Epidemiology of medication use among the elderly in an urban area of Northeastern Brazil

Sabrina Joany Felizardo Neves Ana Paula de Oliveira Marques Márcia Carrera Campos Leal Alcides da Silva Diniz Tibério Silva Medeiros Ilma Kruze Grande de Arruda About the authors

Abstracts

OBJETIVO

Analisar o uso de medicamentos entre idosos e os fatores associados.

MÉTODOS

Estudo transversal com 400 indivíduos maiores de 60 anos residentes na área de abrangência da Estratégia Saúde da Família, em Recife, PE, em 2009. Os indivíduos foram selecionados por amostra probabilística sistemática, com coleta de dados de base domiciliar. Foram avaliadas variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, estilo de vida, condições de saúde e nutricionais. A variável independente foi uso de medicamentos. O diagrama analítico envolveu análises estatísticas uni e multivariadas.

RESULTADOS

A prevalência de uso de medicamentos foi de 85,5%. A polifarmácia (> 5 medicamentos) ocorreu em 11% dos casos. Dos 951 medicamentos relatados, 98,2% foram por prescrição médica e 21,6% foram considerados inseguros para idosos. Os medicamentos de uso nos sistemas cardiovascular (42,9%), nervoso central (20,2%), digestório e no metabolismo orgânico (17,3%) foram os mais utilizados. O uso de polifarmácia associou-se à escolaridade (p = 0,008), à saúde autorreferida (p = 0,012), à doença crônica autorreferida (p = 0,000) e ao número de consultas médicas ao ano (0,000).

CONCLUSÕES

A proporção de uso de medicamentos é elevada entre idosos, inclusive daqueles considerados inadequados, e há desigualdades entre grupos de idosos quando se considera escolaridade, quantidade de consultas médicas e saúde autorreferida.

Idoso; Uso de Medicamentos; Polimedicação; Fatores Socioeconômicos; Saúde da População Urbana


OBJETIVO

Analizar el uso de medicamentos entre ancianos y los factores asociados

MÉTODOS

Estudio transversal con 400 individuos mayores de 60 años residentes en área abarcada por la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, en Recife, PE, Brasil, 2009. Los individuos fueron seleccionados por muestreo probabilístico sistemático, con colecta de datos de tipo domiciliar. Se evaluaron variables socioeconómicas y demográficas, estilo de vida, condiciones de salud y nutricionales. La variable independiente fue el uso de medicamentos. El diagrama analítico involucró análisis estadísticos uni y multivariados.

RESULTADOS

La prevalencia del uso de medicamentos fue de 85,5%. La polifarmacia (> 5 medicamentos) ocurrió en 11% de los casos. De los 951 medicamentos relatados, 98,2% fueron por prescripción médica y 21,6% fueron considerados inseguros para ancianos. Los medicamentos de uso en los sistemas cardiovascular (42,9%), nervioso central (20,2%), digestivo y en el metabolismo orgánico (17,3%) fueron los más utilizados. El uso de polifarmacia se asoció con la escolaridad (p=0,008), la salud auto-referida (p=0,012), la enfermedad crónica auto-referida (p=0,000) y el número de consultas médicas por año (p=0,000).

CONCLUSIONES

La proporción de uso de medicamentos es elevada entre ancianos, inclusive en aquellos considerados inadecuados, y desigualdades entre grupos de ancianos al considerarse la escolaridad, cantidad de consultas médicas y la salud auto-referida.

Anciano; Utilización de Medicamentos; Polifarmacia; Factores Socioeconómicos; Salud Urbana


OBJECTIVE

To analyze medication use and associated factors among the elderly.

METHODS

A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 400 elderly people aged over 60 living in the urban area covered by the Family Health Strategy program in Recife, Northeastern Brazil in 2009. Individuals were selected by systematic random sampling and household data were collected. Demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices and health variables were evaluated. Medication use was the independent variable. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were performed.

RESULTS

: The prevalence of medication use was 85.5%. Polypharmacy (> 5 drugs) occurred in 11% of cases. Of the 951 drugs reported, 98.2% were prescribed by doctors and 21.6% were considered unsafe for the elderly. The most commonly prescribed groups were: cardiovascular drugs (42.9%), central nervous system agents (20.2%) and drugs with an effect on the digestive tract and metabolism (17.3%). The use of polypharmacy was associated with education (p = 0.008), self-reported health (p = 0.012), self-reported chronic disease (p = 0.000) and the number of doctor appointments per year (0.000).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study indicate a high proportion of medication use among the elderly, including of those considered unsuitable, and inequality among groups of elderly individuals regarding the use ofmedication, when education, number of doctor appointments and self-reported health are considered.

