Covid-19 control strategies. Therefore, consideration of the two possible ways of transmission would substantially increase the values of reproduction numbers, but if estimates of the contingent of the population naturally resistant to the virus, plus those with pre-existing cross-immunity to SARS-CoV-2 were considered, the evaluation of herd immunity thresholds should reach their real and achievable levels.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fusarium spp. has been associated with a broad spectrum of emerging infections collectively termed fusariosis. This review includes articles published between 2005 and 2018 that describe the characteristics, clinical management, incidence, and emergence of these fungal infections. Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum are globally distributed and represent the most common complexes. Few therapeutic options exist due to intrinsic resistance, especially for the treatment of invasive fusariosis. Therefore, the use of drug combinations could be an important alternative for systemic antifungal resistance. Increase in the number of case reports on invasive fusariosis between 2005 and 2018 is evidence of the emergence of this fungal infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by a new coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2. This disease was first identified in December 2019 and rapidly developed into a challenge to the public health systems around the world. In the absence of a vaccine and specific therapies, disease control and promotion of patient health are strongly dependent on a rapid and accurate diagnosis. This review describes the main laboratory approaches to making a diagnosis of COVID-19 and identifying those previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.
Abstract in English:Abstract Recent reports indicate that besides respiratory and systemic symptoms among coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients, the disease has a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations (encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, metabolic and acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy, cerebrovascular diseases, Guillain-Barré syndrome, polyneuritis cranialis, dysautonomia, and myopathies). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can spread from the respiratory system to the central nervous system, using transneuronal and hematogenous mechanisms. Although not every COVID-19 patient will test positive for the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid exam, the appearance of neurological symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection reveals the importance of understanding the neurologic manifestations and capacity for neural invasion associated with the pathogen. These aspects are relevant for correct diagnosis and treatment, and for the potential development of vaccines. This review highlights the latest evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a focus on neurological involvement and potential neuropathogenesis mechanisms.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic efficacy of daily amphotericin B infusion is related to its maximum concentration in blood; however, trough levels may be useful in intermittent regimens of this antifungal drug. METHODS : High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the minimum concentration (Cmin) of amphotericin B in the serum of patients receiving deoxycholate (D-Amph) or liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis (n=28), histoplasmosis (n=8), paracoccidioidomycosis (n=1), and leishmaniasis (n=1). RESULTS: Daily use of D-Amph 30 to 50 mg or L-AmB 50 mg resulted in a similar Cmin, but a significant increase ocurred with L-AmB 100 mg/day. The geometric mean Cmin tended to decrease with a reduction in the dose and frequency of intermittent L-AmB infusions: 357 ng/mL (100 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 263 ng/mL (50 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 227 ng/mL (50 mg 1 to 3 times/week). The impact on Cmin was variable in patients whose dose or therapeutic scheme was changed, especially when administered the intermittent infusion of amphotericin B. The mean Cmin for each L-AmB schedule of intermittent therapy was equal or higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B against Cryptococcus isolates from 10/12 patients. The Cmin of amphotericin B in patients with cryptococcal meningitis was comparable between those that survived or died. CONCLUSIONS: By evaluating the Cmin of amphotericin B, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of its intermittent use including in the consolidation phase of neurocryptococcosis treatment, despite the great variability in serum levels among patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study sought to assess the mean and activity based cost (ABC) of the laboratory diagnosis for tuberculosis through the application of conventional and molecular techniques-Xpert®MTB/RIF and Genotype®MTBDRplus-in a tertiary referral hospital in Brazil. METHODS: The mean cost and ABC formed the basis for the cost analysis of the TB laboratory diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean cost and ABC were US$ 4.00 and US$ 3.24, respectively, for a bacilloscopy; US$ 6.73 and US$ 5.27 for a Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture; US$ 105.42 and US$ 76.56 for a drug sensitivity test (DST)-proportions method (PM) in LJ; US$ 148.45 and US$ 136.80 for a DST-BACTECTM MGITTM 960 system; US$ 11.53 and US$ 9.89 for an Xpert®MTB/RIF; and US$ 84.21 and US$ 48.38 for a Genotype®MTBDRplus. CONCLUSIONS: The mean cost and ABC proved to be good decision-making parameters in the diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB. The effective implementation of algorithms will depend on the conditions at each location.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate some virulence factors in Candida albicans isolates from patients with onychomycosis and determine the correlation between these factors and the antifungal resistance profile. METHODS: Seventy species of C. albicans were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the HWP1 gene. According to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, the susceptibility profile of four antifungal agents was investigated, and the production of aspartyl protease, phospholipase, haemolysin, and biofilm was determined. The correlation between these profiles was also investigated. RESULTS: The isolates indicated different levels of resistance and production of virulence factors. Significant correlations were observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole/itraconazole and biofilm production, between phospholipase production and fluconazole/itraconazole MIC, and between fluconazole MIC and hemolytic activity in C. albicans isolates. The results also showed significant correlations between phospholipase activity and biofilm production. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of C. albicans and characterize the relationship between virulence factors and antifungal resistance, which may suggest new therapeutic strategies considering the possible involvement of the virulence mechanism in the effectiveness of treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Human retroviruses and the hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively) share routes of transmission; thus, coinfections occur and could alter subsequent disease outcomes. A preliminary study on human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) in serum samples from HBV- and HCV-infected individuals in São Paulo revealed 1.3% and 5.3% rates of coinfection, respectively. These percentages were of concern since they were detected in HTLV-endemic regions and in high-risk individuals in Brazil. The present study was conducted to extend and confirm these data. METHODS HTLV-1/2 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status were identified in 1,984 sera for HBV and HCV viral load quantification - 1,290 samples from HBV-infected individuals (53.3% men, mean age: 47.1 years) and 694 samples from HCV-infected individuals (56.3% men, mean age: 50.1 years). HTLV-1/2 antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassay, followed by western blotting and line immunoassay; HIV infection was detected by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS HTLV-1/-2 infection was detected in 1.9% HBV-infected individuals (0.7% HTLV-1 and 1.2% HTLV-2) and in 4.0% (2.4% HTLV-1 and 1.6% HTLV-2) HCV-infected individuals; HIV infection was detected in 9.2% and 14.5%, respectively. Strong associations with HTLV and HIV, male sex, and older age were found in HBV/HTLV and HCV/HTLV-coinfected individuals (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were confirmed to be prevalent in individuals with HBV and HCV in São Paulo; coinfected individuals deserve further clinical and laboratory investigation.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptin (LEP) is a peptide hormone that acts via leptin receptor (LEPR) binding. Genetic evidence from different human populations has implicated LEP/LEPR in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD), and suggests that certain LEP/LEPR gene polymorphisms may increase the risk of CAD. The aim of this study was to assess two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LEP genes (rs2167270 and rs7799039) and two in LEPR genes (rs6588147, rs1137100) for association with CAD. METHODS: We enrolled 271 North Chinese Han CAD patients, and 113 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the four SNPs were assessed using a MassArray system. RESULTS: The G allele frequency at rs2167270 was significantly higher among CAD cases than among controls. The AG genotype at rs7799039 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of CAD unlike the AA genotype used as the reference. The A allele was significantly associated with the CAD patient group. Interestingly, statistically significant differences in genotype and allele frequency at LEP rs2167270 and rs7799039 existed among females but not among males. CONCLUSIONS: The current study detected a significant association between genetic variations at LEP rs7799039 and rs2167270 and the risk of CAD in a north Chinese population, and revealed that LEP rs2167270 and rs7799039 gene polymorphisms might act as predisposing factors for CAD.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious pulmonary circulation disease caused by several etiologies, including schistosomiasis. The present study retrospectively evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of patients with schistosomal PAH (PAH-Sch) compared to those of non-Sch PAH patients (non-Sch PAH). METHODS: Patients treated at the Pronto-Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco and diagnosed by right cardiac catheterization were divided into PAH-Sch and non-Sch PAH groups. Their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and echocardiography and hemodynamic parameters were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Among the included 98 patients (mean age, 45 ± 14 years; 68 women [69.4%]), we found 56 PAH-Sch and 42 non-Sch PAH. The age distribution was heterogeneous in the PAH-Sch group, with patients predominantly ranging from 50-59 (p <0.004). Dyspnea was the most common symptom, reported by 92 patients (93.8%), and commonly present for over two years prior to diagnosis. Clinical symptoms were similar in both groups, with no differences in functional class, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (p = 0.102), 6-minute walk test score (p = 0.234), NT-proBNP serum levels (p = 0.081), or hemodynamic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PAH-Sch present clinical, laboratory, and hemodynamic profiles similar to those with PAH resulting from other etiologies of poor prognosis. PAH is an important manifestation of schistosomiasis in endemic regions that is often diagnosed late.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial and community acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most encountered infections in the world. METHODS: This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility, phylogeny, and virulence genes of 153 Escherichia coli strains isolated from UTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to different classes of antimicrobials was determined by the VITEK-2 automated system. Presence of virulence genes and phylogenetic groups were investigated by PCR. RESULTS: Regarding susceptibility to antimicrobials, ampicillin resistance was most abundant (67.3%), followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (50.9%); least abundant was resistance to amikacin (1.3%) and nitrofurantoin (1.3%). Multi drug resistance (MDR) was observed in 34.6% of the isolates, and all isolates were found to be susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and fosfomycine. The majority of the isolates belonged to the phylogenetic group B23 (35.9%), followed by A1 (20.9%), D1 (18.9%), D2 (12.4%), A0 (%5.9), B1 (3.9%) and B2 (1.9%). Among E. coli strains examined, 49% had iucD, 32.7% papE-F, 26.1% papC, 15% cnf2, 11.1% sfa, 7.8% cnf1, 1.3% afaE, 1.3% afaD, 1.3% hlyA, 0.7% f17a-A, 0.7% clpG and 0.7% eaeA genes. CONCLUSIONS Our research demonstrated that virulence factors were distributed among different phylogroup/subgroups, which play a role in UTIs pathogenesis in humans. For this reason, complex and detailed studies are required to determine the relationship between virulence factors and specific E. coli strains that cause UTIs in humans.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Benznidazole (BZL) and Nifurtimox (NFX) are the pharmacological treatment for acute phase Chagas Disease (CD); however, therapy resistance and residual mortality development remain important unresolved issues. Posaconazole (POS) has shown a trypanocidal effect in vivo and in vitro. Thus, this study aimed at comparing the T. Cruzi parasitic load-reducing effect of the combination of BZL+POS against that of monotherapy with either, during acute phase CD, in an experimental murine model. METHODS Nineteen Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups and inoculated with the trypomastigotes of T. cruzi strain´s JChVcl1. The rats were administered anti-parasites from day 20-29 post-infection. The Pizzi and Brener method was used for parasitemia measurement. Longitudinal data analysis for the continuous outcome of repeated measures was performed using parasitemia as the outcome measured at days 20, 22, 24, 27, and 29 post-infection. RESULTS All four groups had similar parasitic loads (p=0.143) prior to therapy initiation. Among the three treatment groups, the BZL+POS (n=5) group showed the highest mean parasitic load reduction (p=0.000) compared with the control group. Likewise, the BZL+POS group rats showed an earlier therapeutic effect and were the only ones without parasites in their myocardial samples. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of acute phase CD with BZL+POS was more efficacious at parasitemia and myocardial injury reduction, compared with monotherapy with either.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brasilia, pyriproxyfen (PPF; 0.01 mg/L) has been used for the larval control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes since 2016. Information on the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to PPF, and the development of resistance in populations from the Federal District of Brazil (FD) is limited. It is essential to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides in order to improve vector control strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti populations from five areas of Brasilia to PPF. METHODS: We performed dose-response tests to estimate the emergence inhibition and resistance ratio of each field population, including the Rockefeller reference population. We also analyzed egg positivity, and the density and mortality of larvae and pupae. RESULTS: Populations from Vila Planalto (RR50=1.7), Regiment Guards Cavalry (RR50=2.5), and Sub-secretary of Justice Complex (RR50=3.7) presented high susceptibility to PPF, while the RR values of populations from Lago Norte (RR50=7.7) and Varjão (RR50=5.9) were moderately high, suggesting the emergence of insipient resistance to PPF in Brasilia. At 30 ng/mL, the highest larvae mortality rate was 2.7% for the population from Lago Norte, while that of pupae was 92.1% for Varjão and Vila Planalto. CONCLUSIONS: The five populations of Ae. aegypti from the FD are susceptible to PPF and there is a need to monitor the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti in new areas of the FD.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Snakebites represent a serious global public health problem, especially in tropical countries. In Brazil, the incidence of snakebites ranges from 19 to 22 thousand cases per 100000 persons annually. The state of Rondônia, in particular, has had an increasing incidence of snakebites. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study on snakebites was conducted from January 2007 to December 2018. Brazil’s Information System for Notifiable Diseases was queried for all snakebites reported in Porto Velho, Ariquemes, Cacoal, and Vilhena. Data on land surface temperatures during the day and night, precipitation, and humidity were obtained using the Google Earth Engine. A Bayesian time series model was constructed to describe the pattern of snakebites and their relationship with climate data. RESULTS: In total, 6326 snakebites were reported in Rondônia. Accidents were commonly caused by Bothrops sp. (n=2171, 81.80%). Snakebites most frequently occurred in rural areas (n=2271, 85.5%). Men, with a median age of 34 years (n=2101, 79.1%), were the most frequent bitten. Moderate clinical manifestation was the most common outcome of an accident (n=1101, 41.50%). There were clear seasonal patterns with respect to rainfall, humidity, and temperature. Rainfall and land surface temperature during the day or night did not increase the risk of snakebites in any city; however, changes in humidity increased the risk of snakebites in all cities. CONCLUSION: This study identified the population exposed to snakes and the influence of anthropic and climatic factors on the incidence of snakebites. According to climate data, changes in humidity increased the risk of snakebites.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents a public health concern in several areas of the world. In the American continent, VL transmission is typically zoonotic, but humans with active VL caused by Leishmania infantum are able to infect sandflies. Thus, individuals with cutaneous parasitic infections may act as reservoirs and allow interhuman transmission. Additionally, the skin may be responsible for reactivation of the disease after therapy. This study’s objective was to evaluate cutaneous parasitism in humans with VL in an American endemic area. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in northeast Brazil from October 2016 to April 2017. Biopsies of healthy skin for histopathology and immunohistochemistry were performed prior to treatment in all study patients. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients between the ages of five months to 78 years were included in the study. Seven patients (31.8%) tested positive for HIV. Only one patient had cutaneous parasitism, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry prior to treatment. Parasitism was not detected after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous parasitism in the healthy skin of humans with visceral leishmaniasis, although unusual, may be a source of infection for phlebotomine sandflies.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is one of the most common diseases in Latin America and heart involvement is the main cause of death. This study aimed to determine differences in tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) parameters in the assessment left and right ventricular function in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease compared to those in healthy controls. METHODS: We compared 194 patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease to 72 age-matched healthy individuals. We considered p-values <0.05 to be statistically significant. RESULTS: TDI analysis of the right ventricular (RV) showed lengthened isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) and higher RV index of myocardial performance (RIMP) and left ventricle (LV) index of myocardial performance (LIMP) in the Chagas group than in the control group, indicating RV and LV systolic and diastolic myocardial damage. TDI analysis of the myocardial velocities of the interventricular septum and the lateral wall of the LV also showed a systolic and diastolic myocardial damage. CONCLUSIONS: The study results demonstrated early LV systolic and diastolic myocardial damage in the RV and LV in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease by TDI. These early findings of RV and LV dysfunction may help identify patients who will progress to heart failure during the disease course. TDI should be included in initial patient evaluations because it allows adequate follow-up and treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: The genus Rhodnius in the subfamily Triatominae comprises 20 species, which can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. Due to the development of molecular techniques, Triatominae species can now be characterized by mitochondrial and nuclear markers, making it possible to verify and/or correct the existing data on these species. The results achieved in this study provide a more detailed and accurate differentiation of the Rhodnius species, helping the establishment of a more appropriate classification. Methods: Data collection was performed by DNA analysis, morphological and morphometric studies to distinguish four populations of R. neglectus and four of R. prolixus. Phylogenetic data were compared to morphological and morphometric data. Results: The analysis of Cytb fragments suggests that the four colonies designated to Rhodnius neglectus as well as those of R. prolixus were correctly identified. Conclusions: The morphological characters observed in the specimens of the colonies originally identified as R. prolixus and R. neglectus, such as the presence or absence of collar in the eggs, the patterns of the median process of the pygophore, and anterolateral angle, are consistent with the species. Geometric morphometrics also show an intraspecific variability in R. prolixus.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The study of the landscape ecology, biological microhabitat, and epidemiological implications for the distribution of the main vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus contribute to the prevention and control actions regarding the diseases they transmit. METHODS: This study sought to assess data on positive properties of the vector control program activities from 1998 to 2010. An entomological survey was also carried out on a sample of buildings collecting larvae and pupae from containers between October and April (spring / summer) from 2002 to 2005. We assessed the physico-chemical data of the water in 20% of positive containers. The vegetation and urbanization were assessed with the aid of satellite images and microenvironments were classified as urbanized, woods, and shrubs. The data were analyzed using statistical and geoprocessing software. RESULTS: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus colonized all types of microhabitats and microenvironments, predominantly in the urbanized area, in isolation and in coexistence. The microhabitat of Ae. aegypti showed a temperature gradient greater than that of Ae. albopictus, and there was an association with urbanized areas for the first species and wooded areas for the last species. CONCLUSIONS: Landscape ecology and intra-urban differences favor different microclimates, which contribute to the coexistence of species in the urban environment in an area close to the forest, raising the risk of other arbovirus infections in urban areas. The ecological niche should be considered for Ae. albopictus. Entomological and virologic monitoring are suggested as arbovirus surveillance actions in urban infested centers near preserved forests.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis constitutes a serious but neglected tropical disease. Recently, socio-environmental, biological and physical changes have altered the range of leishmaniasis, causing it to spread into urban areas. In Minas Gerais, the disease is endemic, exhibiting regional differences and reaching urban centers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate entomological aspects related to the ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Itaúna. METHODS: Monthly catches with HP traps were carried out from June 2017 to May 2018, in three ecological areas (urban, rural, and forest). The adaptability of the species to anthropic environments was assessed using the synanthropy index (SI). RESULTS: We collected 1306 specimens of phlebotomine sand flies. Of the species of medical importance, Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum, represented 90.4% of the specimens identified at species level (n=1260). Nyssomyia whitmani, the vector of Leishmania braziliensis, represented 1.6% of the total. Lu. longipalpis displayed an SI of +95.8, a value that denotes a marked preference for human environments. For Ny. whitmani, the SI was -25, expressing the tendency of this species to occupy uninhabited areas. The population of the three most numerous species captured increased with rain, high temperatures, and high relative humidity. Although captured at low numbers, Ny. whitmani showed a different profile concerning the climate variables analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the epidemiology of the disease may assist the health services in formulating effective control measures for improving community health and contributing to the establishment of a dynamic relationship and a global awareness of the health/disease process.