Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Human Rabies (HR) is a fatal zoonotic disease caused by lyssaviruses, with the rabies virus (RABV) identified as the causative agent. While the incidence of HR transmitted by dogs has decreased in Latin America, there has been a corresponding rise in transmission via wild animals. Given the lack of effective treatments and specific therapies, the management of HR relies on the availability of post-exposure prophylaxis and animal control measures. This review examines the dynamics and spread of HR during the global pandemic.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Arboviral diseases are a group of infectious diseases caused by viruses transmitted by arthropods, mainly mosquitoes. These diseases, such as those caused by the dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and yellow fever (YFV) viruses, have a significant impact worldwide. In this context, entomological surveillance plays a crucial role in the control and prevention of arboviruses by providing essential information on the presence, distribution, and activity of vector mosquitoes. Based on entomological surveillance, transovarian transmission provides information regarding the maintenance and dissemination of arboviruses. The objective of this study was to detect these arboviruses in Goiânia, Goiás, and analyze the occurrence of transovarian transmission. Methods: Aedes aegypti eggs were collected from different regions of Goiânia and cultivated under controlled laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult mosquitoes. Adult females were grouped into pools containing their heads and thoraxes. These pools were subsequently evaluated using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Results: A total of 157 pools (N=1570) were analyzed, with two pools testing positive for CHIKV and one pool testing positive for ZIKV, indicating that the offspring resulting from transovarian transmission are potentially infectious. Conclusions: In summary, the demonstration of the vertical transmission mechanisms of CHIKV and ZIKV in A. aegypti serves as an alert to health authorities, as these diseases are still underreported, and their primary urban vector has likely acquired this capacity, contributing to the dissemination of these infections.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a public health problem and is a relevant cause of death in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the 20-year survival and predictors of worse prognosis in patients with VL admitted to a reference hospital for the treatment of infectious diseases between 1995 and 2016 in northern Minas Gerais, an area of high endemicity for VL. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a hospital in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. All patients with VL were evaluated over a 20-year period. The medical records were thoroughly analyzed. Cox regression analysis was performed to estimate factors associated with the probability of survival. Results: The cohort included 972 individuals, mostly male children <10 years old, from urban areas who presented at admission with the classic triad of fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and skin pallor. The mean hemoglobin level was 7.53 mg/dl. The mean interval between symptom onset and hospital admission was 40 days. The instituted therapies ranged from pentavalent antimonates to amphotericin, or both. The probability of survival was reduced to 78% one year after symptom onset. Hemoglobin levels and age were strongly associated with the probability of survival. Conclusions: Regardless of the mechanism underlying the reduction in hemoglobin and the non-modifiable factors of age, early initiation of drug treatment is the most appropriate strategy for increasing survival in patients with VL, which challenges health systems to reduce the interval between the onset of symptoms and hospital admission.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background: We assessed the distribution of triatomines in an endemic area for Chagas disease. Methods: This retrospective study used secondary data extracted from the Official System of the National Chagas Disease Control Program (Sistema Oficial do Programa Nacional de Controle da Doença de Chagas - SisPCDCh). Results: A total of 7,257 (725.7 ± 221.7 per year) specimens were collected from 2013 to 2022. Most of them (6,792; 93.6%) were collected in the intradomicile and 465 (6.4%) in the peridomicile. A total of 513 (7.1%) triatomines tested positive for the presence of trypomastigote forms, similar to Trypanosoma cruzi. Conclusions: The spatial analysis revealed a heterogeneous distribution of triatomines across different municipalities.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background: Information regarding the distribution of Culicidae species in the northeastern region of Brazil is scarce. Methods: Immatures were collected from approximately four fragments of the Atlantic Forest. Results: This study presents new occurrences of 18 Culicidae species in Pernambuco state: Anopheles kompi, Georgecraigius fluviatilis, Culex bidens, Culex chidesteri, Culex bastagarius, Culex imitator, Mansonia humeralis, Wyeomyia incaudata, Uranotaenia apicalis, Culex mollis, Culex usquatus, Culex dunni, Culex serratimarge, Culex ybarmis, Culex microphyllus, Sabethes purpureus, Wyeomyia pilicauda, and Wyeomyia airosai. The last nine species were also new records for the northeast region. Conclusions: With the inclusion of these newly recorded species, the total number of mosquitoes documented in Pernambuco state now rises to 94.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background: Syphilis is associated with social and behavioral factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of syphilis and its associated risk factors among recyclable waste collectors in Central Brazil. Results: A lifetime syphilis prevalence rate of 7.91% (95% confidence interval: 5.25-11.75) was found among 278 participants. Low educational level, history of sexually transmitted infection, and age ≥ 36 years were associated with a high prevalence of lifetime syphilis. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the need for syphilis prevention, screening, and treatment among recyclable waste collectors, highlighting the potential for the spread of infection in vulnerable populations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Previously considered saprobe and non-pathogenic, the fungus Papiliotrema laurentii (formerly known as Cryptococcus laurentii), is rarely associated with human infection. Nevertheless, there has been an increase in reported infections by non-neoformans cryptococci. After a literature search on the Cochrane Library, LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, PubMed, and PMC (PubMed Central) databases, we conclude that this is the first case report of fungemia and probable meningitis caused by Papiliotrema laurentii in a previously immunocompetent host with associated COVID-19.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Neural leprosy, which is characterized by nerve involvement without visible skin lesions, presents a diagnostic challenge. This case report examined the significance of diverse diagnostic modalities in the identification of pure neural leprosy. A 28-year-old patient with symptoms of edema, pain, paresthesia, and diminished sensitivity in the lower limbs underwent various tests. A stilt skin smear yielded negative results on bacilloscopy, whereas a Fast ML Flow leprosy test and electroneuromyography supported the diagnosis. This discussion highlights the importance of accessible methods for early investigation. This study emphasizes the multidisciplinary approach and value of the Fast ML Flow leprosy test and electroneuromyography for diagnosing neural leprosy.