Aged; Drug Utilization; Polypharmacy; Socioeconomic Factors; Urban Health


INTRODUCTION

Changes in quality of life, health care, patterns of consumption and behavior linked to fertility and mortality in the last century have led to an increase in longevity. Ageing populations have become a global pehnomenon. 1818 . Paskulin LMG, Vianna LAC. Perfil sociodemográfico e condições de saúde autorreferidas de idosos de Porto Alegre. Rev Saude Publica . 2007;41(5):757-68. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102007000500010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200700...
, 2222 . Ruzicka LT. The use of mortaliy and morbidy statistics for national health promotion. London: WHO; 1990. , 2525 . Veras R. Envelhecimento populacional contemporâneo: demandas, desafios e inovações. Rev Saude Publica . 2009;43(3):548-54. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102009005000025
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200900...
In Brazil, the population structure is considered aged, as the elderly make up 10.7% of the population (around 19 million people). a a Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Censo demográfico 2010: resultados preliminares. Rio de Janeiro; 2010.

The ageing process leads to a progressive reduction in the organism’s active tissue, a loss of functional capacity and significant changes in metabolic functions. 1717 . Papaléo Netto M, Borgonovi N. Biologia e teorias do envelhecimento. In: Papaléo Netto M, organizador. Gerontologia. São Paulo: Atheneu; 1997. p.44-59. Consequently, there is increased incidence of chronic disease, hospital admissions and medication use. 1616 . Monsegui GBG, Rozenfeld S, Veras RP, Vianna CMM. Avalição da qualidade do uso de medicamentos em idosos. Rev Saude Publica . 1999;33(5):437-44. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89101999000500002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910199900...
, 2222 . Ruzicka LT. The use of mortaliy and morbidy statistics for national health promotion. London: WHO; 1990. , b b Veras RP, Lourenço R, Martins CSF, Sanchez MA, Chaves PH. Novos paradigmas do modelo assistencial no setor saúde: consequência da explosão populacional dos idosos no Brasil. In: Veras RP, organizador. Terceira idade: gestão contemporânea em saúde. Rio de Janeiro: Relume Dumará; 2002. p.11-79.

High levels of medication use by the elderly population, in Brazil and worldwide, has been described. 7. Flores LM, Mengue SS. Uso de medicamentos por idosos em região do sul do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2005;39(6):925-9. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102005000600009
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200500...
, 9. Junius-Walker U, Theile G, Hummers-Pradier E. Prevalence and predictors of polypharmacy among older primary care patients in Germany. Fam Pract . 2007;24(1):14-9. DOI:10.1093/fampra/cml067
https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cml067...
, 1515 . Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200600...
, 1616 . Monsegui GBG, Rozenfeld S, Veras RP, Vianna CMM. Avalição da qualidade do uso de medicamentos em idosos. Rev Saude Publica . 1999;33(5):437-44. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89101999000500002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910199900...
, 2020 . Ribeiro AQ, Rozenfeld S, Klein CH, César CC, Acucio FA. Inquérito sobre uso de medicamentos por idosos aposentados, Belo Horizonte, MG. Rev Saude Publica . 2008;42(4):724-32. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102008005000031
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200800...
Biologically, the elderly have less capacity to metabolize medication, they suffer adverse effects more frequently and efficacy of the treatment is reduced. This is due to a combination of factors: higher prevalence of chronic illness, polypharmacy and, often, malnutrition. 4. Campos MTFS, Monteiro JBR, Ornelas APRC. Fatores que afetam o consumo alimentar e a nutrição do idoso. Rev Nutr . 2000;13(3):157-65. DOI:10.1590/S1415-52732000000300002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-5273200000...
, 1010 . Kadam UT. Potential health impacts of multiple drug prescribing for older people: a case-control study. Br J Gen Pract . 2011;61(583):128-30. DOI:10.3399/bjgp11X556263
https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp11X556263...
, 2121 . Rozenfeld S. Prevalência, fatores associados e mau uso de medicamentos entre idosos: uma revisão. Cad Saude Publica . 2003;19(3):717-24. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2003000300004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200300...

There is no consolidated definition of the term polypharmacy. Bushardt et al, 3. Bushardt RL, Massey EB, Simpson TW, Ariail JC, Simpson KN. Polypharmacy: misleading, but manageable. Clin Interv Aging . 2008;3(2):383-9. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S2468
https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S2468...
in a revision of the literature, identified a number of concepts; among the most commonly found were ”taking medication inappropriate to the diagnosis”, “taking multiple medications”, “duplicating drugs and/or taking potentially inappropriate medication”. In this study, polypharmacy is defined as taking five or more medications simultaneously. 1212 . Linjakumpu T, Hartikainen S, Klaukka T, Veijola J, Kivelä SL, Isoaho R. Use of medications and polypharmacy are increasing among the elderly. J Clin Epidemiol . 2002;55(8):809-17.