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION The recent emergence and rapid spread of Zika and Chikungunya fevers in Brazil, occurring simultaneously to a Dengue fever epidemic, together represent major challenges to public health authorities. This study aimed to identify and compare the 2015-2016 spatial diffusion pattern of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue epidemics in Salvador-Bahia. METHODS We used two study designs comprising a cross-sectional-to-point pattern and an ecological analysis of lattice data. Residential addresses involving notified cases were geocoded. We used four spatial diffusion analysis techniques: (i) visual inspection of the sequential kernel and choropleth map, (ii) spatial correlogram analysis, (iii) spatial local autocorrelation (LISA) changes analysis and, (iv) nearest neighbor index (NNI) modeling. RESULTS Kernel and choropleth maps indicated that arboviruses spread to neighboring areas near the first reported cases and occupied these new areas, suggesting a diffusion expansion pattern. A greater case density occurred in central and western areas. In 2015 and 2016, the NNI best-fit model had an S-curve compatible with an expansion pattern for Zika (R2 = 0.94; 0.95), Chikungunya (R2 = 0.99; 0.98) and Dengue (R2 = 0.93; 0.99) epidemics, respectively. Spatial correlograms indicated a decline in spatial lag autocorrelations for the three diseases (expansion pattern). Significant LISA changes suggested different diffusion patterns, although a small number of changes were detected. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate diffusion expansion, a unique spatial diffusion pattern of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue epidemics in Salvador-Bahia, namely. Knowing how and where arboviruses spread in Salvador-Bahia can help improve subsequent specific epidemic control interventions.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the first cases of autochthonous chikungunya (CHIK) were recorded in Brazil. Lethality associated with this disease is underestimated. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the causes of death among individuals with CHIK in Brazil. METHODS: A descriptive observational study was conducted on individuals with CHIK who died within 6 months from symptom onset. Data pairing between the Information System for Notifiable Diseases and the Mortality Information System was performed. Deaths were classified according to case confirmation criterion, mention of CHIK in the death certificates (DCs), and disease phase. The lethality rate per 1,000 cases was corrected for underreporting and was estimated according to region, sex, age, years of education, race/color, and cause groups. RESULTS: We identified 3,135 deaths (mention of CHIK in the DCs, 764 [24.4%]). In 17.6% of these cases, CHIK was the underlying cause. Most deaths occurred in the acute (38.1%) and post-acute (29.6%) phases. The corrected LR (5.7; x1,000) was 6.8 times higher than that obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (0.8). The highest corrected LRs were estimated for among individuals living in the Northeast region (6.2), men (7.4), those with low years of education and those aged <1 year (8.6), 65-79 years (20.7), and ≥80 years (75.4). CONCLUSIONS: The LR of CHIK estimates based on information system linkage help to reveal the relevance of this disease as the direct cause or as a cause associated with serious or fatal events, provide timely interventions, and increase the knowledge about this disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a public health problem and has been associated with country’s territory. We aimed to analyze the spatial dynamics and socioeconomic factors correlated to the incidence of ACL in Pernambuco, Brazil from 2008 to 2017. METHODS: A cross-sectional, ecological study was conducted in the Brazilian municipalities. Patient data were obtained from the Health Hazard Notification System (SINAN); indicators and incidence for the total period and for quinquennium were obtained. Socioeconomic factors were analyzed to evaluate the association between the incidence of ACL and presence of bathroom and running water, garbage collection availability, inadequate water supply, sanitation, rural population, per capita income, and vulnerability to poverty. Spatial analysis considered the gross incidence; the Bayesian local empirical method and Moran spatial autocorrelation index were applied using Terra View and QGIS. RESULTS: The incidence of ACL reduced (0.29/100,000 inhabitants per year). Individuals with ACL were young adults (30.3%), men (60.2%), brown skinned (62.9%), rural residents (70.6%), and less educated (46.7%); had autochthonous transmission (78.8%); developed the cutaneous form (97.2%); had evolution to cure (82.7%); and were diagnosed using the clinical epidemiological criterion (70.5%). ACL occurred in the large part of the state and showed heterogeneous distribution, with persistence of two high priority intervention clusters covering Health Regions I, II, III, IV, and XII. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial analysis and epidemiological indicators complement each other. The combination of these methods can improve the understanding on ACL occurrence, which will help subsidize planning and enhance the quality and effectiveness of healthcare interventions.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: As highly specific molecular biology-based techniques may not be sensitive enough for the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), clinicians frequently rely on immunological tests before treatment initiation. Hence, the correct combination of diagnostic tests is imperative for ATL diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Montenegro (Leishmanin) skin test (MST) in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative patients to accurately detect ATL. METHODS: Patients with a clinical picture compatible with ATL were divided into ATL (confirmed by lesion smear, culture indirect immunofluorescence, and/or histopathology) and no-ATL (diseases that can mimic leishmaniasis) groups. Conventional PCR for the minicircle kDNA of Leishmania was performed, and the MST was carried out for PCR-negative patients. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients were included in this study, including 79 diagnosed with ATL (6 with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) and 20 without ATL (no-ATL group). The MST showed a high sensitivity of 90.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 69.90-97.21) in PCR-negative patients that was 10% higher than the sensitivity reported in PCR-positive population (79.66%; 95% CI = 67.73-87.96). CONCLUSIONS: One of the most important reasons for PCR negativity among patients with active ATL is the presence of a strong cellular immunological response, especially in chronic and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. This reinforces the considerable utility of the tests that detect cellular responses against Leishmania antigens such as the MST in PCR-negative patients when the performance in screening situations is questionable.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Congenital transmission (CT) of Trypanosoma cruzi has led to globalization of Chagas disease and its growing relevance as a public health problem. Although the occurrence of CT has been associated with several factors, its mechanisms are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the geographical and familiar variables of mothers and their association with CT of Chagas disease in a population living in non-endemic areas of Argentina for the last decades. METHODS: We developed a retrospective cohort study in a sample of 2120 mother-child pairs who attended three reference centers in the cities of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, and Salta between 2002 and 2015. RESULTS: The highest CT rates were observed in children born to Argentinean mothers (10.7%) and in children born to mothers from Buenos Aires (11.7%). Considering the areas of origin of the mothers, those from areas of null-low risk for vector-borne infection had higher CT rates than those from areas of medium-high risk (11.1% vs 8.2%). We also observed a significant intra-familiar “cluster effect,” with CT rates of 35.9% in children with an infected sibling, compared to 8.2% in children without infected siblings (RR=4.4 95% CI 2.3-8.4). CONCLUSIONS: The associations observed suggest a higher CT rate in children born to mothers who acquired the infection congenitally, with familiar antecedents, and from areas without the presence of vectors. These observations are considered new epidemiological evidence about Chagas disease in a contemporary urban population, which may contribute to the study of CT and may also be an interesting finding for healthcare professionals.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity, and inflammatory response and oxidative stress play major roles underlying its pathophysiology. Here, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal etanercept administration on oxidative stress and inflammation indicators in the kidney and blood of experimental sepsis-induced rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult Sprague Dawley rats were classified into Control (Group 1), Sepsis (Group 2), Sepsis+Cefazolin (Group 3), and Sepsis+Cefazolin+Etanercept (Group 4) groups. Kidney tissue and serum samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigations and examined for the C reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-α, TREM, and MDA in serum and kidney samples were significantly higher in rats from sepsis group than in rats from control group (p < 0.05). Group 3 showed a significant reduction in serum levels of TNF-α, CRP, and TREM as compared with Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α, CRP, TREM, and MDA levels and kidney TNF-α and TREM levels were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and TREM levels in Group 4 were significantly lower than those in Group 3, and histopathological scores were significantly lower in Group 3 and Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Histopathological scores of Group 4 were significantly lower than those of Group 3 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Etanercept, a TNF-α inhibitor, may ameliorate sepsis-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and histopathological damage.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection lacks treatment options and is associated with prolonged hospital stays and high mortality rates. The production of carbapenemases is one of the most important factors responsible for this multi-resistance phenomenon. METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed the presence of genes encoding carbapenemases in K. pneumoniae isolates circulating in one of the public hospitals in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. We also determined the best combination of drugs that display in vitro antimicrobial synergy. First, 147 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were validated for the presence of blaKPC, bla GES, bla NDM, bla SPM, bla IMP, bla VIM, and bla OXA-48 genes using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Thereafter, using two isolates (97 and 102), the role of double and triple combinational drug therapy as a treatment option was analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-four (50.3%) isolates were positive for bla NDM, eight (5.4%) for bla KPC, and one (1.2%) for both bla NDM and bla KPC. In the synergy tests, double combinations were better than triple combinations. Polymyxin B and amikacin for isolate 97 and polymyxin B coupled with meropenem for isolate 102 showed the best response. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians in normal practice use multiple drugs to treat infections caused by multi-resistant microorganism; however, in most cases, the benefit of the combinations is unknown. In vitro synergistic tests, such as those described herein, are important as they might help select an appropriate multi-drug antibiotic therapy and a correct dosage, ultimately reducing toxicities and the development of antibiotic resistance.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is listed among the top 10 causes of deaths worldwide. The resistant strains causing this disease have been considered to be responsible for public health emergencies and health security threats. As stated by the World Health Organization (WHO), around 558,000 different cases coupled with resistance to rifampicin (the most operative first-line drug) have been estimated to date. Therefore, in order to detect the resistant strains using the genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), we propose a new methodology for the analysis of genomic similarities that associate the different levels of decomposition of the genome (discrete non-decimated wavelet transform) and the Hurst exponent. METHODS: The signals corresponding to the ten analyzed sequences were obtained by assessing GC content, and then these signals were decomposed using the discrete non-decimated wavelet transform along with the Daubechies wavelet with four null moments at five levels of decomposition. The Hurst exponent was calculated at each decomposition level using five different methods. The cluster analysis was performed using the results obtained for the Hurst exponent. RESULTS: The aggregated variance, differenced aggregated variance, and aggregated absolute value methods presented the formation of three groups, whereas the Peng and R/S methods presented the formation of two groups. The aggregated variance method exhibited the best results with respect to the group formation between similar strains. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of Hurst exponent associated with discrete non-decimated wavelet transform can be used as a measure of similarity between genome sequences, thus leading to a refinement in the analysis.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous fungal infection with a worldwide distribution and higher incidence in tropical and subtropical areas, such as the Brazilian territory, where it has been standing out due to its frequent epidemics. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sporotrichosis and profile the affected patients at a university teaching hospital in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This study was a case series of patients diagnosed with Sporothrix spp. from January 2006 to December 2015 by microscopic examination or fungal isolates. Medical records were reviewed for epidemiological data. RESULTS: Forty-three cases of sporotrichosis were diagnosed through the period. The sample comprised predominantly young male adults and rural workers. The most common disease type was lymphocutaneous (51%), followed by fixed cutaneous form (32.5%). The predominant location was the upper limbs (70%), followed by the lower limbs (16%). A significant association was observed between the lymphocutaneous form and upper limb location and between the fixed cutaneous form and lower limb location (p = 0.019). Potassium iodine and itraconazole were the most common treatments. CONCLUSIONS: This study will help update the epidemiological situation of sporotrichosis in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, over the last decade.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a public health problem, and its prevalence is associated with the coexistence of vectors and reservoirs. CVL is a protozoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum that is endemic in the southeast region of Brazil. Thus, vector and canine reservoir control strategies are needed to reduce its burden. This study aimed to verify the CVL seroprevalence and epidemiology in a municipality in Southeast Brazil to initiate disease control strategies. METHODS: A total of 833 dogs were subjected to Dual Path Platform (DPP) testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. For seropositive dogs, epidemiological aspects were investigated using a questionnaire and a global position system. The data were submitted to simple logistic regression, kernel estimation, and Bernoulli spatial scan statistical analysis. RESULTS: The overall CVL-confirmed seroprevalence was 16.08%. The 28.93% in the DPP screening test was associated with dogs maintained in backyards with trees, shade, animal and/or bird feces, and contact with other dogs and cats, with sick dogs showing the highest chances of infection (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-1.98), especially in residences with elderly people. A spatial analysis identified two hotspot regions and detected two clusters in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that residences with elderly people and the presence of trees, shade, feces, and pet dogs and cats increased an individual’s risk of developing CVL. The major regions where preventive strategies for leishmaniasis were to be initiated in the endemic area were identified in two clusters.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Culicoides transmit a variety of pathogens. Our aim was to survey the Culicoides species occurring in an Amazonian rural settlement, comparing abundance, richness, and diversity in different environments. METHODS: Culicoides were captured using CDC light traps. The Shannon-Wiener (H’) and Rényi indices were used to compare species diversity and evenness between environments, the equitability (J’) index was used to calculate the uniformity of distribution among species, and similarity was estimated using the Jaccard similarity index. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance was applied to assess the influence of environment on species composition. A non-metric dimensional scale was used to represent the diversity profiles of each environment in a multidimensional space. RESULTS: 6.078 Culicoides were captured, representing 84 species (45 valid species/39 morphotypes). H’ values showed the following gradient: forest > capoeira > peridomicile > forest edge. The equitability J’ was greater in capoeira and forests compared to peridomiciles and the forest edge. The population compositions of each environment differed statistically, but rarefaction estimates indicate that environments of the same type possessed similar levels of richness. Species of medical and veterinary importance were found primarily in peridomiciles: C. paraensis, vector of Oropouche virus; C. insignis and C. pusillus, vectors of Bluetongue virus; C. filariferus, C. flavivenula, C. foxi, and C. ignacioi, found carrying Leishmania DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that diversity was higher in natural environments than in anthropized environments, while abundance and richness were highest in the most anthropized environment. These findings suggest that strictly wild Culicoides can adapt to anthropized environments.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although supervised doses are essential for reducing leprosy treatment failure, the impact of specific drug interactions has rarely been assessed. This study aimed to estimate the risk of leprosy treatment suspension in patients receiving polypharmacy. METHODS We performed this case-control study in which the primary outcome was defined as the need to discontinue multibacillary leprosy treatment for at least one supervised dose, and the main risk factor was the detection of polypharmacy. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used for calculating odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: This study included 103 patients, of whom 43 needed to discontinue leprosy treatment (hemolysis = 26, hepatitis = 2, hemolysis associated with hepatitis = 6, and suspected treatment resistance = 9) and the rest did not. The severity of drug interactions had no effect on treatment discontinuation. Patients who used five or more drugs in addition to leprosy treatment had almost a 4-fold greater risk of treatment suspension (OR, 3.88; 95% confidence interval: 1.79-9.12; p < 0.001). The number of drugs used also positively influenced the occurrence of hemolysis (p < 0.001). No patient presented evidence of molecular resistance to rifampicin, dapsone, or ofloxacin treatment, as evidenced by genetic sequencing detection of rpoB, folp1, and gyrA mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Polypharmacy has deleterious effects on the already difficult-to-adhere-to treatment of leprosy and polypharmacy induces hemolysis. Additional measures must be taken to avoid the undesirable effects of inadequate polypharmacy.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an ill-studied disease that is endemic to several regions of Brazil. It is often complicated by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a potentially fatal disorder resulting from excessive non-malignant activation/proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages. Considering the overlapping clinical and laboratory characteristics of these diseases, diagnosing HLH is a challenge. Therefore, tracking the association between VL and HLH is necessary in endemic areas. Although HLH can be inapparent and resolve with antileishmanicides, this may not always occur. HLH causes high lethality; therefore, immunosuppressive therapy should be instituted immediately in order to avoid a fatal outcome. METHODS: We described the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic profile of this association in a region of Brazil endemic for VL. RESULTS We presented 39 patients with this association in a retrospective cohort of 258 children who were admitted from January 2012 to June 2017. Of the 39 patients, 31 were from urban areas (79.5%), and 21 (53%) were males. The mean age and weight were 2.86 (2.08) years and 14.03 (5.96) kg, respectively. The main symptoms were fever (100%), hepatosplenomegaly (100%), pallor of the skin and mucosa (82.5%), edema (38.5%), bleeding (25%), and jaundice (7.5%). Hemophagocytosis was identified in 16/37 (43.24%) patients, and direct examination revealed that 26/37 (70.27%) patients were positive for VL. The patients were treated as recommended by the Ministry of Health. CONCLUSIONS It was observed that HLH is a common complication in endemic areas, and its diagnosis must consider the overlapping of clinical characteristics and pancytopenia.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has a single-stranded RNA genome and expresses specific proteins that have oncogenic potential. Approximately 15 to 20 million people worldwide have been infected by this virus. Changes in protein or gene expression are the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene. The function and efficacy of signal transduction also lead to modified immune responses. The present study aimed to investigate the association of SNPs within TLR3 (rs3775291 and rs3775296) with susceptibility to HTLV-1 infection in Iranian asymptomatic blood donors. METHODS: This study was performed on 100 HTLV-1-infected asymptomatic blood donors and 118 healthy blood donors. Genomic DNA from all participants was purified and then amplified using specific PCR primers. SNPs within TLR3 were evaluated using the restriction fragmentation length polymorphism technique, and the results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 22). RESULTS: The frequencies of the TLR3 (rs3775296) CC, CA, AA genotypes were 70%, 24%, and 6% in the patient group, and 50.8%, 44.9%, and 4.2% in the control group, respectively. There was a significant difference in the frequency distribution of TLR3 (rs3775296) genotypes and alleles, but not in the frequency distribution of TLR3 (rs3775291) genotypes between the patient and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: The TLR3 SNP rs3775296 was significantly associated with HTLV-1 infection and may be a protective factor against this viral infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. One-third of infected patients will develop the cardiac form, which may progress to heart failure (HF). However, the factors that determine disease progression remain unclear. Increased angiotensin II activity is a key player in the pathophysiology of HF. A functional polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with plasma enzyme activity. In CD, ACE inhibitors have beneficial effects supporting the use of this treatment in chagasic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We evaluated the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with HF, performing a case-control study encompassing 343 patients with positive serology for CD staged as non-cardiomyopathy (stage A; 100), mild (stage B1; 144), and severe (stage C; 99) forms of Chagas heart disease. For ACE I/D genotyping by PCR, groups were compared using unconditional logistic regression analysis and adjusted for nongenetic covariates: age, sex, and trypanocidal treatment. RESULTS: A marginal, but not significant (p=0.06) higher prevalence of ACE I/D polymorphism was observed in patients in stage C compared with patients in stage A. Patients in stage C (CD with HF), were compared with patients in stages A and B1 combined into one group (CD without HF); DD genotype/D carriers were prevalent in the HF patients (OR = 2; CI = 1.013.96; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results of this cohort study, comprising a population from the Northeast region of Brazil, suggest that ACE I/D polymorphism is more prevalent in the cardiac form of Chagas disease with HF.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 emerged in late 2019 and quickly became a serious public health problem worldwide. This study aim to describe the epidemiological course of cases and deaths due to COVID-19 and their impact on hospital bed occupancy rates in the first 45 days of the epidemic in the state of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: The study used an ecological design with data gathered from multiple government and health care sources. Data were analyzed using Epi Info software. RESULTS: The first cases were confirmed on March 15, 2020. After 45 days, 37,268 cases reported in 85.9% of Ceará’s municipalities, with 1,019 deaths. Laboratory test positivity reached 84.8% at the end of April, a period in which more than 700 daily tests were processed. The average age of cases was 67 (<1 - 101) years, most occurred in a hospital environment (91.9%), and 58% required hospitalization in an ICU bed. The average time between the onset of symptoms and death was 18 (1 - 56) days. Patients who died in the hospital had spent an average of six (0 - 40) days hospitalized. Across Ceará, the bed occupancy rate reached 71.3% in the wards and 80.5% in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: The first 45 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in Ceará revealed a large number of cases and deaths, spreading initially among the population with a high socioeconomic status. Despite the efforts by the health services and social isolation measures the health system still collapsed.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to retrospectively review chest computed tomography (CT) findings in a Brazilian cohort of patients with pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Chest CT scans of 78 patients with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19), obtained in March and April 2020, were reviewed. Of 78 cases, the CT scans of 48 (61.5%) showed lung opacities. CT opacity features, their distribution, and the extent of infiltration were evaluated. RESULTS: The most common CT findings were ground-glass opacities (97.9%), crazy-paving pattern (58.3%), and mixed pattern (18.8%). Rounded lung opacities were observed most frequently (70.8%). Other findings were cystic airspace changes (37.5%), vascular dilatation (35.4%), and the organizing pneumonia pattern (14.6%). The findings were frequently bilateral (87.5%), symmetrical (68.9%), and peripheral (60.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The most common CT findings were ground-glass opacities and the crazy-paving pattern. Involvement was mostly bilateral, symmetrical, and peripheral. Round opacity morphology was frequently observed and might have some degree of specificity to viral COVID-19 pneumonia.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The average annual incidence of cryptococcosis in Colombia is 0.23 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the general population, and 1.1 cases per 1000 in inhabitants with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In addition, the causal fungus has been isolated from the environment, with serotypes A-B and C in different regions. This study aims to determine the genetic association between clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans/C. gattii in Colombia. METHODS: Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to identify possible clones, providing information about the epidemiology, ecology, and etiology of this pathogen in Colombia. RESULTS: A total of 110 strains, both clinical (n=61) and environmental (n=49), with 21 MLST sequence types (ST) of C. neoformans (n=14STs) and C. gattii (n=7STs) were identified. The STs which shared clinical and environmental isolate sources were grouped in different geographical categories; for C. neoformans, ST93 was identified in six departments, ST77 in five departments; and for C. gattii, ST25 was identified in three departments and ST79 in two. CONCLUSIONS: High genetic diversity was found in isolates of C. neoformans/gattii by MLST, suggesting the presence of environmental sources harboring strains which may be sources of infection for humans, especially in immunocompromised patients; these data contribute to the information available in the country on the distribution and molecular variability of C. neoformans and C. gattii isolates recovered in Colombia.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Thalidomide is an anti- tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) drug used mainly in the management of moderate to severe form of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL). Because of its teratogenic potential it has to be used under proper supervision. Our critical analysis tries to look into the rationale with which it has been used by means of case reports on lepra reaction. METHODS: We looked for the case reports between December 2005 to June 2019 in databases like Pubmed, Embase and other relevant resources. We used search words like “erythema nodosum leprosum(ENL)”, “thalidomide”, “case report” in different combinations to get relevant reports that focus on thalidomide usage atleast once at any time point during management. The information extracted were indication of thalidomide use, dose, response, outcome, complication if any, along with all the demographic details and geographical distribution. RESULTS: We found 41 case reports eligible for analysis.The information was critically evaluated. From the analysis it was found that 7 of the case report mentioned the exact indication, 4 case report showed irrational use of thalidomide in the case of neuritis without use of steroids, 7 showed proper use of Clofazimine prior to thalidomide initiation, 26 case report showed case report of rationale dose range and in 4 case reports clofazimine was used prior to thalidomide along with the rational dose of thalidomide. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis helps to guide the rationale use of thalidomide focussing on few important points that anyone should keep in mind while managing a case of ENL.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CDVs) have become increasingly important for progressively older people living with HIV (PLHIV). Identification of gaps requiring improvement in the care cascade for hypertension, a primary risk factor for CVDs, is of utmost importance. This study analyzed the prevalence of hypertensive status and described the care cascade for hypertension screening, diagnosis, treatment, treatment adherence, and management in PLHIV. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 298 PLHIV (age >40 years) who visited a referral center in the western Brazilian Amazon. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire interview and medical examinations. Thus, information regarding sociodemographic and clinical aspects, blood pressure, weight, height, body mass index, and laboratory profile was obtained. Descriptive and analytical statistics were performed, and results were considered significant ifp <0.05. RESULTS: In total, 132 (44.3%) participants reported that their blood pressure was never measured. The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 35.9% (107/298). Of these 107 participants, only 36 (33.6%) had prior knowledge of their hypertensive status, and 19 of 36 (52.7%) participants had visited a physician or cardiologist to seek treatment. Adherence to the BP-lowering treatment was noted in 11 (10.2%) participants. CONCLUSIONS: An increased prevalence of hypertension was found, and most of the hypertensive participants were unaware of their hypertensive status. In addition, blood pressure control was poor in the study population. This indicated that public health professionals did not sufficiently consider the full spectrum of healthcare and disease management for PLHIV.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was approved for use in Turkey during the 2018-2019 influenza season. We evaluated beliefs regarding the vaccine and vaccination outcomes in a Turkish population. METHODS: Individuals who were vaccinated with the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine between November 1 and December 31, 2018, at the Sisli Hamidiye Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, were included in this study. A 15-item questionnaire was completed by a physician during a face-to-face interview with the participants. All participants were followed during the 2018-2019 influenza season through May 2019. The participants were instructed to consult the same physician in case of sudden illness. Participants’ beliefs and outcomes were assessed by their vaccination status for the 2017-2018 influenza season. RESULTS: A total of 150 participants were recruited. Their median age was 66 (range, 22-88) years. During the 2017-2018 influenza season, 4.1% had been hospitalized, 53.5% had developed an upper respiratory disease (URD), and 16.2% had been diagnosed with pneumonia. There were no cases of influenza, pneumonia, or hospitalization in the 2019 season; 49.3% of the participants developed a URD (n = 74). Among participants who had been vaccinated during both influenza seasons, 47.5% had had and/or developed a URD, with a higher number of cases during the 2018-2019 season. CONCLUSIONS: After vaccination, no cases of influenza, hospitalization, and pneumonia were observed and the incidence of URD decreased compared with that of the previous season.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma rangeli is a protozoan that infects several domestic and wild mammals and shows significant distribution in Latin American countries. T. rangeli infection is similar to Chagas disease, both in diagnostic and prophylactic terms. Thus, the objective of this work was to review the diagnostic aspects and use of T. rangeli as an immunogen for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. METHODS: For this elaboration, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were adopted with descriptors derived from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) platform in the PubMed/MEDLINE and SciELO databases. The inclusion criteria were defined as original articles on "Trypanosoma rangeli" and diagnostic aspects of T. rangeli infection in humans and/or research on the possible vaccines developed using T. rangeli strains for T. cruzi infection. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 articles were procured, of which 4 addressed research on the possible vaccines developed using T. rangeli for T. cruzi infection in vertebrates and the remaining 14 predominantly dealt with the diagnostic aspects of T. rangeli infection in humans. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we formulated a compilation of the essential literature on this subject, emphasizing the need for more accurate and accessible techniques for the differential diagnosis of infections caused by both protozoa, and underscored several prospects in the search for a vaccine for Chagas disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: It is believed that delays in diagnosis and treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) contribute significantly to the burden of VL lethality in Brazil. METHODS: This study included several parts: a descriptive cross-sectional study of the individual characteristics of deaths from disease; a descriptive ecological study of the spatial distribution of deaths from disease; and an ecological analytical study to evaluate the association between disease lethality rates and the demographic, socioeconomic, and health indicators. The study population comprised all cases diagnosed throughout the country per the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) and the total number of disease deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System (SIM) from 2007 to 2012. RESULTS: Of the 223 deaths from disease captured by pairing the databases, 59.1% were reported as "death from other causes". There were significant associations between VL lethality rate and municipalities with the highest proportion of vulnerable individuals (rate ratio (RR)=1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.27), with VL lower incidence rate (RR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.58-0.67) and a higher incidence rate of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (RR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.51). CONCLUSIONS: Linking the SINAN and SIM databases allowed the inclusion of 14% of otherwise underreported deaths from VL for the study period, showing that this method is useful for the surveillance of VL-related deaths. The size of the municipal population, proportion of the vulnerable population, incidence of disease, and the incidence of AIDS were associated with municipal lethality rates related to VL in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum. Considering the high rates of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis reported in Brazil in the past, and their serious consequences, this study described the epidemiological and clinical profile of pregnant women with a confirmed diagnosis of syphilis in Campo Grande, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from 2011 to 2017. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, based on syphilis notifications among pregnant women reported to the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (National System of Disease Notification of Brazil). RESULTS: Over the study period, 2,056 confirmed cases of syphilis in pregnancy were reported, resulting in a crude cumulative incidence of 144.76 cases per 1,000 live-born babies. The incidence increased from 9.97 cases per 1,000 live-born babies in 2011 to 36.10 cases per 1,000 live-born babies in 2017. It was more prevalent in women who were young, of mixed race, with low educational attainment. Over one third of women were diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy; therefore, they were at risk of reinfection if they or their sexual partners were inadequately treated. Furthermore, syphilis was not well classified according to its clinical stage, which led to inappropriate treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Despite efforts to reduce the incidence of syphilis, syphilis during pregnancy remains a public health problem, reflecting possible inadequacies in antenatal care, especially in vulnerable populations. It is important to include sexual partners in syphilis treatment during pregnancy to prevent reinfection.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Malaria case management is a pivotal intervention in malaria elimination. However, many remote areas in Brazil still lack access to basic health services. This study describes a community-based approach (CBA) for malaria case management in the large remote area of the Jaú National Park (JNP), Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS In 2001, a general health CBA was initiated with a motor group (MG); a participative community health diagnosis (PCHD) was subsequently implemented between 2001 and 2005. In 2006, a CBA for malaria case management started with an expanded MG including all sectors with a stake in malaria control, from the local residents to the federal government. In 2008, community microscopists were selected and trained to diagnose hemoparasites. A full malaria strategy was implemented in 2009 with subsequent quality control follow-up. RESULTS Two educational materials were co-created with local communities. The MG identified malaria as a major health problem and the malaria MG planned the control activities. Ten communities selected a resident to become malaria microscopists, and ten solar-operated health centers were built. The number of slide readings increased from 923 in 2006 to 1,900 in 2009, while malaria infections decreased from 354 cases in 2005 to 20 cases in 2015. The excess time (≥ 48 hours) between first symptoms and diagnosis/treatment decreased from 68.9% of cases in 2005 to 14.3% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS While many factors were likely involved in the reduction of malaria transmission in the JNP, the CBA played an important role in the sustained success of the initiative.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine risk factors (RFs) associated with the presence of antibodies against Leishmania in dogs from a rural area of Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 250 dogs and tested using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFATs). Data concerning dogs, their environment, and their owners’ knowledge of leishmaniasis were collected using a questionnaire. To determine RFs for contact with the parasite, univariate statistical analysis based on chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests, followed by logistic regression, was used. RESULTS: It was found that 79/250 (31.6%) of the dogs were positive by IFAT, and 72/250 (28.8%) by ELISA. A total of 82/250 dogs (32.8%) were positive in at least one test. The RFs associated with occurrences of Leishmania exposure were large body size (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.26-4.04; p = 0.003), presence of chickens (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.05-3.65; p = 0.023), and lack of knowledge about Leishmania among dog owners (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 0.96-3.21; p = 0.049). After multivariate analysis, the RFs for occurrence of Leishmania exposure in dogs that remained significantly associated were the dog’s size (large dogs) (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.06-1.35; p = 0.003) and presence of chickens on the properties (small farms) (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02-1.30; p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: These results may be useful for improving preventive practices to reduce the incidence of Leishmania exposure among dogs in rural areas.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Oral infection by Trypanosoma cruzi is currently the most important route of transmission of acute Chagas disease (ACD) in the North region of Brazil, and the reported outbreaks are usually related to ingestion of contaminated food, especially unprocessed açaí pulp. METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed to analyze the epidemiological profile of individuals with suspected cases of ACD in the municipality of Breves, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. Therefore, notifications of suspected cases of ACD were collected from the Municipal Health Department of Breves from January 2007 to December 2017. RESULTS A total of 265 individuals were registered, and the majority were male (54.7%; 145/265). Age ranged from nine months to 79 years, with a greater number of notifications for individuals aged between 1 and 39 years (71.3%; 189/265). Most of them had a low level of education (74.3%, 197/265), were living in rural and urban areas (58.9%; 156/265 and 37.7%; 100/265, respectively). Infection occurred mainly in the domestic environment (96.2%; 255/265) through oral transmission (98.1%; 260/265). There were a greater number of notifications in November, December and January. CONCLUSIONS These data showed that oral transmission of T. cruzi has become increasingly high in the study region, and health education programs need to be implemented as strategies to ensure good manufacturing practices of unprocessed food.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION In patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) gait disturbance is a predominant feature that leads to falls and fractures, which can further aggravate disability. We sought to evaluate the impact of fractures and orthopedic surgeries in patients with HAM/TSP. METHODS: We retrieved the medical records of HAM/TSP patients enrolled in our study center’s HTLV-1 clinical cohort between 1989-2018. The selection criteria included: (1) diagnosis of HTLV-1 infection using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and/or a confirmatory test, (2) clinical diagnosis of HAM/TSP by neurological assessment, and (3) fractures associated with HAM/TSP. RESULTS: We identified 24 cases of fractures, 70% of which were females. The median age at the time of fracture was 60 years (IQR=24). Six cases reported fractures in patients under 45 years old. Ten patients (42%) had hip/coccyx fractures, seven (29%) were in the lower extremities, and four (17%) in the upper extremities. Half of these patients reported the use of wheelchairs. Five patients who had previously used canes required the use of wheelchairs after the reported fracture. Eight patients underwent corrective orthopedic surgery as a result of the fracture. CONCLUSIONS: For HAM/TSP patients, fractures are a complication that can exacerbate their severe impairment.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is an endemic disease in Brazil, and integrated control actions have been adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health to control its spread. However, the transmission profile is unknown in areas with recent CVL cases, including Itaúna, located in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, where the present study was carried out. METHODS: A total of 2,302 dogs from 12 neighborhoods were serologically tested for canine VL using the current diagnostic protocol adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Test positivity rate (TPR) and CVL prevalence were determined for each neighborhood. The presence of Leishmania was assessed in 60 seropositive dogs which had been recommended for euthanasia. Twenty-two of them (37%) were asymptomatic, and 38 (63%) were symptomatic for CVL. Parasitological (myeloculture and smear/imprint) and molecular (PCR) methods were employed for Leishmania detection in bone marrow, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ear skin. The infecting Leishmania species was identified by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: CVL prevalence (per 1,000 dogs) varied from 0.0-166.67, depending on the neighborhood, with a mean of 68.96 (SD 51.38). Leishmania DNA was detected in at least one tissue from all seropositive dogs, with comparable TPR among tissues. Leishmania parasites were identified in most (54/60) seropositive dogs, and the infecting parasite was identified as Leishmania infantum in all of these. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CVL is a contributor to the spread of visceral leishmaniasis in Itaúna.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Curtailing the development of the aquatic immature stages of Aedes aegypti is one of the main measures to limit their spread and the diseases transmitted by them. The use of plant extracts is a promising approach in the development of natural insecticides. Thus, this research aimed to characterize the inhibitory effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Caryocar brasiliense leaves on the emergence of adult A. aegypti and the main substances that constitute this extract. METHODS: C. brasiliense leaf extract was prepared by ethanol (70%) extraction. Bioassays using L3 larvae were performed at concentrations of 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm. We identified the major secondary metabolites present in this extract, and performed toxicity tests on an off-target organism, Danio rerio. RESULTS: We observed a significant delay in the development of A. aegypti larvae mainly at a concentration of 500 ppm, and estimated an emergence inhibition for 50% of the population of 150 ppm. Moreover, the C. brasiliense leaf extracts exhibited low toxicity in D. rerio. The main compounds found in the extract were quercetin, violaxanthin, myricetin3-O-hexoside, methyl-elagic-3-arabinose acid, and isoquercitrin. CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we demonstrate the inhibition of mosquito development by the hydroalcoholic extract of C. brasiliense and suggest substances that may act as active principles.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Triatomine bugs are hematophagous insects that are extremely important in public health because they are natural vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. In this study, we aimed to assess the occurrence of triatomine species and the natural T. cruzi infection in the Guaribas Valley territory, an endemic region for Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil. METHODS Insects were actively captured from July 2017 to October 2019 in the intra- and peridomiciles of 16 municipalities of the Guaribas Valley territory, in the southeast area of Piauí state. Triatomine species were identified following a taxonomic key, and natural infection was investigated through insects’ fresh feces exams. RESULTS A total of 430 triatomines were collected, including 211 nymphs and 219 adults. Of all collected specimens, 39 (9.1%) were from the intradomiciles and 391 (90.9%) from peridomiciles. Nine species, including two subspecies, could be identified: Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis, T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, T. pseudomaculata, T. sordida, T. juazeirensis, T. melanocephala, Panstrongylus lutzi, Rhodnius domesticus, R. nasutus, and R. robustus. T. brasiliensis were the most frequently collected bugs, representing 72% of all the identified insects. None of the examined invertebrates presented flagellate forms of T. cruzi. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of T. b. macromelasoma and T. juazeirensis in the Guaribas Valley territory. The persistence of triatomine species in the domiciles in an endemic area for Chagas disease emphasizes the relevance of entomological surveillance and vector control measures in the studied area.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the genesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there is a process of endotheliitis associated with thrombotic changes, no studies have reported the use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as a possible therapeutic approach. Statins could potentiate the ASA therapy. METHODS: This is a series of 14 cases with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. All patients underwent the ASA therapy. Those who had risk factors for vascular disease also underwent the high-potency statin therapy. When symptoms were totally or practically resolved, patients were discharged and advised to continue medications for a complementary time, according to the clinical evolution of each patient. RESULTS: The mean age of monitored patients was 48.6 years. A total of 78.6% patients presented with at least one comorbidity, which could have contributed as a risk factor for a poor prognosis in the evolution of COVID-19. Four patients had secondary bacterial infections; three patients needed hospitalization. None of the cases progress to stage III, and all patients had remission of symptoms, with 100% survival. CONCLUSIONS: the process of endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 involves disseminated thrombosis, initially microvascular and later expansion into larger vessels. ASA could act as a secondary prophylaxis and prevent thrombosis from developing and reaching stage III of the disease. As this was a case series, we cannot provide definitive conclusions; however, this study allows us to formulate hypotheses and support clinical trials to evaluate benefits of the ASA therapy in the treatment of COVID-19.