Polypharmacy linked to physiological and clinical conditions which are specific to the elderly makes taking medication a cause of concern for the health care sector. 8. Helling DK, Lemke JH, Semla TP, Wallace RB, Lipson DP, Cornoni-Huntley J. Medication use characteristics in the elderly: The Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc . 1987;35(1):4-12. , 9. Junius-Walker U, Theile G, Hummers-Pradier E. Prevalence and predictors of polypharmacy among older primary care patients in Germany. Fam Pract . 2007;24(1):14-9. DOI:10.1093/fampra/cml067
https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cml067...
, 2121 . Rozenfeld S. Prevalência, fatores associados e mau uso de medicamentos entre idosos: uma revisão. Cad Saude Publica . 2003;19(3):717-24. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2003000300004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200300...
, 2626 . Zhan C, Sangl J, Bierman AS, Miller MR, Friedman B, Wickizer SW, et al. Potentially inappropriate medication use in the community-dwelling elderly: findings from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. JAMA . 2001;286(22):2823-9. DOI:10.1001/jama.286.22.2823
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.286.22.2823...
It is important to understand this population’s patterns of medication use in order to establish rational use, improve quality of life and maintain functional capacity.

This study aimed to analyze medication use and associated factors among the elderly.

METHODS

A cross-sectional study with 432 elderly individuals aged 60 and over, living in the community, of both sexes, capable of communication, responsible for their own medication and living in areas covered by the Family Health Care Strategy (ESF) in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil between April and September 2009. The research took place in Health Care district IV, located in the west of Recife, micro region 4.2, with a registered population of 2,796 elderly individuals in the ESF. c c Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do Recife. Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica. Recife; 2009.

Sample size was determined based on an 80% prevalence of “taking medication”, with a variability of 5%, resulting in 246 individuals. In order to correct for potential losses and allow greater breakdown of independent variables, 432 elderly individuals were contacted, of which 27 refused to participate in the study (refusal rate of 6.2%) and five were withdrawn as, after three attempts, they could not be contacted, giving a sample of 400 eligible elderly individuals.

This tracking enabled the prevalence of medication use in the population in question to be estimated, as well as characterizing this use and associated factors.

Individuals were recruited using probabilistic allocation, based on a list of names and addresses of elderly individuals registered with the ESF. Names were drawn to select the individual when there were two or more individuals fulfilling the criteria in the same residence. Data, including a questionnaire and height and weight measurements, was collected by two interviewers in the individuals’ homes.

Participants were questioned about what medication they had taken on the day of the interview. The interviewers asked to see prescriptions and packets to ensure the names of the medications were recorded accurately and to avoid any medications being forgotten and thus omitted. The name and dose of the medication was used in the identification. The active ingredients were classified according to the Anatomical-Therapeutical-Chemical Classification System (ATC). d d WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. ATC/DDD Index 2010. Oslo; 2010 [cited 20 May 2010] Available from: http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/

The dependent variable was the number of medications taken on the day of the interview. This variable was categorized into two groups: taking fewer than five medications; taking five or more medications (classified as polypharmacy). 1212 . Linjakumpu T, Hartikainen S, Klaukka T, Veijola J, Kivelä SL, Isoaho R. Use of medications and polypharmacy are increasing among the elderly. J Clin Epidemiol . 2002;55(8):809-17.

Medications taken were classified as: prescribed (prescribed by a doctor, including repeat prescriptions authorized by a nurse); non-prescribed (taken on the individual’s own initiative, or recommended by a third party, not of the medical profession); medications unsafe for use by the elderly (should be avoided irrespective of dose, duration of treatment or clinical circumstances, either because ineffective or because they present an unacceptably high risk for the elderly – risk exceeds benefit – according to the Beers-Fick criteria). 6. Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE, Waller JL, Maclean JR, Beers MH. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med . 2003;163(22):2716-24. DOI:10.1001/archinte.163.22.2716
https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.22....

Independent variables included: socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, schooling – in completed years, marital status, family arrangements and monthly income – in national minimum wage at time of writing); health (perception of own health; self-reported chronic illness); 1111 . Lebrão ML, Laurenti R. Saúde, bem-estar e envelhecimento: o estudo SABE no Município de São Paulo. Rev Bras Epidemiol . 2005;8(2):127-41. DOI:10.1590/S1415-790X2005000200005
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X200500...
health related behavior (doing physical activity); use of health care services (number of doctor’s appointments in the last 12 months); nutritional state (Body Mass Index, classified according to the cutoff points adopted by Lipschitz). 1313 . Lipschitz DA. Screening for nutritional status in the elderly. Prim Care . 1994;21(1):55-67.