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the role of early public research funding regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: We examined the budget for research projects relating to the number of cases and deaths and the relationship between each federal unit, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and the national GDP per capita. RESULTS: Using data from the websites of official funding agencies and the Brazilian government, we found that, in the first four months since the first case in Wuhan, China (December 31, 2019), around US$ 38.3 million were directed to public funding for scientific investigations against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, only 11 out of 27 federal units provided funding during the initial stages of the outbreak, and those that did provide financing were not necessarily the units having the most inhabitants, highest GDP, or the greatest number of cases. The areas of research interest were also identified in the funding documents; the most common topic was “diagnosis” and the least common was “equipment for treatment.” CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian researchers had access to funding opportunities for projects against COVID-19. However, strategies to minimize the economic impacts of COVID-19 are crucial in mitigating or avoiding substantial financial and social shortcomings, particularly in terms of an emerging market such as Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related disease that affects people in 78 countries worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test performance using sensitive parasitological methods as a reference standard (RS) in individuals before and after treatment. METHODS The RS was established by combining the results of 16 Kato-Katz slides and the Helmintex® method. Positivity rates of the POC-CCA test and Kato-Katz and Helmintex® methods were calculated before treatment and 30 days afterward. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa coefficient before treatment were determined by comparing the methods. The cure rate was defined 30 days after treatment. RESULTS Among the 217 participants, the RS detected a total of 63 (29.0%) positive individuals. The POC-CCA test identified 79 (36.4%) infections. The evaluation of POC-CCA test performance in relation to the RS revealed a sensitivity of 61.9%, specificity of 74.0%, accuracy of 70.5%, and kappa coefficient of 0.33. Out of the 53 remaining participants after treatment, a total of 45 (81.1%) showed egg negative results, and 8 (18.9%) were egg positive according to the RS. A total of 5 (9.4%) egg-positive and 37 (69.8%) egg-negative individuals were positive by the POC-CCA test. CONCLUSIONS Our data show that the POC-CCA test has potential as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, yielding better results than 16 Kato-Katz slides from three different stool samples. However, the immunochromatographic test lacks sufficient specificity and sensitivity for verifying the cure rate after treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aim to compare spatial statistic models to estimate the spatial distribution of Zika and Chikungunya infections in the city of Recife, Brazil. We also aim to establish the relationship between the diseases and the analyzed geographical conditions. METHODS: The models were defined by combining three categories: type of spatial unit, calculation of the dependent variable format, and estimation methods (Geographical Weighted Regression [GWR] and Ordinary Least Square [OLS]). We identified the most accurate model to estimate the spatial distribution of the diseases. After selecting the model that provided best results, the relationship between the geographical conditions and the incidence of the diseases was analyzed. RESULTS: It was observed that the matrix of 100 meters (as the spatial unit) showed the highest efficiency to estimate the diseases. The best results were observed in the models that utilized the kernel density estimation (as the calculation of the dependent variable). In all models, the GWR method showed the best results. By considering the OLS coefficient values, it was observed that all geographical conditions are related to the incidence of Zika and Chikungunya, while the GWR coefficient values showed where this relationship was more noticeable. CONCLUSIONS: The model that utilized the combination of the matrix of 100 meters, kernel density estimation (as the calculation of the dependent variable) and GWR method showed the highest efficiency in estimating the spatial distribution of the diseases. The coefficient values showed that all analyzed geographical conditions are related to the illnesses’ incidence.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and clinical features of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are non-specific and establishing an accurate diagnosis remains a challenge. This study evaluated a Single tube nested-PCR (STNPCR) to detect genomic DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in blood and urine. METHODS: Biological samples were obtained from children (<15 years old) with clinical suspicion of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB at public hospitals in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Cultures yielded negative results in a majority of childhood TB cases, which are generally paucibacillary. A set of clinical, epidemiological, radiological, and laboratory criteria with evident clinical improvement after anti-TB treatment were frequently used to define childhood TB cases. RESULTS: Ninety children with clinical suspicion were enrolled in this study (44 with TB and 46 without TB). The pulmonary TB group had 20 confirmed cases and 46 negative controls, while the extrapulmonary TB group had 24 confirmed cases. The STNPCR showed sensitivities to pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB of 47.4% and 52.2% (blood) and 38.8% and 20% (urine), respectively. Considering the low performance of STNPCR on separate samples, we decided to perform a combined analysis (parallel sensitivity analysis) of the results from blood and urine samples. The parallel sensitivity increased to 65% in blood and 62.5% in urine. The specificity in both samples ranged from 93.5-97.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Although STNPCR showed moderate sensitivity, the specificity is high; therefore, the test can be used as an auxiliary tool to diagnose TB in children. It is a rapid test that demonstrated better performance than other diagnostic tests in paucibacillary samples as it does in childhood tuberculosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is lower than in adults. In Brazil, the diagnosis of PTB is based on a diagnostic score system (DSS). This study aims to study the role of Xpert in children and adolescents with PTB symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 referral centers to TB. Children and adolescents (0-19 years old) whose respiratory samples were submitted to Xpert were included. Statistical analysis (bivariate and logistic regression) to assess the simultaneous influence of TB-related variables on the occurrence of Xpert detectable in TB cases was done. To evaluate the agreement or disagreement between Xpert results with acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and cultures, κ method was used (significancy level of 5%). RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were included in the study and PTB occurred in 43 patients (49%) and Xpert was detectable in 21 patients (24%). Adolescents and positive culture results were independent predictive variables of Xpert positivity. DSS sensitivity compared with the final diagnosis of TB was 100% (95% CI, 88.1-100%), specificity was 97.2% (95% CI, 85.5-99.9%). The accuracy of the method was 98.5% (95% CI, 91.7-99.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Xpert contributed to diagnosis in 9% of patients with AFB and in culture negative cases. DSS indicated relevance for this diagnostic approach of intrathoracic TB (ITB) in reference centers for presenting data both with high sensitivity and specificity.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease in many countries in Latin America, including Brazil. As few studies have assessed snakebites in the Amazon region and especially in the state of Acre, epidemiological studies are of great importance. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites in the Rio Branco region, observing their characteristics in rural and urban areas and their correlation with rainfall and river outflow. METHODS This retrospective, descriptive study analyzed epidemiological information obtained from snakebite notifications registered on the Information System for Notifiable Diseases that occurred from March, 2018 to February, 2019. The cases of snakebite were correlated with rainfall and flow. RESULTS A total of 165 cases of snakebite were registered in the period. Most cases were caused by Bothrops and affected mainly individuals of the male sex who were between 21 and 30 years old. Most of the snakebites occurred in Rio Branco (71.52%; 29 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). Of these, 60.2% occurred in the urban area and 39.8% in the rural area and the majority occurred during the rainy season. CONCLUSIONS Although studies have shown that a majority of cases occur in rural areas, in this study, urbanization of snakebites was observed. The Bothrops genus was responsible for the highest number of snakebites and, during the rainy season, bites occurred more frequently. Educational prevention campaigns, population advice, and first aid in case of snakebites for the population are thus suggested.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) is a cosmopolitan species, with a widespread distribution and responsible for a great number of injuries caused by cnidarians worldwide, including Brazil. Geoprocessing technology, however, has never been used to assess the spatial distribution of these animals on beaches. The aim of this study was to carry out a health risk assessment of Portuguese man-of-war (P. physalis) envenomations on the São Marcos and Calhau beaches in São Luís city, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: This is a descriptive and quantitative study concerning primary data on the occurrence of the Portuguese man-of-war (P. physalis) and human envenomations in the studied places, conducted over a two-year period in São Luís, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. RESULTS: Envenomations mainly occurred on beaches presenting high density of P. physalis during the dry period. Vinegar has been incorporated as a first aid, according to recommendations set by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve prevention and control actions of human envenomation, risk areas for this type of envenomation should be clearly indicated as alert areas. Inclusion of the geographical location of the envenomation in the Notification/Investigation SINAN Form was suggested for allowing the continuity of studies involving this public health issue.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rapid and accurate tuberculosis detection is critical for improving patient diagnosis and decreasing tuberculosis transmission. Molecular assays can significantly increase laboratory costs; therefore, the average time and economic impact should be evaluated before implementing a new technology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost and average turnaround time of smear microscopy and Xpert assay at a university hospital. METHODS: The turnaround time and cost of the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis were calculated based on the mean cost and activity based costing (ABC). RESULTS: The average turnaround time for smear microscopy was 16.6 hours while that for Xpert was 24.1 hours. The Xpert had a mean cost of USD 17.37 with an ABC of USD 10.86, while smear microscopy had a mean cost of USD 13.31 with an ABC of USD 6.01. The sensitivity of smear microscopy was 42.9% and its specificity was 99.1%, while the Xpert assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The Xpert assay has high accuracy; however, the turnaround time and cost of smear microscopy were lower than those of Xpert.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil’s southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul (RGS), was considered schistosomiasis-free until 1998 when a low endemic focus was identified in Esteio, a city located next to the capital of RGS. In the last two decades, the control interventions applied in the region have been apparently successful, and the absence of new cases indicated the possibility of interrupted schistosomiasis transmission. The objective of this study was to update the clinical and epidemiological data of schistosomiasis in Esteio. METHODS: We reviewed all 28 individuals diagnosed with the infection since 1997 and a survey was applied to a group of 29 school-aged children residing in Vila Pedreira, one of the most affected neighborhoods. RESULTS No eggs were detected in fecal samples using the Helmintex method, and all samples were negative for serum antibodies on examination by the western blot technique using the Schistosoma mansoni microsomal antigen (MAMA- WB). In contrast, 23 individuals (79%) tested positive for the cathodic circulating antigen with the point-of-care immunochromatographic test (POC-CCA) on urine samples. Of the 28 formerly infected individuals, only eight were located, of which four tested positive, and four tested negative for serum antibodies using the MAMA-WB technique. CONCLUSIONS: Current adverse conditions for S. mansoni transmission in Esteio and the absence of a confirmed diagnosis suggests that there is (i) a lack of specificity of the POC-CCA test in low endemic settings, and (ii) a high probability that interruption of schistosomiasis has been achieved in Esteio.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION In Bolivia, before 1982 there were no records of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases that would allow us to review and describe the temporospatial occurrence of VL by ecoregions in provinces and departments of Bolivia to evaluate its impact on public health, risk of outbreaks, or dispersion. METHODS This update on VL in Bolivia is based on research, reviews, and retrospective literature analyses of online data and libraries and institutional reports, from 1939 to the present. RESULTS In Bolivia, 56 cases of VL have been reported. Until 2014, only three endemic departments had been identified (La Paz, Santa Cruz, and Tarija). Since then, further cases have been recorded in Pando, Cochabamba, and Beni, and in Chuquisaca in 2015. In Yungas, a VL focus was confirmed by isolating and comparing parasites from human and dog cases, and from the Lu. longipalpis vector. VL cases from seven departments, involving 12 different ecoregions were located within the Amazon and Plata basins. CONCLUSIONS We confirmed that dogs are its primary reservoir, and Lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector (currently dispersed in six departments). The primary vectors in areas where Lutzomyia longipalpis is absent are Migonemyia migonei and Lutzomyia cruzi.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil’s western Amazon basin has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the country. Coinfection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) is also endemic. To estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV markers in a population inhabiting the northwest portion of Mato Grosso state in the western Amazon. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in the Três Fronteiras District northwest of Mato Grosso. Anti-HBc-positive subjects were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Those positive for this marker were tested for HDV antibodies. Anti-HBc-negative participants were tested for anti-HBsAg. All tests were performed by EIA. RESULTS: A total of 623 individuals in the community were assessed; the majority (67.6%) were male, with a mean age of 30.8 ± 15.4 years. Two hundred and fourteen individuals (34.3%) were anti-HBc-positive, and 47 (7.5%) were HBsAg carriers. Only one individual was anti-HDV-positive. Among the 409 individuals without HBV infection, 18.3% were anti-HBsAg-positive. There was no association between HBV infection and known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study area had intermediate-to-high endemicity for HBV infection, but a low prevalence of HDV. Our serological results suggesting low vaccination-induced protection indicate a need for reinforced immunization programs in the populations of northwest Mato Grosso.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: We diagnose cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) among indigenous peoples of the state of Roraima, Brazil, and discuss some aspects of its epidemiology. METHODS: Skin imprints, and lesion exudate samples collected on filter paper were examined using parasitological and molecular techniques, respectively. RESULTS: Of 30 indigenous individuals, representing several ethnic groups, with suspected cases of CL, 27 (90%) tested positive for Leishmania spp. by PCR, and 21 (70%) by parasitological microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is indistinctly present among indigenous peoples from different regions of the state of Roraima. Individuals from seven of the ten existing ethnic groups in the state tested positive for CL, demonstrating the need for further investigation of the disease among these ethnic groups.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trachoma is the leading cause of blindness in the world, especially in undeveloped countries, due to its association with poor socioeconomic and sanitation conditions. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trachoma among students from the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, one of the poorest regions in Brazil, and to identify associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that utilized clinical evaluation and a socioeconomic questionnaire applied to a random and representative sample of elementary school students from the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Participants underwent conjunctival scraping and direct immunofluorescence was used to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Five or more elementary bodies in the conjunctival scrape was considered a positive result. In the study, 36.6% positive samples were detected. A culture of the conjunctival scrape, considered to be the "gold standard", was not performed due to cost and complexity. Bivariate analyses were performed, followed by binary logistic regression analysis to define the associated variables. RESULTS: In the present study, 478 students comprised the sample. The prevalence of trachoma was 6.3% and was higher among students who lived in unfinished houses (no plastering, painting, flooring, and unfinished bathrooms) (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.12-6.48) without sewage systems (OR = 9.49; 95% CI = 3.52-25.60) and studied in rural areas (OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.53-7.35). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of trachoma among the students aged 7 to 16 years old, from public and private schools, is not negligible and is especially associated with inadequate living conditions.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Patients with Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, present a higher risk of developing other chronic diseases, which may contribute to CD severity. Since CD is underreported in the southern state of Paraná, Brazil, we aimed to characterize clinical and epidemiological aspects of individuals chronically infected with T. cruzi in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A community hospital-based study was performed, recording clinical/demographic characteristics of 237 patients with CD from Southern Brazil. To estimate the association between different forms of CD and sociodemographic and clinical variables, multiple logistic regression models were built using the Akaike information criterion. RESULTS: Mean age was 57.5 years and 59% were females. Most patients’ (60%) place of origin/birth was within Paraná and they were admitted to the CD outpatient clinic after presenting with cardiac/digestive symptoms (64%). The predominant form of CD was cardiac (53%), followed by indeterminate (36%), and digestive (11%). The main electrocardiographic changes were in the right bundle branch block (39%) and left anterior fascicular block (32%). The average number of comorbidities per patient was 3.9±2.3; systemic arterial hypertension was most common (64%), followed by dyslipidemia (34%) and diabetes (19%); overlapping comorbidities were counted separately. Male sex was associated with symptomatic cardiac CD (OR=2.92; 95%CI: 1.05-8.12; p=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided greater understanding of the distribution and clinical profile of CD patients in Southern Brazil, indicating a high prevalence of comorbidities among these patients who are a vulnerable group due to advanced age and substantial risk of morbidity.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae.This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological, temporal, and spatial dynamics ofleprosy in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: This is an ecological study on new leprosy cases in the population of Arapiraca (Alagoas, Northeast Region, Brazil), from 2008 to 2017. Data extracted from a national database were analyzed forepidemiological indicators, factors associated with physical disabilities, and spatialanalysis in the neighborhoods of Arapiraca. RESULTS: A total of 292 new cases of leprosy were recorded, particularly occurring among the following groups: women, the age group of 46-59 years, brown-skinned individuals, people with less than eight years of schooling, and urban residents; the new cases were also predominantly the tuberculoid form and were of the paucibacillary classification of the disease. Almost 1/3 of the people had some degree of physical disability, which was mainly associated with the group 60 years of age and older, black ethnicity, and the multibacillary clinical form of leprosy. The joinpoint regression showed a stationary temporal behavior of indicators. There was a heterogeneous spatial distribution with active transmission areas, especially in the neighborhoods Primavera, Baixão, Ouro Preto, and downtown. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological indicators revealed complexity in the process of leprosy development. These spatial and temporal studies are relevant to help in the planning, monitoring, and guidance of interventions in the municipality. The spatial analysis showed heterogeneous distribution in the analyzed neighborhoods.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coccidioidomycosis, a disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii, is endemic in arid climatic regions in Northeast Brazil. Its prevalence is higher among young adult males living in rural areas. Existing literature about this disease in Ceará, a Northeast Brazilian state, are scarce. Here, we aimed to outline the clinical and epidemiological profiles, radiological patterns, and therapeutic responses of patients with coccidioidomycosis in a reference center in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS This is a descriptive study with quantitative analysis. Patients who underwent medical follow-up in São José Hospital of Infectious Diseases and received confirmed mycological diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis between January, 2007 and December 2017 were included. Epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and therapeutic response data were collected from medical charts. RESULTS Thirty patients were included. The patients were males with median age of 30 years, and 73% were considered to have high-risk exposure to Coccidioides owing to professional activities. Cough (96.7%), dyspnea (63.3%), fever (86.7%), and pleuritic pain (60%) were the most prevalent clinical manifestations. Interstitial pattern (91.3%) was the most frequent pulmonary radiological finding. Fluconazole, amphotericin B, and itraconazole were administered for treatment (in 82.1%, 42.8%, and 21.4% of cases, respectively). A favorable outcome was observed in 83.8% of patients. CONCLUSIONS Coccidioidomycosis was more prevalent in the central and southern regions of the State of Ceará. Understanding the local epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the disease, in addition to the pulmonary radiologic findings, may aid the early detection of coccidioidomycosis and facilitate early diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increasing incidence of syphilis among pregnant women (PS) and congenital syphilis (CS) has negatively affected maternal-child health in Brazil. The spatial approach to diseases with social indicators improves knowledge of health situations. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the spatiotemporal distribution of incidences, identify the priority areas for infection control actions, and analyze the relationship of PS and CS clusters with social determinants of health in Mato Grosso. METHODS: This is an ecological study with data from different health information systems. After data procedure linkage, we analyzed the Bayesian incidences of triennial infections during specific periods. We performed SATSCAN screenings to identify spatiotemporal clusters. Further, we verified the differences between the clusters and indicators using Pearson’s chi-square test. RESULTS: The variations in PS incidence were 0.9-20.5/1,000 live births (LB), 0.6-46.3/1,000 LB, and 2.1-23.2/1,000 LB in the first, second, and last triennium, respectively; for CS, the variations were 0-7.1/1,000 LB, 0-7.5/1,000 LB, and 0.3-10.8/1,000 LB in the first, second, and last triennium, respectively. Three clusters each were identified for PS (RR=2.02; RR=0.30; RR=21.45, p<0.0001) and CS (RR=3.55; RR=0.10; RR=0.26, p<0.0001). The high-risk clusters overlapped in time-space; CS incidence was associated with municipalities with a higher proportion of LB mothers of race/non-white color and with poor sanitary conditions, lower proportion of pregnant teenagers, and under 8 years of schooling. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in the spatiotemporal evolution of PS and CS incidences and the extension of areas with persistent infections indicate the need for monitoring, especially of priority areas in the state.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Achieving viral suppression (VS) in children is challenging despite the exponential increase in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated VS in children >1 year of age and adolescents 5 years after they had begun ART, in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naive children >1 year of age between 1999 and 2016 were eligible. Analysis was stratified by age at ART initiation: 1-5 y, >5-10 y, and >10-19 y. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were assessed on arrival at the clinic, on ART initiation, and at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years after ART initiation. The primary outcome was a viral load <50 copies/mL 5 years after ART initiation. RESULTS: Ultimately, 121 patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years (SD 3.5), mean CD4% was 17.9 (SD 9.8), and mean viral load was 4.6 log10 copies/ml (SD 0.8). Five years after ART initiation, the overall VS rate was 46.9%. VS by patient age group was as follows: 36.6% for 1-5 y, 53.3% for >5-10 y, and 30% for >10-19 y. Almost all children (90,4%) showed an increase in CD4%+ T cell count. There were no statistically significant predictors for detecting children who do not achieve VS with treatment. VS remained below 65% in all the evaluated periods. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable immunological improvement is seen in children after ART initiation. Further efforts are needed to maintain adequate long-term VS levels and improve the survival of this vulnerable population.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, caused by infection from Schistosoma mansoni, is a disease that represents an important public health problem for Brazil, especially for states in the Northeast region. Thus, the aim of this study is to present a new epidemiological profile for the disease in a municipality with low prevalence in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through a coproparasitological and malacological survey. A structured questionnaire was applied to the study participants to survey possible risk factors and a spatial analysis (kernel density) was used to measure the risk of infection. RESULTS: Of the 347 participants, 106 (30.5%) were infected by Schistosoma mansoni, most of them from the urban area of the municipality (68.9%; 73/106). A 3-fold risk of infection was found for individuals living in the urban area and a risk of 2.15 times for self-declared farmers. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were the species found in the municipality, but no animals were diagnosed as infected by the parasite. Spatial analysis showed a random distribution of vectors and human cases of the disease, and the formation of two clusters of human cases in the urban area was seen. CONCLUSIONS: A new epidemiological profile for schistosomiasis from S. mansoni infection was presented in a municipality of low endemicity: a high proportion of positive individuals in the urban area; presence of snails without positive diagnosis for S. mansoni infection; random distribution of vectors and human cases; and absence of association between classical risk factors and human infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Antibiotic resistance in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is acquired and disseminated mainly by plasmids. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase genes, analyze the genetic diversity by ERIC-PCR, and examine the most common plasmid incompatibility groups (Incs) in clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae from colonization and infection in patients from a hospital in Brazil. METHODS Twenty-seven isolates of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were selected and screened for the presence of carbapenemase genes and Incs by PCR, followed by amplicon sequencing. RESULTS The bla KPC and bla NDM genes were detected in 24 (88.8 %) and 16 (59.2 %) of the isolates, respectively. Thirteen isolates (48.1 %) were positive for both genes. The IncFIB (92.6 %) and IncQ (88.8 %) were the most frequent plasmids, followed by IncA/C, IncHI1B, and IncL/M, indicating that plasmid variability existed in these isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IncHI1B in Brazil. We found eight isolates with clonal relationship distributed in different sectors of the hospital. CONCLUSIONS The accumulation of resistance determinants, the variability of plasmid Incs, and the clonal dissemination detected in K. pneumoniae isolates demonstrate their potential for infection, colonization, and the dissemination of different resistance genes and plasmids.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with healthcare-related infections, affecting mainly patients with underlying diseases and immunosuppression. This microorganism has several virulence mechanisms that favour its pathogenesis, including the production of biofilm. This study aimed to analyze the phenotypic production of biofilms, the occurrence of quorum sensing (QS) genes, and the clonal profile of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from colonized/infected patients in a tertiary hospital in Recife-PE. METHODS: We obtained 21 isolates that were classified as infection isolates (II), and 10 colonization isolates (CI). The phenotypic analysis for biofilm production was performed quantitatively. The QS genes were detected by specific PCRs, and the clonal profile was assessed using ERIC-PCR. RESULTS: Of the 31 isolates, 58.1 % (18/31) were biofilm producers, of which 70 % (7/10) were CI and classified as weakly adherent; 52.4 % (11/21) of the II produced biofilms, and were classified as weak (38.1 %, (8/21)), moderate (9.5 %, (2/21)), and strongly adherent (4.8 %, (1/21)). All isolates harbored the QS genes analyzed. In the clonal analysis, 26 distinct genetic profiles were identified, highlighting the presence of a clone in four samples, i.e., one infection isolate, and 3 colonization isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of biofilm formation is important in P. aeruginosa in addition to the identification of colonization and infection isolates, especially from complex environments such as ICUs. Further, we define a strategy for monitoring and analyzing P. aeruginosa strains that can potentially cause infections in hospitalized patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This work aims to develop a biomathematical transmission model of COVID-19, in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, to estimate the distribution of cases over time and project the impact on the spread of the epidemic outbreak due to interventions and control measures over the local population. METHODS: This is an epidemiological mathematical modeling study conducted to analyze the dynamics of the accumulated cases of COVID-19, which used a logistic growth model that adds a term of withdrawal of individuals as a control measure. Three possible COVID-19 propagation scenarios were simulated based on three different rates of withdrawal of individuals. They were adjusted with real data of the infected and measures of control over the population. RESULTS: The lockdown would be the best scenario, with a lower incidence of infected people, when compared to the other measures. The number of infected people would grow slowly over the months, and the number of symptomatic individuals in this scenario would be 40,265 cases. We noticed that the State of Sergipe is still in the initial stage of the disease in the scenarios. It was possible to observe that the peak of cases and the equilibrium, in the current situation of social isolation, will occur when reaching the new support capacity, at the end of August in approximately 1,171,353 infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: We established that lockdown is the intervention with the highest ability to mitigate the spread of the virus among the population.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Five months after the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Brazil, the country has the second highest number of cases in the world. Without any scientifically proven drug or vaccine available combined with COVID-19’s high transmissivity, slowing down the spread of the infection is a challenge. In an attempt to save the economy, the Brazilian government is slowly beginning to allow non-essential services to reopen for in-person customers. METHODS: In this study, we analyze, based on data analysis and statistics, how other countries evolve and under which conditions they decided to resume normal activity. In addition, due to the heterogeneity of Brazil, we explore Brazilian data of COVID-19 from the State Health Secretaries to evaluate the situation of the pandemic within the states. RESULTS: Results show that while other countries have flattened their curves and present low numbers of active cases, Brazil continues to see an increase in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, a number of important states are easing restrictions despite a high percentage of confirmed cases. CONCLUSIONS: All analyses show that Brazil is not ready for reopening, and the premature easing of restrictions may increase the number of COVID-19-related deaths and cause the collapse of the public health system.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Among patients with Chagas disease, men have a higher risk of worse pathological symptoms than women. We aimed to explore the role of the Y chromosome in men diagnosed with Chagas disease and assess the relationship between their ancestry and disease status. METHODS In this comparative study, we analyzed 150 men with unrelated non-chagasic disease (nCD) and 150 men with unrelated chagasic disease (CD). We assessed the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease, biochemical parameters, thoracic X-rays, electrocardiogram, and transthoracic echocardiography and determined the haplogroup by analyzing a set of 17 microsatellites from the Y chromosome. We examined the associations between common Y chromosome haplogroups and the clinical parameters of risk by logistic regression. RESULTS For all patients, the most common haplogroups were R1b (43%), G2a (9%), and E1b1b (9%). The R1b and G2a haplogroup was more frequent in men with nCD and CD, respectively. As expected, we observed a high proportion of symptomatic patients in the CD group independent of the haplogroups. Men from both groups classified as having the R1b haplogroup showed less clinical evidence of disease. Multivariate analysis showed that CD patients without R1b were about five times more likely to have a cardio-thorax index >0.5% (OR [odds ratio] = 5.1, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 3.31-8.17). Men without the R1b haplogroup were 2.5 times more likely to show EcoCG alterations (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 0.16-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided evidence that the R1b haplogroup may have a potential protective cardiovascular effect for its carriers.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas cardiomyopathy (ChC) is highly stigmatized, and the presence of depressive symptoms may be a common feature. However, its determinants remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the prevalence of depression and the clinical, echocardiographic, functional, and quality of life factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with ChC and predominantly preserved cardiac function. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with ChC (aged 40 to 60 years, 66% men, NYHA I-III) were evaluated by echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and Mini-Mental State Examination. Physical activity level was assessed using the Human Activity Profile (HAP) and health-related quality of life was assessed using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory. A cutoff point greater than 9 was indicative of depression. RESULTS: Depression was detected in 13 patients (37%). In the univariate analysis, female sex, NYHA functional class, body mass index, HAP score, mental summary of SF-36, peak oxygen uptake, and 6MWT distance were associated with depressive symptoms. The final model showed that only the HAP score (B = -0.533; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.804 to -0.262) and SF-36 mental summary (B = -0.269; 95% CI: -0.386 to -0.153) remained as independent predictors of depressive symptoms in patients with ChC. CONCLUSIONS: Depression was prevalent in patients with ChC and predominantly preserved cardiac function. Physical activity and mental health were independent risk factors for depressive symptoms.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species, as human pathogens, are increasing in the world, as is the difficulty of accurately identifying them. Differential diagnosis, especially between the M. tuberculosis complex and NTM species, and the characterization of NTM species is important. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a molecular system based on multiplex real-time PCR with high-resolution melting (HRM) for the identification and differentiation of NTM species of clinical importance of an endemic area for tuberculosis in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: The technical protocol of the molecular system was based on multiplex real-time PCR-HRM, and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of NTM species in mycobacterial clinical isolates from the studied region. The gold standard method was specific gene sequencing. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of multiplex real-time PCR-HRM modified for differentiation between NTM and M. tuberculosis were 90% and 100%, respectively. The PCR-HRM sensitivities for the characterization of NTM species (M. kansasii, M. abscesses, M. avium, and M. fortuitum) were 94.59%, 80%, 57.14%, and 54%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The multiplex real-time PCR-HRM modified assay has the potential to rapidly and efficiently identify nontuberculous mycobacteria of clinical importance, which is crucial for immediate implementation of the appropriate therapy and thus avoiding complications and sequelae in patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Contaminated hospital environments contribute to the transmission of microorganisms associated with healthcare. Contaminated surfaces handled by patients or healthcare professionals are a source of microorganism transmission by hand. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus bacteria are among the main agents responsible for increasing healthcare-associated infections in Brazil and worldwide. METHODS: The objective of this study was to screen and characterize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. on surfaces near patients in an intensive care unit. Microbiological samples, collected from ten beds in an intensive care unit with five sampling sites, were inoculated into a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus chromogenic medium. MALDI-TOF and PCR analyses were used to identify the bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion test. The presence of the mecA gene was investigated using PCR. RESULTS: We observed that 44 out of the 50 sampling sites presented grown isolates in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus medium. The incidence of isolated microorganisms on the right side rail, left side rail, tables, infusion pump keypad, and cardiac monitor were 18.8 %, 36.7 %, 10.9 %, 2.4 %, and 31 %, respectively. The 42 isolates included in this study were identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. All of these microorganisms were multidrug-resistant and mecA gene-positive. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the presence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus on the beds of an intensive care unit, providing evidence for the necessity of assertive actions to decrease the risk of healthcare-associated infections at the site.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biomphalaria snails may display varying levels of susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni infection. We have been developing an in vitro model to study the interaction between the snail and the parasite, using tissue-derived cell cultures from Biomphalaria. METHODS: The digestive gland- and kidney-derived cells from primary cultures of resistant (B. tenagophila Taim) and susceptible (B. tenagophila HM and B. glabrata BH) strains of Biomphalaria were exposed to S. mansoni sporocysts. RESULTS: S. mansoni sporocysts were surrounded and encapsulated exclusively by cells derived from the digestive gland (DG) of B. tenagophila Taim. The process was followed by a marked decrease in the number of free sporocysts in the culture medium. The morphological characteristics of DG-derived cells in culture have been described. CONCLUSIONS: Cells derived from DG (but not SK) primary cultures of B. tenagophila Taim may participate in S. mansoni sporocyst control.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rabies is a major and seriously neglected public health problem worldwide. A treatment consisting of supportive therapy with the use of drugs that show antiviral activity is called the Milwaukee Protocol. In Brazil, this protocol was adapted to the national reality and called the Recife Protocol. In this study, we compared the Milwaukee Protocol with the Recife Protocol, assessing the differences and how these differences may change the course of clinical management. METHODS We searched electronic databases for the use of anti-rabies treatments. A total of 65 articles were published between 2004 and 2019. RESULTS: The protocols have similarities in care related to rabies patients and are important for the treatment of patients in intensive care units. Both protocols indicate deep sedation, antiviral use, constant concern with electrolyte balance, and vasoconstriction related to the condition. Many differences were observed in this study. For the Milwaukee Protocol, sedation should be gradually removed after the eighth day, and on the twelfth day, the patient should be without sedation. In the Recife Protocol, in order to avoid immunomodulation, it is recommended to remove sedation according to the titers of neutralizing antibodies to the rabies virus in the cerebral spinal fluid. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the differences and similarities raised, our findings indicate that these protocols require a large center for rabies treatment, but the disease most often occurs in places where resources and hospital infrastructure are scarce.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen causing healthcare-associated infections. Owing to the restricted use of beta-lactams in MRSA infections, non-beta-lactam antimicrobials are required for treatment. However, MRSA can develop resistance mechanisms to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials, which reduces viable treatment options. Here, we evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance genes of MRSA isolated from hospitalized patients in South Brazil. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibilities of hospital MRSA (217) isolates were determined by disk diffusion or microdilution methods. Additionally, the presence of 14 resistance genes and SCCmec typing was performed by PCR. RESULTS: Among the antimicrobials tested, we observed high erythromycin (74.2%), ciprofloxacin (64.5%), and clindamycin (46.1%) resistance rates and complete susceptibility to linezolid and vancomycin. Seventeen different patterns of MRSA antimicrobial resistance were observed, of which 42.9% represented multidrug resistance. Among erythromycin-resistant MRSA, 53.4%, 45.3%, 37.9%, 13.0%, and 6.8% carried ermA, msrA, msrB, ermC, and ermB genes, respectively. Among clindamycin-resistant MRSA, 83%, 17%, 10%, 4%, and 2% carried ermA, ermC, ermB, linA, and linB genes, respectively. Among gentamicin-resistant MRSA, 96.8%, 83.9%, and 9.7% carried aac(6')/aph(2''), aph(3’)-IIIa, and ant(4’)-Ia genes, respectively. Among tetracycline-resistant MRSA, 6.5% and 93.5% carried tetK and tetM genes, respectively. Lastly, among trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant MRSA, 13.3% and 100% carried dfrA and dfrG genes, respectively. The SCCmec type IV isolates were detected more frequently, whereas the SCCmec type III isolates exhibited higher multidrug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The study data provides information regarding the MRSA resistance profile in South Brazil that is associated with the clinical conditions of patients and can contribute to clinical decision-making.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic. In Brazil, 110 thousand cases and 5,901 deaths were confirmed by the end of April 2020. The scarcity of laboratory resources, the overload on the service network, and the broad clinical spectrum of the disease make it difficult to document all the deaths due to COVID-19. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate in Brazilian capitals with a high incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: We assessed the weekly mortality between epidemiological week 1 and 16 in 2020 and the corresponding period in 2019. We estimated the expected mortality at 95% confidence interval by projecting the mortality in 2019 to the population in 2020, using data from the National Association of Civil Registrars (ARPEN-Brasil). RESULTS: In the five capitals with the highest incidence of COVID-19, we identified excess deaths during the pandemic. The age group above 60 years was severely affected, while 31% of the excess deaths occurred in the age group of 20-59 years. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.94) between excess deaths and the number of deaths confirmed by epidemiological monitoring. The epidemiological surveillance captured only 52% of all mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in the cities examined. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the simplicity of the method and its low cost, we believe that the assessment of excess mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic should be used as a complementary tool for regular epidemiological surveillance.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Congenital infection by the Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for severe abnormalities in the development of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the ability of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) to detect patterns of involvement of the central nervous system in congenital ZIKV syndrome. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CT and MR images from 34 patients with congenital ZIKV syndrome and evaluated the differences between the two methods in detecting alterations. RESULTS: The predominant radiographic finding was a simplified gyral pattern, present in 97% of cases. The second most common finding was the presence of calcifications (94.1%), followed by ventriculomegaly (85.3%), dysgenesis of the corpus callosum (85.3%), craniofacial disproportion and redundant scalp (79.4%), complete opercular opening (79.4%), occipital prominence (44.1%), cerebellar hypoplasia (14.7%), and pontine hypoplasia (11.8%). The gyral pattern was extensively simplified in most cases, and calcifications were located predominantly at the cortical-subcortical junction. CT was able to better identify calcifications (94.1% × 88.2%), while MRI presented better spatial resolution for the characterization of gyral pattern (97% × 94.1%) and corpus callosum dysgenesis (85.3% × 79.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital ZIKV syndrome does not present pathognomonic neuroimaging findings, some aspects, such as calcifications at the cortical-subcortical junction, especially when associated with compatible clinical and laboratory findings, are suggestive of intrauterine ZIKV infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil has a high number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the north and northeast regions. Therefore, continuous surveillance of environmental and socioeconomic factors in endemic areas is needed to develop strategic control measures. This study aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiological profiles of patients with ACL. METHODS: All patients were from the states of Amazonas and Pernambuco, and examinations were carried out between 2015 and 2018. All patients had a clinical and epidemiological history compatible with ACL after positive diagnostic tests. Information obtained from medical records included gender, employment activity, level of education, age, and number and sites of lesions. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients were included, of whom 30.98% were female and 69.02% were male. The main employment activity was agriculture (27.56%). The most common level of education was elementary (62.42%). The average age was approximately 39 years. The majority of the patients presented only with one lesion (54.87%), and legs/feet were the most commonly affected area (48.25%), followed by the arms/hands (44.75%). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that irrespective of the patients’ places of origin, interventions need to be focused on men of economically productive age, in view of the high risk of exposure to the vector in this group. Education activities need to be directed to farmers about the importance of protection against ACL vectors during work. Such information must also be directed to employers as a way of implementing and maintaining appropriate working conditions and stepping up vector control.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of triatomine bloodmeal sources is essential for understanding vector-host interactions in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. Expensive commercial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction kits are widely used for bloodmeal identification. This study assessed the performance of an inexpensive phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocol for identification of triatomine bloodmeal sources, comparing it with a commercially available kit. METHODS: Both methods were used to obtain DNA from the intestinal contents of Triatoma brasiliensis blood-fed on either Columba sp., Mus musculus, or Gallus gallus. Subsequently, the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and compared with GenBank data. RESULTS: Twelve (80%) samples extracted with the commercial kit and four (26.7%) with phenol-chloroform were pure (according to the A260/A280 ratio). Samples extracted with phenol-chloroform, except for Columba sp. samples, had higher DNA concentration than those extracted with the commercial kit. Samples extracted using phenol-chloroform and blood-fed on G. gallus had significantly higher DNA concentration than those blood-fed on Columba sp. (p-value <0.001) and M. musculus (p-value <0.001). The 215-base-pair 12S rRNA fragment was amplified from all samples and produced reliable sequences, enabling the identification of the bloodmeal source, most of which showed identity and coverage above 95%. The phenol-chloroform method was much less expensive than the commercial kit but took considerably more time to perform. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that both DNA extraction methods produced reliable sequences enabling identification of triatomine bloodmeal sources but differed greatly in cost and time required.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION In leprosy, immune system mediators that regulate the infectious process act in a complex manner and can lead to several clinical outcomes. To understand the behavior of these mediators we quantified the expression of annexin-A1 (ANXA1) in the peripheral blood and plasma as well as tissue leukocytes in all clinical forms of leprosy and compared with healthy controls. METHODS Seventy healthy controls and 70 patients with leprosy, tuberculoid (TT) (n = 13), borderline tuberculoid (BT) (n = 15), borderline borderline (BB) (n = 13), borderline lepromatous (BL) (n = 15), and lepromatous leprosy (LL) (n = 14), were selected. Phenotyping of the lymphocyte cells and the intracellular expression of ANXA1 in leukocytes was performed by immunofluorescence. Plasma protein levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Histiocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the skin of BL and LL patients had higher ANXA1 expression. ANXA1 expression was also high in circulating polymorphonuclear, monocytes, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the blood of LL patients compared to those of TT, BT, BB, and BL patients, and these levels were similar to those in healthy controls. Plasma ANXA1 levels indicate an increase in paracrine release in patients with LL. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that ANXA1 expression is enhanced in the leukocytes and plasma of patients with LL, and may contribute to the inhibition of leukocyte action, leading to inadequate functioning of the immune system and thus contributing to the spread of M. leprae infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Congenital syphilis is considered a severe public health problem because it accounts for approximately 40% of the perinatal mortality rates, 25% of stillbirths, and 14% of neonatal deaths, in addition to causing severe consequences for the fetus. This study aimed to describe the rates of congenital syphilis in children under one year of age in Brazilian capitals from 2009 to 2016. METHODS: Ecological time series study, using rates of congenital syphilis in children under one year of age and living in Brazilian capitals. The Prais-Winsten regression model was used to assess the trend. RESULTS: A total of 44,056 cases of congenital syphilis in children under one year of age were reported in Brazilian capitals between 2009 and 2016. The highest rate of congenital syphilis in children under one year of age occurred in 2016 in Porto Alegre (31.07/1,000 live births). The Northeastern capitals showed high rates, particularly the capital Recife (23.67/1,000 live births). CONCLUSIONS: Congenital syphilis represents a major challenge for public policies. The need for improvements in the quality of prenatal care is highlighted, as it is essential to reduce the alarming rates.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: A good rating of the device in people with HTLV-1 in this population is essential for accuracy in prescribing data (walking). Thus, this study aimed to analyze the counterpart assessment methods that are best suited to patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). METHODS: This cross-sectional study related stabilometric and kinematic variables of postural oscillations with Berg’s balance scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) in subjects with HAM/TSP compared to asymptomatic subjects. To assess the posterior and lateral postural projection, baropodometry and the Footwork® system was used, and the CVMob system was applied to kinematic parameters. The means comparison tests and correlations were applied with an alpha of 5%. RESULTS: Thirty-nine subjects (predominantly female) made up the sample. There was an increase in barodopometric oscillations, in the total oscillation area (p = 0.004), in the anteroposterior oscillation in the left (p = 0.015) and right views (p = 0.036), and in the lateral oscillation (p = 0.039) in the HAM/TSP group. Moderate correlations were found between oscillation baropodometry and the angular variation of the ankle, as well as with the BBS in the three angles and the TUG for lateral oscillation (p = 0.406). CONCLUSIONS: Each method has advantages and disadvantages, including cost accuracy. The best resources available at no additional cost for outpatient to use are the kinematic evaluation using a simple smartphone camera and free analysis software, and the TUG.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Haemagogus are mosquitoes with diurnal habits that live preferentially in forest areas. In Brazil, they are considered the primary vectors of wild yellow fever. METHODS: The ecological relationships between Haemagogus spegazzinii, the environment, and some of its activities in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte were analyzed by collecting eggs with ovitraps, actively searching in tree holes, capturing adults in Shannon traps, and conducting an investigation for viral infections. RESULTS: A total of 2420 eggs, 271 immature specimens (larvae and pupae), and 206 adults were collected. Egg collection depended on rainfall and relative humidity, with oviposition occurring between January and May. Larvae were found in five plant species, including Tabebuia aurea (craibeira), with 160 larvae collected. We observed shared breeding sites between Hg. spegazzinii and the following species: Aedes albopictus, Aedes terrens, Culex spp., and Toxorhynchites theobaldi. Adults exhibited greater activity between 5 pm and 6 pm, when 191 (92.7%) specimens were captured, while only 1 (0.5%) was collected between 7 pm and 8 pm. The relationship between Hg. spegazzinii and rainfall was significant, with positive correlations with accumulated rainfall 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 days before mosquito collection. We found that the species was infected with the DENV-2 virus. CONCLUSIONS: This work contributes new information on the bioecology of Hg. spegazzinii, with data on the main reproduction periods, oviposition, breeding sites, activity times, and the relationship between the species and meteorological variables in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION The Integrated Program of Leprosy Control was initiated in 2003 in the municipality of Buriticupu, Maranhão, Brazil, an area considered hyperendemic for leprosy. Here, we present the evolution of the indicators of leprosy within the established period in children aged <15 years. METHODS: This is a descriptive study based on an active search for cases and spontaneous healthcare demand for leprosy, with an evolutionary analysis of the detection coefficient of new cases. We considered individuals aged <15 years diagnosed with leprosy from January 2003 to December 2015. To evaluate the factors associated with clinical and operational forms, Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, or Fisher-Freeman-Halton tests were performed. RESULTS A total of 61 new cases were detected (6.9% of the total leprosy cases diagnosed in the municipality during the study period), and the majority was found in males (62.3%). The most frequent operational classification was paucibacillary (67.2%), and this association increased with age. The tuberculoid clinical form was the most prevalent in both sexes and in the age range of 10 to <15 years. There was a reduction in the detection coefficient from 21.84/100,000 inhabitants in 2003 to 2.79/100,000 in 2015. CONCLUSIONS Despite the progress in the control of leprosy, this historical series shows that it is necessary to strengthen educational measures and implement control actions, so that the disease ceases to be a public health problem in the population aged <15 years.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has greatly challenged public health worldwide. A growing number of studies have reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. We performed a systematic review of GI symptoms associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as of the serum levels of biomarkers related to liver function and lesion in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. METHODS: We surveyed relevant articles published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese up to July, 2020 in the PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS, and BVS databases. Moreover, we surveyed potentially important articles in journals such as the NEJM, JAMA, BMJ, Gut, and AJG. RESULTS: This systematic review included 43 studies, including 18,246 patients. Diarrhea was the most common GI symptom, affecting 11.5% of the patients, followed by nausea and vomiting (6.3%) and abdominal pain (2.3%). With regard to clinical severity, 17.5% of the patients were classified as severely ill, whereas 9.8% of them were considered to have a non-severe disease. Some studies showed increased aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels in a portion of the 209 analyzed patients and two studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that digestive symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients. In addition, alterations in cytolysis biomarkers could also be observed in a lesser proportion, calling attention to the possibility of hepatic involvement in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the Belém Metropolitan Region (BMR), Pará State, Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic; however, very little is known regarding its causative agents. Therefore, we used our standard diagnostic approach combined with an RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RNAPOIILS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to identify Leishmania spp. ACL agents in this region. METHODS: Thirty-two Leishmania spp. isolates from patients with ACL in the BMR during 1995-2018 were analyzed. Leishmania spp. DNA samples were amplified using the primers RPOR2/RPOF2, and the 615-bp PCR products were subjected to enzymatic digestion using TspRI and HgaI endonucleases. RESULTS: ACL etiological agents in the BMR comprised Leishmania (Viannia) lindenbergi (43.7%) followed by Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni (34.4%), Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (12.5%), and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (9.4%). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, the results of the study revealed for the first time that L. (V.) lindenbergi and L. (V.) lainsoni are the main ACL agents in BMR.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION The first Brazilian HIV treatment recommendation was put forward in 1996, resulting in 12 subsequent guidelines. Several changes were made regarding “when” and “how” to begin treatment. The latest guideline recommends immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study aimed to describe the evolution of HIV treatment among people living with HIV (PLHIV) who initiated ART between 2004 and 2018 based on the national guideline recommendations concerning T-CD4+ and VL measurements. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of data of PLHIV aged >18 years, in Minas Gerais who received ART between 2004 and 2018 was conducted. Clinical, therapeutic, and demographic information were obtained from national healthcare databases. The study was divided into four periods: 2004-2007, 2008-2012, 2013-2016, and 2017-2018. Descriptive analyses were performed. RESULTS A total of 60,618 PLHIV initiated ART (67% male and 48% aged 25-39 years), 36% of whom had CD4 counts at ART initiation and 51% documented VL after ART initiation. The median CD4 count ranged from 288 to 373 cells/µL. The median time to ART initiation decreased from 604 to 28 days and was lower among males (p <0.01). The median time from ART initiation to the first VL result decreased from 101 to 62 days over the study period, while the median VL after ART initiation ranged from 2.3 to 1.7 log10 copies/ml. CONCLUSIONS Although our results demonstrated that most recommendations were followed, there seemed to be little impact on CD4 counts and VL testing. This may result in an inadequate evaluation of ART effectiveness.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The state of Ceará (Brazilian Northeast) has a high incidence of dengue. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the temporal patterns and spatial distribution of dengue cases in Ceará during 2001-2019. METHODS: A spatiotemporal ecological study was performed with secondary data. Time-trend analysis was performed using a segmented log-linear regression model to estimate the average annual percentage change (AAPC) and the annual percentage change (APC) in incidence of dengue. We also performed spatiotemporal analysis to identify the place, time, and relative risk (RR) of dengue clusters. RESULTS: There were 539,653 dengue cases. The AAPC reduced over time (-9.5%; 95% confidance interval [CI]: -18.3; -0.3). Three trends were identified-2001-2004: APC=-20.9% (95% CI: -65.1 to 44.8), 2005-2015: APC=7.9% (95% CI: -6.0 to 98.9), and 2016-2019: APC=-48.8% (95% CI: -83.0 to -6.1). During 2001-2007, 10 significant clusters were identified (RR=3.57-14.38: n=4 and RR=0.05-0.39: n=6). During 2008-2013, there was 1 cluster in the western region (RR= 3.40) and four other clusters (RR=0.02-0.15). The last period presented 5 high-RR clusters (RR=2.95-9.24). The low-RR clusters were located in the central-north, central-south, south, and northwest regions. However, the central-west region remained a high-RR cluster region throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue showed a decreasing incidence. During the epidemic years, the southern, eastern, and western regions presented high-risk clusters. Introduction of a new dengue serotype in a low-RR area can cause explosive outbreaks due to population susceptibility.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Brazil that can become an epidemic during the rainy season resulting from floods in areas susceptible to natural disasters. These areas are widespread in Santa Catarina, particularly in the coastal region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify environmental, climatic, and demographic factors associated with the incidence of leptospirosis in the municipalities of Santa Catarina from 2001 to 2015, taking into account possible spatial dependence. METHODS: This was an ecological study aggregated by municipality. To evaluate the association between the incidence of leptospirosis and the factors under study (temperature, altitude, occurrence of natural disasters, etc.) while taking into account spatial dependence, linear regression models and models with global spatial error were used. RESULTS: Lower altitudes, higher temperatures, and areas of natural disaster risk in the municipality contributed the most to explaining the variability in the incidence rate. After taking spatial dependence into account, only the minimum altitude variable remained significant. The regions of lower altitude, where the highest rates of leptospirosis were recorded, corresponded to the eastern portion of the state near the coastal region, where floods, urban floods, and overflows are common occurrences. No associations were found concerning demographic factors. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of leptospirosis in Santa Catarina was associated with environmental factors, particularly low altitude, even when considering the spatial dependence structure present in the data. The spatial error model allowed for adequate modeling of spatial autocorrelation.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Semi-synthetic dillapiole compounds derived from Piper aduncum essential oil are used as alternative insecticides to control insecticide-resistant Aedes aegypti. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of semi-synthetic isodillapiole on the nuclei of neuroblasts (larvae) and oocytes (females) and the mean oviposition rates of the females over four generations (G1, G2, G3, and G4) of Ae. aegypti. METHODS: Larvae were captured in the city of Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil, and exposed to isodillapiole in bioassays (20, 40, and 60 µg/mL) and a negative control (0.05% DMSO in tap water) for 4 h. The cerebral ganglia were extracted from the larvae and oocytes from the adult females to prepare slides for cytogenetic analysis. Breeding pairs were established and eggs counts were quantified taken after the bioassays. RESULTS: The analysis of 20,000 interphase nuclei of neuroblasts and oocytes indicated significant genotoxicity (micronuclei, budding, polynucleated cells, and other malformations) compared to that of the control. Metaphasic and anaphasic nuclei presented chromosomal breaks; however, no significant variation and damage was observed in the negative control. A significant reduction in mean oviposition rates was also recorded following exposure to isodillapiole over the four generations (G1, G2, G3, and G4). CONCLUSIONS: The toxic and genotoxic effects of isodillapiole on Ae. aegypti were caused by reduced oviposition in the females and nuclear abnormalities over the four generations of the trials. Further studies are required, rather than our in vitro assays, to verify the efficacy of exposure to this compound for controlling Ae. aegypti.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars is a potentially useful tool for the control of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of a program based on insecticide-impregnated collars compared to traditional visceral leishmaniasis control strategies used in Brazil. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the Unified Health System, using data from the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program implemented in the municipality of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. The direct costs of the three control strategies, which were 1) canine infection screening + sacrifice, 2) residual chemical control of the vector, and 3) insecticide-impregnated dog collars (Scalibor®), were evaluated over the two-year study period. RESULTS: The total cost of the program in the area subjected to the traditional control strategies (strategies 1 and 2; control area) was R$ 1,551,699.80, and in the area subjected to all three control strategies (intervention area), it was R$ 1,898,190.16. The collar program was considered highly cost-effective at preventing canine visceral leishmaniasis (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately R$ 578 per avoided dog sacrifice). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for the decision by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2019 to provide insecticide-impregnated collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis in a pilot project.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: We report the results of the active surveillance of influenza infections in hospitalized patients and the evaluation of the seasonality and correlation with temperature and rainfall data. METHODS: During the 2-year study period, 775 patients were tested for 15 respiratory viruses (RVs). RESULTS: Most of the 57% of (n=444) virus-positive samples were human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. However, 10.4% (n=46) were influenza virus (80% FluA; 20% FluB). Age and SARI were significantly associated with influenza. FluB circulation was higher is 2013. CONCLUSIONS: In the post-epidemic period, influenza remains an important cause of hospitalization in SARI patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to document injuries caused by fish among professional fishermen in the Western Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: We undertook a descriptive, retrospective study, involving 51 professional fishermen, to determine clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic aspects of their injuries. RESULTS: Among 51 fishermen interviewed, most injuries were due to mandi (Pimelodus spp.), and the hands were the most injured region, resulting in pain and bleeding in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our study findings confirm the morbidity of fish-related injuries, and reaffirm the need for relevant information regarding prevention and injury management.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the main pathogens causing infection in intensive care units (ICUs) and usually presents antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data were obtained from ICUs between 2010 and 2013. RESULTS: P. aeruginosa had a prevalence of 14.5% of which 48.7% were multidrug resistant. We observed increasing resistance to carbapenems and polymyxin B and growing consumption of aminoglycosides, meropenem, ceftazidime, and polymyxin B. The regression impact between resistance and consumption was significant with respect to amikacin, imipenem, meropenem, and polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring antimicrobial consumption and resistant microorganisms should be reinforced to combat antimicrobial- and multi-drug resistance.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a major public health issue in Brazil. This ecological study aimed to evaluate the spatiotemporal distribution of notified new AIDS cases in Brazil between 2012 and 2016. METHODS: A Bayesian spatiotemporal model based on the Poisson distribution was used to obtain smoothed incidence estimates of AIDS in each of the 133 Brazilian intermediate regions. RESULTS: Spatial distribution of new AIDS cases is highly heterogeneous. Regions with higher gross domestic product per capita tend to have higher incidence rates of AIDS. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to prevent and control AIDS should consider regional differences.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii are opportunistic bacteria, highly capable of acquiring antimicrobial resistance through the production of carbapenemases and aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs). METHODS: Carbapenemase and AME genes were investigated in A. baumannii recovered from inpatients of a Brazilian hospital. RESULTS: The key genes found were bla OXA-51-like, the association ISAba1- bla OXA-23-like, and the AME genes aph(3´)-VI, aac(6´)-Ib, aac(3)-Ia, and aph(3´)-Ia. Different clusters spread through the institution wards. CONCLUSIONS: The dissemination of bla OXA-23-like and AME-carrying A. baumannii through the hospital highlights the need for improved preventive measures to reduce the spread of infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Oral transmission of acute Chagas disease is an emerging public health concern. This study aimed to detect insect fragments in experimentally contaminated food, by comparing triatomines with other insects. METHODS Food samples were experimentally contaminated with insects, processed to recover their fragments by light filth, and analyzed by microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Morphological differences between coleopteran and triatomine insects were observed in microscopic images. PCR was efficient in amplifying Triatominae DNA in the experimentally contaminated food. CONCLUSIONS: This methodology could be utilized by food analysts to identify possible insect contamination in food samples.