Height and weight were measured according to recommendations by Lohman et al. 1414 . Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R. Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics; 1988. Weight was measured using a Marte scale, capacity of 150 kg, and height was measured using an Alturaexata portable stadiometer, with a maximum extension of 2.00 m, divided into centimeters.

Data were entered twice and checked using the “validate” module of the EpiInfo program, version 6.04 (WHO/CDC; Atlanta, GE, USA), in order to identify any inconsistencies. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows software, version 12.0 was used to analyze the data.

Uni-variate analysis was conducted in order to verify the link between characteristics of the study population and polypharmacy. The following tests were used: Kolmogorov-Sminorv to estimate the normal range for continuous variables, Pearson’s Chi-squared test for categorical variables; and the Kruskal-Walis H test for the continuous variables. Multiple analysis (logistical regression) was used to identify factors associated with polypharmacy. The Wald test for trend and heterogeneity was used in the unadjusted analysis. Variables which had significance ≤ 0.20 in the unadjusted uni-variate analysis were considered when building the model. The stepwise method (variables selected in steps) with retrograde elimination was used in the adjusted analysis. Variable linked to p < 0.05 remained in the final model. The level of significance used was defined as α = 0.05 bi-caudal.

The research protocol was approved by the research ethics committee of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Process No. 0388.0.172.000-08 and Protocol No. 396/08). Participants signed a consent form.

RESULTS

The majority of the elderly individuals (75.5%, 95%CI 70.9;79.6) were female. Age varied between 60 and 101 years old, with a mean age of 69 (64.00:75.75); the 60 to 69 years old age group was the most frequent (51.3%) ( Table 1).

Table 1
. Demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and health characteristics of elderly individuals living in the community. Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, 2009.

Low levels of schooling were common, and the sample was predominantly illiterate (36.6%). The highest percentage of the elderly individuals had a monthly income of two minimum wages (78.1%); 63.2% lived alone and the median number of individuals per family was 3.0 (2.00:5.00).

The majority of elderly individuals classified their own health as very bad. Most of those interviewed (88%) reported having one or more chronic disease; of these 53.8% reported having two or more. The most commonly reported diseases were high blood pressure (47.6%), arthritis/rheumatism (21.3%), diabetes (13.3%), heart disease (6.3%), stroke (5.7%), chronic pulmonary disease (3.8%) and cancer (2.0%). Mean BMI was 27.9 kg/m 2 (SD = 5.4) and the predominant nutritional state was overweight (47.5%).

There were 83.5% of the elderly individuals who reported making use of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS); of these, 64.5% had used the ESF exclusively in the last 12 months. The median number of appointments was 4 (2.00: 6.00) for the same period. Hospitalization in the four months preceding the interview was reported by 24.5% of the elderly individuals ( Table 1 ).

The prevalence of taking medication was 85.5%. Of these, the proportion of elderly individuals who took at least one prescribed medication was 98.2%, and the proportion taking at least one non-prescribed medication was 6.7%. Polypharmacy occurred in 11.0% of cases. The use of at least one medication judged unsafe for use by the elderly occurred in 21.6% of cases. The most commonly used were: diazepan, digoxin, and mineral oil.

At the time of the interview, 951 medications, made up of 739 different drugs were being taken. The mean number of medications being taken by the elderly individuals at the time of the interview was 2.4 (SD = 1.78) and the median was 2.0 (1.00: 3.00), varying between zero and ten medications. The median was 2.0 (1.00: 3.00) in prescribed medication, varying between zero and ten, and 0 (0.00: 0.00), varying between 0 and 3 medications for non-prescribed medications. Men had a median of 2.0 (0.75: 3.00), whereas for women it was 2.0 (1.00: 3.00) (p = 0.001).

The medications most commonly taken by the elderly individuals were cardiovascular drugs, followed by medicine used for the central nervous system ( Table 2 ).

Table 2
Medications taken by the elderly individuals living in the community according to therapeutic group and pharmacological group. Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, 2009. (N = 951)

Of the most commonly taken medications, hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg, Captopril 25 mg and AAS 100 mg stand out ( Table 3 ).

Table 3
Medications taken by elderly individuals in the community. Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, 2009.