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Colombia, there is insufficient epidemiological surveillance of zoonotic hemorrhagic viruses. METHODS: We performed a sero-epidemiological study in indigenous populations of Wayuü, Kankuamos, and Tuchin communities using Maciel hantavirus and Junin arenavirus antigens for IgG detection by ELISA. RESULTS IgG antibodies to hantavirus and arenavirus were found in 5/506 (1%) and 2/506 (0.4%) serum samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Arenavirus and hantavirus circulate in indigenous populations from the Colombian Caribbean region, and the results indicate that the indigenous populations are exposed to these zoonotic agents, with unknown consequences on their health, despite low seroprevalence.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmania infantum was considered to be absent from Amapá until 2017 when canine infection was detected. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which reservoir species are involved in transmission in this region. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2016, 86 samples from wild mammals and 74 from domestic dogs were collected in Wajãpi Indigenous Territory and were tested for the presence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Leishmania. RESULTS: The DNA of Le. infantum was detected in two rodent samples, Dasyprocta sp. and Proechimys cuvieri. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first evidence characterizing a sylvatic transmission cycle of Le. infantum in the State of Amapá.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among adolescents is increasing. This study aimed to analyze this current situation in Rio de Janeiro City. METHODS: This was a retrospective longitudinal study using secondary data from the National System of Notifiable Diseases database of cases in adolescents aged 13-19 years. RESULTS: There were 885 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases from 1978 to 2017 and 445 human immunodeficiency virus new cases from 2014 to 2017. Over time, sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases increase. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic in adolescents requires novel prevention policies.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reactions can develop when using anti-tuberculosis medication, and the effects of the drugs can also significantly hinder the treatment of patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 73 patients using two standardized questionnaires and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref. RESULTS: All patients reported the presence of adverse drug reactions, 71.6% of which are minor and 28.3% both major and minor. The global quality of life analysis showed that patients with tuberculosis have a good average (67.3%). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between quality of life and adverse drug reaction, educational level, and vulnerability.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important parasitic disease. We evaluated the epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in Governador Valadares, Brazil. METHODS: All cases of VL, registered by the municipal health department, were analyzed and georeferenced. RESULTS: The human mortality rate was 15% and canine seroprevalence rate was 29.0%. Higher numbers of canine VL cases correlated with higher incidence of human cases. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of canine seroprevalence, resurgence of the human disease, and correlation between canine and human VL reinforces the role of the dog in disease transmission within the municipality.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The genus Haemagogus Williston is restricted to Central America and North and middle of South America and it includes numerous species of yellow fever virus vectors. METHODS: Adult female and larvae mosquitoes were collected using hand aspirators and dipper and pipette, respectively. RESULTS: The first record of a species of Haemagogus and particularly of Haemagogus spegazzinii was from La Pampa, Argentina. With this registry, the number of species found in La Pampa province rises to 18. CONCLUSIONS: New information on breeding sites for the species and implications of this new record suggest a possible extension of distribution in the near future.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the spatial distribution of inappropriate post-exposure human rabies procedures in Ceará, Brazil, between 2007 and 2015. METHODS: The ecological study population was based on the records of post-exposure human rabies procedures from the Notification Disease Information System. We analyzed the data using the Moran Index (I) and the Moran Local Index. RESULTS: There were 222,036 (95.8%) records with inappropriate post-exposure human rabies procedures. There was heterogeneity in their spatial distribution, with two significant clusters in the northeast and northwest regions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help elaborate differentiated strategies to reduce unnecessary post-exposure human rabies procedures.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION We aimed to analyze the relationship between visceral leishmaniasis mortality and social determinants of health (SDH). METHODS This was an ecological study of all leishmaniasis-related deaths in Brazil, from 2001 to 2015. We analyzed 49 indicators of human development and social vulnerability. The association was tested using the classical and spatial regression model. RESULTS Mortality was associated with indicators that expressed low human development and high social vulnerability: lack of garbage collection, low schooling, unemployment rate, low per capita income, and income inequality (Gini index). CONCLUSIONS: There was an association between high mortality by leishmaniasis and low SDH.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of gonotrophic discordance in females of Culex quinquefasciatus in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Resting females were collected monthly for 8 months. Females of Cx. quinquefasciatus were identified, and their midgut and ovaries were dissected. RESULTS: Two hundred females were dissected, out of which, 27.5% were nulliparous and 57% were parous. Most females had no blood in the midgut, but gonotrophic discordance was found in 21% females. CONCLUSIONS: Females of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a high parity rate and gonotrophic discordance, which could favor the vector capacity of this species.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite the success of antiretrovirals, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfections continue to cause mortality. We investigated the prevalence of coinfections in women with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study. The coinfections investigated were syphilis, hepatitis B and C, toxoplasmosis, rubella, tuberculosis, and cytomegalovirus. RESULTS: Among the 435 women, 85 (19.5%) had coinfections. The most prevalent was HIV/syphilis, followed by tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and rubella. Additionally, 300 (96.2%) were seropositive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant progress in the treatment for people with HIV, coinfections continued to affect this population.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: We examined the ethnobiological perception of the population of the Alto Juruá region about different snake species, in terms of their dangerousness and manifestations of envenomation. METHODS: We interviewed 100 villagers who were active in the forests. RESULTS: Lachesis muta was considered the most venomous snake, and Bothrops atrox appeared to be the most feared snake species. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence, severity, and mortality of B. atrox bites and the severity and mortality of L. muta bites were the factors that contributed to these species being perceived as the most feared and venomous snakes.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate human exposure to Leishmania spp. infection and sandflies in an area endemic for the disease. METHODS: The presence of antibodies specific for Leishmania spp. and saliva of Lutzomyia spp. and that of L. infantum DNA in blood were evaluated. RESULTS: Antibodies against Leishmania spp. and sandfly saliva were observed in 20.8% and 37.7% of individuals, respectively. DNA of Leishmania spp. was amplified from the blood of one patient. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Leishmania spp. infection may be underdiagnosed in this area.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: HBV and HIV have identical transmission routes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV in HIV patients and to detect the presence of occult HBV infection. METHODS: All samples were tested for serology markers and using qPCR. RESULTS: This study included 232 individuals, out of which 36.6% presented with HBV markers and 11.8% presented with HBsAg or HBV-DNA, including 3 patients that showed OBI. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HBV among HIV patients. In addition, the results suggest that OBI can occur in patients with serological profiles that are indicative of past infection. Therefore, the application of molecular tests may enable the identification of infections that are not evident solely based on serology.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector responsible for the transmission of numerous arboviruses. Adultrap® has been developed to catch these insects. METHODS: We tested the effectiveness of capturing adults with and without one of the components of Adultrap®. RESULTS: The mean number of insects caught by the original trap was 1.25 (standard deviation = 1.28), while the average obtained with the modified trap was 8.88 (standard deviation = 3.44). The medians were statistically different (p = 0.001) according to the Mann-Whitney test. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of Adultrap® increased the average catch of Ae. aegypti by up to seven times.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study intends to describe a HIV intake screening strategy in recently incarcerated adults in Distrito Federal, Brasilia, Brazil. METHODS: We tested 455 recently incarcerated adults in Distrito Federal in 2016 using rapid tests (RT) applied to oral samples (OS). RESULTS: The estimated frequency of positive tests was 0.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34% to 2.24%). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings reveal the potential significance of detecting new HIV infection cases in a vulnerable population using point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by a parasite endemic to large areas of tropical and subtropical countries, is a growing public health problem. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were infected with Leishmania amazonensis and treated with extracts isolated from Annona mucosa. RESULTS: Treated groups had significantly reduced footpad swelling. The group treated intraperitoneally with hexane extract showed footpad swelling similar to groups treated with Pentamidine® and Glucantime®. Groups treated with dichloromethane extract and hexane extract presented the recovering phenotype associated with reduced parasite levels. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts of A. mucosa are promising sources of novel antileishmanial compounds.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Benznidazole is used for treating Chagas disease (CD). This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of benznidazole at a public hospital in Brazil’s Federal District. METHODS: Medical records were analyzed and ADRs were categorized by type, intensity, seriousness, and causality. RESULTS: Of the 62 patients who started benznidazole treatment for CD, 41 (66%) presented with 105 ADRs; 23 (37%) discontinued the treatment. Most reactions were classified as probable (81%), severe (63%), serious (67%), and dose-dependent (56%). CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of ADRs because of treatment withdrawal revealed the need for safer alternatives for CD treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and rheumatic disorders. Although the human platelet antigens (HPA) polymorphism are associated with HCV persistence, they have not been investigated in rheumatological manifestations (RM). This study focused on verifying associations between allele and genotype HPA and RM in patients with chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: Patients (159) with chronic hepatitis C of both genders were analyzed. RESULTS: Women showed association between HPA-3 polymorphisms and RM. CONCLUSIONS: An unprecedented strong association between rheumatological manifestations and HPA-3 polymorphism, possibly predisposing women to complications during the disease course, was observed.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatomine bugs are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. METHODS: Triatomine bugs were collected and identified following established protocols. In addition, infection with T. cruzi was detected by microscopic and molecular analysis. RESULTS: We captured an adult male specimen of the Eratyrus cuspidatus species that has not been reported in the state of Campeche. CONCLUSIONS: This finding provides new information on the distribution of E. cuspidatus in Mexico. However, more studies are needed to determine their epidemiological significance.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candida parapsilosis complex species differ from each other with regard to their prevalence and virulence. METHODS: The hydrolytic enzyme activity, biofilm production, and adhesion to epithelial cells were analyzed in 87 C. parapsilosis complex strains. RESULTS: Among the studied isolates, 97.7%, 63.2%, and 82.8% exhibited very strong proteinase, esterase, and hemolysin activity, respectively. All the C. parapsilosis complex isolates produced biofilms and presented an average adherence of 96.0 yeasts/100 epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Candida parapsilosis complex isolates showed different levels of enzyme activity, biofilm production, and adhesion to epithelial cells.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus, associated factors, and Epstein-Barr virus coinfection among adult residents of Manaus. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected blood samples from 136 individuals in a household survey in 2016. Prevalence ratios were calculated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus seroprevalences were 67.6% (95% CI: 9.7-75.6%) and 97.8% (95% CI: 95.3-100.0%), respectively. Coinfection was observed in 66.2% (95% CI: 58.1-74.2%) of participants. Bivariate analysis showed no statistical association. CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalences were high among participants and approximately 7 out of 10 individuals had cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus coinfection.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The larvicidal potential of Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. was studied against the early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston., Aedes aegypti Linn.,and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. because of the emergence of mosquito resistance to conventional synthetic insecticides. METHODS: At concentrations of 12.5-200 ppm, larvicidal activities were studied under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: After 24 h of exposure, the methanol extract of the roots recorded the highest larvicidal activity against An. stephensi, with LC50 and LC90values of 7.96 and 34.39 ppm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We are developing potent larvicidal compound(s) from S. costus for controlling the mosquito larval population.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Benzimidazoles are commonly used for the control of veterinary nematodes. Resistance to benzimidazoles has been associated with three single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-tubulin gene of common nematodes. However, these mutations are infrequent in the genus Ascaris spp. METHODS: In order to determine mutations associated with benzimidazole resistance in Ascaris suum, worms were collected from slaughtered pigs and a partial region of the β-tubulin gene was sequenced. RESULTS: All parasites showed the wildtype genotype for codons 167, 198, and 200 of the β-tubulin gene. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of genetic sequences associated with benzimidazole resistance in A. suum.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with toxoplasmosis among pregnant women. METHODS We followed an analytical observational study. From July 2016 to June 2017, 218 pregnant women were selected. The infection was detected through serological dosage of anti-T.gondii Immunoglobulin(Ig) M and IgG antibodies. RESULTS The seroprevalence was 35.8%; the factors associated with infection were consumption of non-drinking water, residence in an urban area, and threatened abortion during the current pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women is high. The risk factors are dependent on environmental determinants.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Previous studies that detected Paracoccidioides spp. DNA in soil taken from rural areas have shown this to be a valuable tool for ecological and epidemiological studies. This study reports the detection of Paracoccidioides spp. DNA in soil samples from an urban area of southern Brazil. METHODS: Sixteen soil samples were submitted to nested-PCR and the amplicons of a representative number of positive samples were sequenced. RESULTS: Paracoccidioides spp. DNA was found in 44% of samples. Four DNA amplicons were sequenced, showing 100% homology with P. brasiliensis. CONCLUSIONS: The southern Brazilian urban population is commonly exposed to the Paracoccidioides fungus.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human herpesvirus (HHV)-7 establishes a latent infection during the lifetime of the host and can reactivate after the primary infection, leading to lytic replication in immunosuppressed patients. METHODS: This study aimed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to identify HHV-7 serum antibodies and compare its performance with that of an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). RESULTS: Serum samples (n=102) were tested by IgG-IFA and by ELISA. IFA and ELISA showed IgG-positive results in 77 and 73 samples, respectively. Qualitative concordance of 96% was demonstrated between the two techniques. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA may be useful to diagnose HHV-7 infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are vector species responsible for the transmission of important arboviruses. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected in the urban areas of four municipalities in Mato Grosso within 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 19,110 mosquitoes were collected. Among them, 16,578 (86,8%) were C. quinquefasciatus (44% female and 56% male); 2,483 (13%), A. (Stegomyia) aegypti (54% female and 46% male); and 49 (0,30%), from the genus Psorophora, Anopheles, Coquilettidia, and Sabethes. A significant correlation was observed between the number of mosquitoes from all species and dew point (female mosquitoes, p = 0.001; male mosquitoes, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may be used as environmental indicators of mosquito populations.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The number of syphilis cases among pregnant women in Brazil has increased. This study aimed to analyze the temporal trend of syphilis indicators among pregnant women in Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A time-series study was performed. RESULTS: We observed an increase in the detection rate of syphilis among pregnant women, those aged 15-19 years, and those of brown ethnicity. A strong correlation was observed between the detection rate of syphilis and family health strategy coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increase in primary care coverage, The increase in cases of syphilis among pregnant women is still considered a challenge.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal gene initial region is used to identify Leptospira isolates at the species level from clinical samples. Unfortunately, this method cannot differentiate between some intermediates and saprophytic species. METHODS: We used comparative genomic analysis between 35 Leptospira species to find new molecular targets for Leptospira species identification. RESULTS: We proposed the use of the rpoC gene, encoding the DNA-directed RNA polymerase β-subunit, for identifying 35 Leptospira species. CONCLUSIONS: The rpoC gene can be a molecular target to identify the main species of the Leptospira genus directly from clinical samples.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatomines are hematophagous insects of epidemiological importance because they are vectors of Chagas disease. We present here the first report of Rhodnius montenegrensis in Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were collected from Attalea butyracea palm trees in the municipality of Guajará. RESULTS: Two adult female R. montenegrensis specimens were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms that the number of triatomine species within the Amazon has increased from 10 to 11, and the number of Brazilian states with R. montenegrensis has increased from two to three.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Intra-domiciliary contacts are a group with the highest risk of developing leprosy. METHODS A cross-sectional study of intra-domiciliary contacts of new leprosy cases was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. RESULTS Among 190 contacts, 63% were invited to visit the health unit, and 54.2% received the BCG vaccine. The prevalence of leprosy among the contacts was 4.7%. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of leprosy among the contacts was high and similar to that found previously. There were failures in surveillance actions carried out by health units. Never-before treated cases were found.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: DENV-2 is the cause of most dengue epidemics worldwide and is associated with severe cases. METHODS: We investigated arboviruses in 164 serum samples collected from patients presenting with clinical symptoms of dengue fever and 152 mosquito pools. RESULTS: We detected the Asian II genotype of DENV-2 in humans and mosquitoes. Our results confirmed the circulation of the Asian II genotype in Brazil, in addition to the prevalent Asian/American genotype. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of Asian II genotype of DENV-2 in mosquito pools collected in a forest park may be related to a spillback event of human dengue virus.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Herein, we aimed to identify the factors associated with adverse drug events (ADEs) in chronic Chagas disease (CD) patients. METHODS: We analyzed 320 medical notes from 295 patients. The Naranjo algorithm was applied to determine the cause of ADEs. Mixed effects logistic regression was performed to evaluate the factors associated with ADEs. RESULTS: ADEs were described in 102 medical notes (31.9%). Captopril was most frequently associated with ADEs. Age (RR 0.96; 95%CI 0.94-0.99) and cardiac C/D stages (RR 3.24; 95%CI 1.30-4.58) were the most important clinical factors associated with ADEs. CONCLUSIONS: Close follow-up is warranted for CD patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION This study investigated the prevalence of blood donors’ test-seeking behavior and related factors among health sciences undergraduate students. METHODS A total of 750 students were invited. Data regarding sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, blood donation practices, and test-seeking behavior were collected. RESULTS: Of the invited students, 341 (45.5%) agreed to participate and answered questions regarding test-seeking behavior. The sample comprised 83.1% females, 96.8% singles, 87.2% heterosexuals, and 32.6% of them had previously donated blood. A high prevalence of blood donor test-seeking behavior (14.4%; 95% CI: 10.8%-18.5%) was observed and associated with blood donation practices. CONCLUSIONS: Test-seeking behavior was common among the interviewed students, thereby highlighting the importance of developing a better understanding of its determinants to prevent this behavior in key populations.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health emergency with lethality ranging from 1% to 5%. This study aimed to identify active high-risk transmission clusters of COVID-19 in Sergipe. METHODS: We performed a prospective space-time analysis using confirmed cases of COVID-19 during the first 7 weeks of the outbreak in Sergipe. RESULTS: The prospective space-time statistic detected "active" and emerging spatio-temporal clusters comprising six municipalities in the south-central region of the state. CONCLUSIONS: The Geographic Information System (GIS) associated with spatio-temporal scan statistics can provide timely support for surveillance and assist in decision-making.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the rapid increase in COVID-19 cases overburdened the Italian health system, with the country becoming the pandemic’s epicenter. METHODS: We present a narrative review based on manuscripts, official documents, and newspaper articles regarding COVID-19 in Italy. RESULTS: Characteristics of the epidemic, possible causes for its worsening, and the measures adopted across Italian regions are presented. CONCLUSIONS: In the early stages of an epidemic, effective decision-making is essential to contain the number of cases. Medical support for patients and social isolation measures are the most appropriate strategies currently available to reduce the spread and lethality of COVID-19.