Polypharmacy proved to be linked to lower levels of schooling (p = 0.008), to poor self-reported health (p = 0.012), to two or more self-reported chronic diseases (p = 0.000) and to the number of doctor’s appointments per year (0.000). The other variables were not linked to polypharmacy ( Table 4 ).

Table 4
Link between taking medication, sociodemograohic characteristics, health related aspects, and use of health care services among elderly individuals in the community. Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, 2009.

Table 5
Final model of the multivariate analysis for polypharmacy among elderly individuals living in the community. Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, 2009.

Three variables remained in the model after adjustment for potential risk factors for polypharmacy, showing an independent association with polypharmacy. Having between one and four years of schooling was the factor most strongly linked to polypharmacy (OR = 5.276 95%CI 2.142;12.989) (p = 0.000).

DISCUSSION

The high prevalence of medication use among the elderly individuals (85.5%) concords with the literature and is within the expected range, with values close to those found in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil (80.3%), 6. Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE, Waller JL, Maclean JR, Beers MH. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med . 2003;163(22):2716-24. DOI:10.1001/archinte.163.22.2716
https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.22....
the South Region (82.0%) 7. Flores LM, Mengue SS. Uso de medicamentos por idosos em região do sul do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2005;39(6):925-9. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102005000600009
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200500...
and Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil (86.2% 1515 . Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200600...
and 89.6%). 2020 . Ribeiro AQ, Rozenfeld S, Klein CH, César CC, Acucio FA. Inquérito sobre uso de medicamentos por idosos aposentados, Belo Horizonte, MG. Rev Saude Publica . 2008;42(4):724-32. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102008005000031
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200800...

The mean number of medications being taken at the time of the interview was lower than that observed in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1616 . Monsegui GBG, Rozenfeld S, Veras RP, Vianna CMM. Avalição da qualidade do uso de medicamentos em idosos. Rev Saude Publica . 1999;33(5):437-44. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89101999000500002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910199900...
in the South Region 7. Flores LM, Mengue SS. Uso de medicamentos por idosos em região do sul do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2005;39(6):925-9. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102005000600009
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200500...
and in Belo Horizonte, MG. 1515 . Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200600...
, 2020 . Ribeiro AQ, Rozenfeld S, Klein CH, César CC, Acucio FA. Inquérito sobre uso de medicamentos por idosos aposentados, Belo Horizonte, MG. Rev Saude Publica . 2008;42(4):724-32. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102008005000031
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200800...
However, it was higher than that found in Fortaleza, 5. Coelho Filho JM, Marcopito LF, Castelo A. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2004;38(4):557-64. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200400...
the population which is closest to the population of this study, which suggests regional differences in the intensity of medication use.

Sex, age and access to health care services are highlighted as predictive factors for medication use among the elderly. 9. Junius-Walker U, Theile G, Hummers-Pradier E. Prevalence and predictors of polypharmacy among older primary care patients in Germany. Fam Pract . 2007;24(1):14-9. DOI:10.1093/fampra/cml067
https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cml067...
, 2121 . Rozenfeld S. Prevalência, fatores associados e mau uso de medicamentos entre idosos: uma revisão. Cad Saude Publica . 2003;19(3):717-24. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2003000300004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200300...
, 2222 . Ruzicka LT. The use of mortaliy and morbidy statistics for national health promotion. London: WHO; 1990. In this study, women tended to take more medications than men, although the difference in prevalence of polypharmacy was not statistically significant between the sexes. In general, women made more use of health care services and were better at reporting their conditions; 1. Barreto SM, Figueiredo RC. Doença crônica, auto-avaliação de saúde e comportamento de risco: diferença de gênero. Rev Saude Publica . 2009;43(Supl 2):38-47. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102009000900006
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200900...
thus, they are more likely to take medication. This trend of taking larger quantities of medications is consistent with the results of other epidemiological investigations. 5. Coelho Filho JM, Marcopito LF, Castelo A. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2004;38(4):557-64. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200400...
, 7. Flores LM, Mengue SS. Uso de medicamentos por idosos em região do sul do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2005;39(6):925-9. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102005000600009
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200500...
, 1515 . Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200600...
, 2020 . Ribeiro AQ, Rozenfeld S, Klein CH, César CC, Acucio FA. Inquérito sobre uso de medicamentos por idosos aposentados, Belo Horizonte, MG. Rev Saude Publica . 2008;42(4):724-32. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102008005000031
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200800...
However, this difference was not reflected in the occurrence of polypharmacy. Likewise, there was no link between polypharmacy and age group. Elderly individuals receiving care from an ESF team makes access to medications linked to prescriptions based on standardized lists free, which results in smaller quantities of medications being taken as well as encouraging more rational use. This may mean that polypharmacy in all age groups and both sexes is reduced. The findings here do not agree with those of studies conducted in Belo Horizonte. 1515 . Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200600...
, 2020 . Ribeiro AQ, Rozenfeld S, Klein CH, César CC, Acucio FA. Inquérito sobre uso de medicamentos por idosos aposentados, Belo Horizonte, MG. Rev Saude Publica . 2008;42(4):724-32. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102008005000031
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200800...
However, these studies were carried out with elderly individuals in the general population, irrespective of registration with the ESF, suggesting that health teams monitoring the elderly tends to reduce polypharmacy in all age groups.

The most frequently used drugs were similar to those found in other research. 5. Coelho Filho JM, Marcopito LF, Castelo A. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2004;38(4):557-64. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200400...
, 7. Flores LM, Mengue SS. Uso de medicamentos por idosos em região do sul do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2005;39(6):925-9. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102005000600009
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200500...
, 1515 . Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200600...
Cardiovascular medication were the most commonly used, which agrees with the national epidemiological profile, e d WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. ATC/DDD Index 2010. Oslo; 2010 [cited 20 May 2010] Available from: http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/ and hypertension was the most commonly self-reported chronic condition.

A significant proportion of the elderly individuals were taking prescribed medications and this reached a higher proportion than that found in research on elderly individuals in the general population. 5. Coelho Filho JM, Marcopito LF, Castelo A. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2004;38(4):557-64. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200400...
, 6. Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE, Waller JL, Maclean JR, Beers MH. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med . 2003;163(22):2716-24. DOI:10.1001/archinte.163.22.2716
https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.22....
, 1515 . Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200600...
On the other hand, the proportion of elderly individuals using non-prescribed medication was lower than that reported in the literature. 5. Coelho Filho JM, Marcopito LF, Castelo A. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2004;38(4):557-64. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200400...
, 6. Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE, Waller JL, Maclean JR, Beers MH. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med . 2003;163(22):2716-24. DOI:10.1001/archinte.163.22.2716
https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.22....
, 1515 . Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200600...
, 1616 . Monsegui GBG, Rozenfeld S, Veras RP, Vianna CMM. Avalição da qualidade do uso de medicamentos em idosos. Rev Saude Publica . 1999;33(5):437-44. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89101999000500002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910199900...
This may be linked to the fact that this study dealt with a population dependent on the SUS and therefore needing a prescription for any kind of medication. The frequency with which medications judged unsafe for use by the elderly 3. Bushardt RL, Massey EB, Simpson TW, Ariail JC, Simpson KN. Polypharmacy: misleading, but manageable. Clin Interv Aging . 2008;3(2):383-9. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S2468
https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S2468...
were found was greater than that found in Rio de Janeiro 1616 . Monsegui GBG, Rozenfeld S, Veras RP, Vianna CMM. Avalição da qualidade do uso de medicamentos em idosos. Rev Saude Publica . 1999;33(5):437-44. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89101999000500002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910199900...
and in Fortaleza, 5. Coelho Filho JM, Marcopito LF, Castelo A. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2004;38(4):557-64. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200400...
but the values were lower than those obtained for elderly individuals not dependent on the SUS. 1919 . Pereira LRL, Vecchi LUP, Baptista MEC, Carvalho D. Avaliação da utilização de medicamentos em pacientes idosos por meio de conceito de farmacoepidemiologia e farmacovigilância. Cienc Saude Coletiva . 2004;9(2):479-81. DOI:10.1590/S1413-81232004000200023
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-8123200400...
Even so, it was observed that 2.2% of the elderly individuals took diazepam. This was a higher prevalence than that found by Bushardt et al, 3. Bushardt RL, Massey EB, Simpson TW, Ariail JC, Simpson KN. Polypharmacy: misleading, but manageable. Clin Interv Aging . 2008;3(2):383-9. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S2468
https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S2468...
although lower than that found in Fortaleza. 5. Coelho Filho JM, Marcopito LF, Castelo A. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2004;38(4):557-64. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200400...
According to the Beers-Fick 6. Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE, Waller JL, Maclean JR, Beers MH. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med . 2003;163(22):2716-24. DOI:10.1001/archinte.163.22.2716
https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.22....
criteria and a panel of specialists, diazepam is judged to be not recommendable for use by the elderly, irrespective of diagnosis and clinical condition, as it has a long half-life, producing prolonged sedation and increased risk of falls and fractures.