Abstract in English:Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the performance of the Holt’s model to forecast the daily COVID-19 reported cases in Brazil and three Brazilian states. METHODS: We chose the date of the first COVID-19 case to April 25, 2020, as the training period, and April 26 to May 3, 2020, as the test period. RESULTS: The Holt’s model performed well in forecasting the cases in Brazil and in São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, but the forecasts were underestimated in Rio de Janeiro state. Conclusions: The Holt’s model can be an adequate short-term forecasting method if their assumptions are adequately verified and validated by experts.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine the incidence of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) and identify the main resistant microorganisms in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a Brazilian university hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a Brazilian teaching hospital between 2012 and 2014. RESULTS: Overall, 81.2% of the infections were acquired in the ICU. The most common resistant pathogenic phenotypes in all-site and bloodstream infections were oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (89.9% and 87.4%; 80.6% and 70.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to focus on HCAIs in ICUs in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infection due to Candida spp. is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in tertiary hospitals. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included patients with a positive blood culture for Candida spp. after 48 h of hospitalization. RESULTS A total of 335 patients who had candidemia were included in this study. Risk factors associated with mortality were hospitalization in internal medicine units and surgical clinics, age >60 years, mechanical ventilation, orotracheal intubation, hemodialysis, corticosteroids use, and C. parapsilosis infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of health care related to invasive procedures and actions to improve patient immunity.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are selected based on their performances. Here, we compared the diagnostic performance of different malaria RDTs. METHODS: Febrile patients were tested for malaria using Vikia Malaria Pf/Pan, Meriline-Meriscreen Pf/Pv/Pan, Right Sign Malaria Pf/Pan, and Right Sign Malaria Pf RDTs at Melen Regional Hospital in Gabon. RESULTS: In total, 120 of 274 tested children (43.8%) had malaria. The sensitivity was > 95% for all RDTs, while the specificity was > 85% for two tests. One test generated invalid tests (8%). CONCLUSIONS: Based on their performances, all tests except one may be recommended for malaria diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: We aimed to estimate the prevalence and transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-burden Brazilian setting under directly observed therapy short-course strategy. METHODS: Isolates of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients from Guarulhos, Brazil, diagnosed in October 2007-2011 were subjected to drug susceptibility and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism testing. RESULTS: The overall resistance prevalence was 11.5% and the multi-drug resistance rate was 4.2%. Twenty-six (43.3%) of 60 drug-resistant isolates were clustered. Epidemiological relationships were identified in 11 (42.3%) patients; 30.8% of the cases were transmitted in households. CONCLUSIONS: Drug-resistant tuberculosis was relatively low and transmitted in households and the community.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Amazon tropical rainforest has the most dense and diverse ecosystem worldwide. A few studies have addressed rodent-borne diseases as potential hazards to humans in this region. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting mammarenavirus and orthohantavirus antibodies in 206 samples collected from rural settlers of the Brazilian Western Amazonian region. RESULTS: Six (2.91%) individuals in the age group of 16 to 36 years were found to possess antibodies against mammarenavirus. CONCLUSION: Evidence of previous exposure to mammarenavirus in the rural population points to its silent circulation in this region.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the genetic environment of bla KPC-2 in Klebsiella pnemoniae multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. METHODS: Four carbapenemase gene isolates resistant to carbapenems, collected from infected patients from two hospitals in Brazil, were investigated using polymerase chain reaction and plasmid DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The bla KPC-2 gene was located between ISKpn6 and a resolvase tnpR in the non-Tn4401 element (NTEKPC-IId). It was detected on a plasmid belonging to the IncQ1 group. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of the bla KPC-2 gene in the NTEKPC-IId element carried by plasmid IncQ1 from infections in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: We performed an epidemiological surveillance of the Chikungunya (CHIKV) lineages in Bahia after the 2014 East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype outbreak. METHODS: Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral isolation, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on serum samples from 605 patients with CHIKV-like symptoms during 2014-2018. RESULTS: Of the 605 samples, 167 were CHIKV-positive. Viral isolation was achieved for 20 samples; their phylogenetic analysis (E2 protein) revealed the presence of ECSA lineage and reinforced the phylogenetic relationship between ECSA and Indian Ocean lineages. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic surveillance of CHIKV showed that only ECSA lineage circulated in Bahia since the 2014 outbreak.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION We conducted a cost-utility analysis of available interferon-free treatments for patients with early-stage genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C based on a Brazilian public health system perspective. METHODS A Markov model was derived using a cohort of stage F0-F2 patients treated as recommended by the Brazilian national guidelines. RESULTS: Glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir was superior to all other treatments, followed by sofosbuvir plus velpatasvir. Sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir was identified as the least cost-effective option. CONCLUSIONS: The above findings were confirmed via probabilistic sensitivity analysis and the tested scenarios.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study compares the clinical response to antimicrobials between indigenous and non-indigenous Kichwa children under 5 years old with CAP in Otavalo, Ecuador. METHODS: All children with CAP who met the inclusion criteria and were admitted at the San Luis de Otavalo Hospital between March 2017 and June 2018 were evaluated. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in clinical responses between indigenous and non-indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: The improved healthcare access of the Otavalo’s Kichwa population may have contributed to the observed clinical response to CAP treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment have major limitations. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the effect of a quinoline derivative, Hydraqui (7-chloro-4-(3-hydroxy-benzilidenehydrazo)quinoline, against Leishmania amazonensis. In silico analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) parameters were performed. RESULTS: Hydraqui showed significant in vitro anti-amastigote activity. Also, Hydraqui-treated mice exhibited high efficacy in lesion size (48.3%) and parasitic load (93.8%) reduction, did not cause hepatic and renal toxicity, and showed appropriate ADMET properties. CONCLUSIONS: Hydraqui presents a set of satisfactory criteria for its application as an antileishmanial agent.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Estimates of the number of individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are important for health planning and establishment of expectations regarding herd immunity. METHODS: Seven testing rounds of a serological survey were conducted at 1-week intervals between April 19 and May 31, 2020 in Teresina municipality. RESULTS Over the 7 weeks, serological positivity increased from 0.56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18%-1.30%) to 8.33% (95% CI: 6.61%-10.33%), representing 33-53 persons infected for each reported case. CONCLUSIONS: Serological screening may be an important tool for understanding the immunity of a population and planning community interventions.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The acceleration of new cases is important for the characterization and comparison of epidemic curves. The objective of this study was to quantify the acceleration of daily confirmed cases and death curves using the polynomial interpolation method. METHODS: Covid-19 epidemic curves from Brazil, Germany, the United States, and Russia were obtained. We calculated the instantaneous acceleration of the curve using the first derivative of the representative polynomial. RESULTS: The acceleration for all curves was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating acceleration into an analysis of the Covid-19 time series may enable a better understanding of the epidemiological situation.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Considering that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been detected in feces, this study aimed to verify a possible relationship between basic sanitation indices and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) numbers/rates. METHODS: Data of COVID-19 cases registered in Brazil until May 28, 2020, and independent variables associated with basic sanitation were analyzed. RESULTS: A significant correlation between the number of cases and sewage treatment index/population density was observed. In addition, COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates were significantly associated with the total water service index and lethality rate was significantly associated with the sewage treatment index. CONCLUSIONS: Precarious basic sanitation infrastructure may potentially increase the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The spread of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has generated the collapse of health care systems and significant impacts on the health of the workers involved in combatting the disease worldwide. METHODS: We conducted an integrative literature review focusing on the alternatives implemented to develop care for frontline health care workers in times of COVID-19. RESULTS: Fifteen articles disclosed the importance of physical and mental care for workers. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive view of the health care worker’s care is urgently needed to maintain the quality of health service offered to the population and preserve the health of frontline workers.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mathematical models have been used to obtain long-term forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: The daily COVID-19 case count in two Brazilian states was used to show the potential limitations of long-term forecasting through the application of a mathematical model to the data. RESULTS: The predicted number of cases at the end of the epidemic and at the moment that the peak occurs, is highly dependent on the length of the time series used in the predictive model. CONCLUSIONS: Predictions obtained during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic need to be viewed with caution.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVD-19) outbreak has overburdened the surveillance of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs), including the laboratory network. This study was aimed at correcting the absence of laboratory results of reported SARI deaths. METHODS: The imputation method was applied for SARI deaths without laboratory information using clinico-epidemiological characteristics. RESULTS: Of 84,449 SARI deaths, 51% were confirmed with COVID-19 while 3% with other viral respiratory diseases. After the imputation method, 95% of deaths were reclassified as COVID-19 while 5% as other viral respiratory diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The imputation method was a useful and robust solution (sensitivity and positive predictive value of 98%) for missing values through clinical & epidemiological characteristics.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Monitoring coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related infections and deaths in Brazil is controversial, with increasing pressure to ease social distance measures. However, no evidence of a sustained, widespread fall in cases exists. METHODS We used segmented (joinpoint) regression analysis to describe the behavior of COVID-19 infections in Brazilian capital cities. RESULTS All capitals showed an exponential or a near-exponential increase in cases through May. A decline in reported cases was subsequently noted in 20 cities but was only significant for 8 (29.6%) and was followed in two by a renewed increase. CONCLUSIONS Caution is warranted when considering the relaxation of restrictions.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate and compare with healthy control subjects the levels of indirect inflammatory markers such as mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in adults and children with brucellosis. METHODS: White blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were retrospectively recorded for all participants. RESULTS: NLR and neutrophil counts were significantly higher in adult patients compared to those in pediatric patients. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect inflammatory markers such as NLR, PLR, MPV, red distribution width, and CRP levels may be helpful for follow-up of brucellosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory failure due to influenza require ventilatory support. However, mechanical ventilation itself can exacerbate lung damage and increase mortality. METHODS: The aim of this study was to describe a feasible and protective ventilation protocol, with limitation of the tidal volume to ≤6 mL/kg of the predicted weight and a driving pressure ≤15 cmH2O after application of the alveolar recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration. RESULTS: Initial improvement in oxygenation and respiratory mechanics were observed in the four cases submitted to the proposed protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the mechanical ventilation strategy applied could be optimized.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Essential oils can serve as novel sources of antibiotics for multidrug-resistant bacteria. METHODS: The multidrug-resistance profile of a Klebsiella aerogenes strain was assessed by PCR and sequencing. The antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum cassia essential oil (CCeo) against K. aerogenes was assessed by broth microdilution and time-kill methods. RESULTS: K. aerogenes showed high antibiotic resistance. The genes bla KPC-2, ampC, bla CTX-M-15, bla OXA-1, and bla TEM were present. CCeo exhibited an inhibitory effect with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 17.57 μg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The antibacterial activity of CCeo makes it a potential candidate for treating carbapenem- and polymyxin-resistant K. aerogenes strains.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Gene-Xpert MTB RIF (Xpert) is based on nucleic acid amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction, which allows for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. We describe the use of Xpert for extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A case series of two reference centers in Rio de Janeiro from 2014-2019. RESULTS: The final diagnosis of EPTB was established in 11/36 (31%) patients, with five cases detectable by Xpert. For lymph node evaluation (9/11), diagnosis by Xpert occurred in 5/9 patients, all with caseous aspects. CONCLUSIONS: Xpert can facilitate the rapid diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Plasmodium vivax malaria represents a major public health problem. This study presents the quality assessment of clinical practice guidelines for the management of P. vivax malaria. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, SciELO, and Google Scholar. Additionally, five guidelines were assessed with the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation) II protocol. RESULTS The general performance on the domains of stakeholder involvement, development rigor, and editorial independence was low. CONCLUSIONS: Most guidelines lack a solid research methodology, which implies ambiguous accuracy. Much needs to be done in the area of therapeutics and quality of policies.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The emergence of a pandemic highlights the translational demands regarding science. This communication aims to propose theoretical-methodological elements for research on health work in pandemic context. METHODS: This reflective essay sets an framework for a research project on health work in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. RESULTS: Three axes or subsidies are presented: the construction of work environments as an analytical component, the approach of ergology as a potential and the centrality of the experiences of the worker-subject. CONCLUSIONS: New health care challenges require attention to what workers have to say about their forms of confrontation and translation of knowledge.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a potentially fatal disease, is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The number of cases has increased rapidly, but information on the clinical characteristics remains limited. METHODS: Cohort study. We collected and analyzed epidemiological, demographic, and clinical data of critically and noncritically ill patients and compared the outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 54 years (standard deviation 16.9; 53.8% men), 29% required ICU admission, and 18.6% died. CONCLUSIONS: The main risk factors for ICU admission were age over 60 years, obesity, and preexisting chronic lung diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) can detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a highly specific manner. However, a decrease in the specificity of PCR assays for their targets may lead to false negative results. METHODS: Here, 177 high-coverage complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from 13 Brazilian states were aligned with 15 WHO recommended PCR assays. RESULTS: Only 3 of the 15 completely aligned to all Brazilian sequences. Ten assays had mismatches in up to 3 sequences and two in many sequences. CONCLUSION: These results should be taken into consideration when using PCR-based diagnostics in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Rat-bite fever is a rarely diagnosed illness caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis . Although this disease is distributed worldwide, there have been few cases reported in Europe. Here, we report a case of vertebral osteomyelitis and sternoclavicular septic arthritis caused by S. moniliformis in a Portuguese patient previously bitten by a rat. Laboratory diagnosis was performed using molecular identification. This is the first case report of rat-bite fever in Portugal. The case described here serves as a reminder for physicians to consider this diagnosis in patients who have developed fever syndromes after being in contact with rodents.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Histoid leprosy (HL) is a rare variant of lepromatous leprosy with unique clinical, histopathological, and microbiological features. A 32-year-old man from Malawi who immigrated to Johannesburg 1-year-ago, presented with a 4-month history of flesh-colored nodules on the face and trunk and hyperpigmented plaques on the chest and limbs. Skin slit smears confirmed multibacillary leprosy, and skin punch biopsies showed proliferation of spindled cells containing a large number of acid-fast bacilli. The prevalence of de novo HL is increasing in the era of leprosy elimination. HL cases may act as reservoirs and negatively affect the global control of leprosy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hepatopulmonary hydatidosis in young children is a rare and atypical presentation of Echinococcus granulosus infection. We report the first case of cystic echinococcosis caused by a microvariant of E. granulosus sensu stricto. Chemotherapy and systemic corticoids were administered before curative surgery was performed. Recurrence was not observed for more than 24 months of follow-up.
Abstract in English:Abstract Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating autoimmune neuropathic condition characterized by extensive bilateral and confluent lesions in the cerebral white matter and cerebellum. The basal ganglia and gray matter may also be involved. In most cases, the symptoms are preceded by viral infection or vaccination. In this report, we present a case of ADEM associated with optic neuritis presenting alongside two potential triggering factors: chikungunya virus infection and yellow fever immunization.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections worldwide with particularly high incidence rates in countries with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions and among persons with impaired immune systems. While most patients with this disease will present with pulmonary tuberculosis, immunocompromised individuals also commonly present with extrapulmonary manifestations. We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient with end-stage renal disease who presented with long-standing systemic symptoms and genitourinary manifestations, who was diagnosed with urogenital tuberculosis both by clinical and microbiologic criteria. Clinicians should always suspect tuberculosis in patients with chronic symptoms, especially in those with immunosuppression.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present report describes the first case of postpartum disseminated histoplasmosis in a 24-year-old HIV-negative woman. On the tenth day after vaginal delivery, the patient presented with dyspnea, fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and painful hepatomegaly. Yeast-like Histoplasma capsulatum features were isolated in the buffy coat. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the fungal isolate was similar to other H. capsulatum isolates identified in HIV patients from Ceará and Latin America. Thus, histoplasmosis development in individuals with transitory immunosuppression or during the period of immunological recovery should be carefully examined.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) diagnosis is challenging due to the lack of a gold standard diagnostic tool. The diagnosis is significantly harder in regions where visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is also prevalent since immunological tests may present cross-reactivity. A cirrhotic patient from an endemic Brazilian region for TL and VL presented with atypical cutaneous lesions, a usual clinico-laboratory feature of VL (including a positive rk39 test result), but he was diagnosed with TL histopathologically; VL was ruled out by necropsy. Physicians working in co-prevalent areas should be aware of atypical features, unusual clinical course, and unexpected laboratory findings of leishmaniasis.
Abstract in English:Abstract This reports a case of scorpionism caused by Tityus serrulatus. A male adult was stung while unloading bananas at the supply center in Belém, Pará, Brazil. The bananas originated in another state (Bahia) and were brought to Belém by truck. The patient presented with pain, edema, and erythema at the sting site, and was classified as low-risk. The specimen was identified as T. serrulatus and symptomatic treatment and clinical observation were advised. The patient was discharged later without further complications. This is the first known envenomation caused by T. serrulatus, a non-native species to Pará, in the Brazilian Amazon.
Abstract in English:Abstract In Brazil, rabies occurs mainly within an urban cycle, in which dogs and bats are reservoirs. This paper aims to report the occurrence of rabies in Callithrix sp. in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In June 2019 a hybrid specimen was referred for diagnosis. The Direct Fluorescent Antibody, Mouse Inoculation, and Polymerase Chain Reaction tests were positive. A phylogenetic analysis was compatible with antigenic variant 3, characteristic of Desmodus rotundus. New studies should be undertaken to elucidate the real role of callitrichids in the urban rabies cycle.
Abstract in English:Abstract This is a case report about the only confirmed death in the State of Espírito Santo due to acute Chagas-related myocarditis in a 2-year-old child living in the rural area of Guarapari. He presented with fever, abdominal pain, headache, and vomiting, resulting in death 21 days after the presentation of symptoms. Amastigote forms were observed in the myocardial fibers in histological examination. The boy’s mother had reported finding “kissing bugs” in the child’s hand. This case highlights the need to include Chagas disease in the differential diagnosis in health care to provide early treatment and avoid death in affected individuals.
Abstract in English:Abstract We present the first recent reported case of traumatic injury caused by catfish in the Americas. Although 66.2% of fish-related injuries occur in the Amazon Region, they are scarcely reported. We report a traumatic injury in a 2-year-old boy who entered Madeira River. The use of traditional methods to treat the injury and his incomplete vaccination history reflect the weakness of the health system. Further, the fact that it was the second time that such an incident had occurred in the locality in 3 weeks during the dry season suggests that this could be a frequent occurrence during this period.
Abstract in English:Abstract The novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) outbreak occurred in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. Here, we report the clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for a case of severe NCP. The patient was started on glucocorticoids and non-invasive ventilator treatment. After treatment, the patient’s symptoms improved, and the status was confirmed as NCP negative. Our results may provide clues for the treatment of NCP.
Abstract in English:Abstract The full spectrum of COVID-19 is still emerging, although several studies have highlighted that patients infected with the novel coronavirus can potentially develop a hypercoagulable state. However, several aspects related to the incidence and pathophysiology of the association between COVID-19 and pulmonary embolism are not well established. Here, we present a case of a patient with COVID-19 who developed acute pulmonary embolism. Clinical and laboratory data and findings of non-enhanced CT indicate possibility of acute pulmonary embolism, and support the decision to proceed with computed tomography pulmonary angiography that can objectively identify filling defects in pulmonary arterial branches.
Abstract in English:Abstract The differential diagnosis of optic neuritis is broad and varied. We report the case of a 24-year-old Brazilian man who presented with five-week history of fever, malaise, myalgia, severe fatigue, tender right preauricular lymphadenopathy, and acute vision blurring associated with right optic disc swelling and exudates in a macular star pattern. His illness developed soon after an infestation of fleas broke out among his cats. Diagnosis of ocular bartonellosis was confirmed by serological and molecular analyses targeting amplification of Bartonella spp. htrA gene. Signs and symptoms only improved after initiation of antimicrobial therapy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is a chronic infection that can affect the skin and mucous membranes. We report a case of oral, nasopharyngeal, and penile lesions in a 35-year-old cocaine user. The patient presented with ulcerated lesions in 2014. Histopathologic analysis revealed amastigotes, and serological test results were positive for leishmaniasis. Systemic therapy with meglumine antimoniate was administered; however, the patient failed to present for follow-up. In 2018, he returned with nasal collapse, and another histopathologic test confirmed MCL. This case illustrates the importance of careful differential diagnosis of skin and mucous ulcers to identify the particular pathology.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the present study, we report the incidence of septic shock syndrome associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a child who initially presented influenza-like illness and developed septic shock shortly after 48 h of hospitalization, and eventually died within a few hours of the onset of sepsis. S. aureus isolated from the blood culture was characterized as the community-associated strain carrying the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV element. Therefore, it is important to better understand the community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections and their potential association with influenza for early diagnosis and successful treatment of this fatal disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Glanders is a relatively unknown zoonotic disease caused by Burkholderia mallei. This bacterium affect solipeds and humans, and can be used as a biological warfare. Glanders is characterized as an occupational disease. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who was presented to an emergency department with chest pain and dyspnea. He evolved into septic shock, pneumonia, and multiple abscesses. B. mallei was found in the exudate culture. Human infection is rare and difficult to confirm. The knowledge on glanders is important for differential diagnosis from other serious illnesses causing pneumonia and multiple abscesses.
Abstract in English:Abstract Human envenomation by the snakes Colubridae and Dipsadidae are reported in Brazil, and envenomation by the Opisthoglyphous snake Philodryas olfersii could be dangerous. Here, we present the second record of an envenomation by Philodryas olfersii in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. The male victim presented with mild erythema pain, paraesthesia, local numbness, and swollen lymph nodes. The symptoms were similar to those of a pit viper bite, and disappeared completely after 15 days.
Abstract in English:Abstract During the yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Brazil, many cases of fulminant hepatitis were seen, although mild to moderate hepatitis was mostly observed with complete recovery. This report presents a case of late-onset hepatitis due to YF relapse. The patient sought medical attention after jaundice recurrence 40 days after the first YF hepatitis episode. This case highlights the importance of patient follow-up after the complete resolution of YF symptoms and discharge.
Abstract in English:Abstract We present postmortem evidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in a patient with severe COVID-19. Autopsies of COVID-19 confirmed cases were performed. The patient died despite antimicrobials, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support. Histopathology and peripheral blood galactomannan antigen testing confirmed IPA. Aspergillus penicillioides infection was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and BLAST analysis. Further reports are needed to assess the occurrence and frequency of IPA in SARS-CoV-2 infections, and how they interact clinically.
Abstract in English:Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a pandemic. We herein report four COVID-19 cases with long-term positive viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) for about 61 days. Despite treatment with recombinant human interferon, convalescent plasma from COVID-19 patients, arbidol, etc., nucleic acid results were still positive for SARS-CoV-2. After treatment with ritonavir-boosted danoprevir (DNVr, 100/100 mg, once daily), all four patients showed two to three consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA and were thus discharged from hospital. Therefore, DNVr may be a potentially effective antiviral for COVID-19 patients with long-term positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
Abstract in English:Abstract Diagnosing cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with only non-respiratory symptoms has been challenging. We reported the diagnosis of a child who tested positive for COVID-19 with abdominal pain/diarrhea and tracked his family cluster. One member of the family tested positive for COVID-19 on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and three other family members had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and has spread rapidly and caused a global pandemic. Knowledge about clinical and laboratory manifestations in the pediatric population is necessary to guide and monitor such patients. A 3-year-old female patient diagnosed with COVID-19 presented with high fever. After defervescence, she experienced a maculopapular rash that worsened by the sixth day of the disease with self-limited evolution without relevant laboratory changes. The identification of rashes in children with COVID-19 is an unusual and important condition that must be recognized in view of the high transmissibility shown.
Abstract in English:Abstract With the large number of individuals infected and recovered from Covid-19, there is intense discussion about the quality and duration of the immunity elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the possibility of disease recurrence. Here we report a case with strong clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial evidence of, not only reinfection by SARS-CoV-2, but also clinical recurrence of Covid-19.
Abstract in English:Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first officially described in Brazil on February 26th, 2020. The accumulation of reports of concomitant infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and pathogens that cause diseases endemic to tropical countries, such as dengue and chikungunya fever, has started to draw attention. Chagas disease and leprosy remain public health problems in many developing countries, such as Brazil. In this manuscript, we describe a case of concomitant leprosy, Chagas disease, and COVID-19, highlighting the cutaneous manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the clinical behavior of household contacts who previously received prophylactic Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccines.
Abstract in English:Abstract A 56-year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus required hospitalization due to the onset of both dyspnea and asthenia. A computed tomography of the chest exam showed the radiological pattern of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary involvement. Based on immunochromatographic analysis, the patient evolved as a reagent for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The individual developed complete hemiparesis with a predominance in the right arm and conduction aphasia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance sequence of the brain showed an area of hypointensity with a high intrinsic cortical signal and hyperintensity in the T2-sequence. A Doppler velocimetric examination showed total/critical sub occlusion, suggesting an ischemic stroke.