The current practice of standardization of medicines in the SUS and dispensing drugs linked to prescription may be related to the increased use of prescription medication and the reduction in prescription medication that are unsafe for the elderly and the use of non-prescribed medications. The current ESF practice seems to have positive effect, given the low prevalence of elderly individuals using unsafe and non-prescribed medication, reducing the risk of iatrogenic effects, adverse reactions and drug interactions. 4. Campos MTFS, Monteiro JBR, Ornelas APRC. Fatores que afetam o consumo alimentar e a nutrição do idoso. Rev Nutr . 2000;13(3):157-65. DOI:10.1590/S1415-52732000000300002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-5273200000...
, 1010 . Kadam UT. Potential health impacts of multiple drug prescribing for older people: a case-control study. Br J Gen Pract . 2011;61(583):128-30. DOI:10.3399/bjgp11X556263
https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp11X556263...

Of the socio-economic variables, only the level of schooling was directly linked to taking medication. Polypharmacy was more prevalent among elderly individuals with lower levels of schooling. Low levels of schooling is a predictive factor for the increase in chronic morbidities, 2. Barros MBA, Cesar CLG, Carandina L, Torre GD. Desigualdades na prevalência de doenças crônicas no Brasil, PNAD – 2003. Ciências & Saúde Coletiva. 2006;11(4):911-6 which may, in turn, be linked to increased medication use.

Frequency of doctor’s appointments was higher among elderly individuals who practiced polypharmacy, reinforcing the importance of qualifying clinical protocols and the continuous professional development of health care professionals who prescribe medications, as primary care services were reported to be the main type of access to the health care system. Lebrão & Laurenti, 1111 . Lebrão ML, Laurenti R. Saúde, bem-estar e envelhecimento: o estudo SABE no Município de São Paulo. Rev Bras Epidemiol . 2005;8(2):127-41. DOI:10.1590/S1415-790X2005000200005
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X200500...
researching elderly individuals in the community, irrespective of access to the ESF, found a higher percentage of individuals seeking hospital care. This difference in access to the system shows the importance of establishing the ESF in order to facilitate access to health care services for the elderly, to educate and encourage continuous monitoring.

Negative perception of own health was linked to polypharmacy, as seen in other epidemiological studies. 1111 . Lebrão ML, Laurenti R. Saúde, bem-estar e envelhecimento: o estudo SABE no Município de São Paulo. Rev Bras Epidemiol . 2005;8(2):127-41. DOI:10.1590/S1415-790X2005000200005
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X200500...
, 1515 . Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200600...
, 2020 . Ribeiro AQ, Rozenfeld S, Klein CH, César CC, Acucio FA. Inquérito sobre uso de medicamentos por idosos aposentados, Belo Horizonte, MG. Rev Saude Publica . 2008;42(4):724-32. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102008005000031
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200800...
There was a high prevalence of negative self-evaluated health. In contrast to this study, in the studies by Lebrão & Laurenti 1111 . Lebrão ML, Laurenti R. Saúde, bem-estar e envelhecimento: o estudo SABE no Município de São Paulo. Rev Bras Epidemiol . 2005;8(2):127-41. DOI:10.1590/S1415-790X2005000200005
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X200500...
and Paskulin & Vianna the elderly individuals tended to rate their own health positively. 1818 . Paskulin LMG, Vianna LAC. Perfil sociodemográfico e condições de saúde autorreferidas de idosos de Porto Alegre. Rev Saude Publica . 2007;41(5):757-68. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102007000500010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200700...
However, such studies were carried out in the Southeast and South of the country, and regional differences may have influenced this result. More studies in the Northeast are necessary to confirm this trend.

The prevalence of chronic illness was close to that observed by other authors. 1111 . Lebrão ML, Laurenti R. Saúde, bem-estar e envelhecimento: o estudo SABE no Município de São Paulo. Rev Bras Epidemiol . 2005;8(2):127-41. DOI:10.1590/S1415-790X2005000200005
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X200500...
, 1818 . Paskulin LMG, Vianna LAC. Perfil sociodemográfico e condições de saúde autorreferidas de idosos de Porto Alegre. Rev Saude Publica . 2007;41(5):757-68. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102007000500010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200700...
High blood pressure was the most commonly reported disease, as in the Brazilian epidemiological profile and as seen in other studies. 5. Coelho Filho JM, Marcopito LF, Castelo A. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2004;38(4):557-64. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200400...
, 7. Flores LM, Mengue SS. Uso de medicamentos por idosos em região do sul do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2005;39(6):925-9. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102005000600009
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200500...
, 1111 . Lebrão ML, Laurenti R. Saúde, bem-estar e envelhecimento: o estudo SABE no Município de São Paulo. Rev Bras Epidemiol . 2005;8(2):127-41. DOI:10.1590/S1415-790X2005000200005
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X200500...
, 1818 . Paskulin LMG, Vianna LAC. Perfil sociodemográfico e condições de saúde autorreferidas de idosos de Porto Alegre. Rev Saude Publica . 2007;41(5):757-68. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102007000500010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200700...
The VI Brazilian Hypertension Guidelines 2323 . Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Hipertensão; Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia. VI Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensão Arterial. Arq Bras Cardiol . 2010;95(1 supl.1):1-51. highlight how. In spite of the high prevalence of hypertension, there are low levels of control. It is considered one of the principal modifiable risk factors for mortality related to cardiovascular disease, which in turn has been one of the main causes of death in Brazil over the last few years. f e Ministério da Saúde. Saúde Brasil 2009: uma análise da situação de saúde e da agenda nacional e internacional de prioridades em saúde. Brasília (DF): 2010.9.

Taking medication, albeit necessary, constitutes a risk for elderly individuals, especially polypharmacy or taking medications judged unsafe. 6. Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE, Waller JL, Maclean JR, Beers MH. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med . 2003;163(22):2716-24. DOI:10.1001/archinte.163.22.2716
https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.22....

Polypharmacy is linked to worsening physical and mental health among the elderly. 1010 . Kadam UT. Potential health impacts of multiple drug prescribing for older people: a case-control study. Br J Gen Pract . 2011;61(583):128-30. DOI:10.3399/bjgp11X556263
https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp11X556263...
Access to medication should be viewed as an achievement by the SUS, as prescription should be based on elderly patients’ overall health conditions and not solely on the treatment for a specific disease, adopting standards that minimize polypharmacy and use of unsafe medications.

The low percentage of losses is one of the positive aspects of this study, as it helps to reduce the possibility of selection bias and contributes to the study’s internal validity. Limitations inherent to the crosssectional design stand out: difficulty identifying the chronological relationship of the events, reduced by using a previously validated questionnaire; data on current exposure do not represent data of past exposure, minimized for some variables in which the elderly individual was asked about the chronic nature of their condition; and interpretation complicated by the presence of confounding variables, outlined in the statistical analysis, adjusted to minimize the influence of these variables.

As there are multiple, unknown risk factors linked to polypharmacy, using only the usual indicators may not be the most appropriate way of investigating causality of polypharmacy in the context in question. It is difficult to determine the isolation from the environment, personality and age (memory bias), as it is a phenomenon which includes a complex network of causal determinants. Other risk factors which were not analyzed but should have been, in this investigation, may play a crucial role in the prevalence of medication use. Investigating psychological stress and of the use of specific medications is worth investigating, together with physiological changes due to senescence.

The data in this study indicate a high percentage of medication use among the elderly, including medications judged unsafe, and inequality in medicine use between groups of elderly individuals when schooling, doctor’s appointments and self-reported health are taken into account. The proportion of elderly individuals taking prescribed medications was higher than that found in other studies of the elderly with populations not registered with the ESF. The fact that around 11% of the population practice polypharmacy, linked to the ageing population in Brazil, is a cause for concern, considering the potential risks of medication use for the elderly. Broad discussion on the need to adopt measures for encouraging the rational use of medication in this segment of the population is needed, as is the continuous professional development of health care professional prescribing medications, qualifying the health care systems in order to provide permanent education and appropriate information at the correct moment, the adoption of measures in the area of pharmaceutical care, drawing up and establishing lists of medications and clinical protocols appropriate to the needs of the elderly population. The high prevalence of taking medication, mainly for CVD, shows the need to adopt measures to encourage physical activity and healthy eating. Moreover, it is essential that continual guidance is given to the elderly and their carers as to the risks of taking medications and that measures are adopted in the area of pharmaceutical care.

References

  • 1
    Barreto SM, Figueiredo RC. Doença crônica, auto-avaliação de saúde e comportamento de risco: diferença de gênero. Rev Saude Publica . 2009;43(Supl 2):38-47. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102009000900006
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102009000900006
  • 2
    Barros MBA, Cesar CLG, Carandina L, Torre GD. Desigualdades na prevalência de doenças crônicas no Brasil, PNAD – 2003. Ciências & Saúde Coletiva 2006;11(4):911-6
  • 3
    Bushardt RL, Massey EB, Simpson TW, Ariail JC, Simpson KN. Polypharmacy: misleading, but manageable. Clin Interv Aging . 2008;3(2):383-9. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S2468
    » https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S2468
  • 4
    Campos MTFS, Monteiro JBR, Ornelas APRC. Fatores que afetam o consumo alimentar e a nutrição do idoso. Rev Nutr . 2000;13(3):157-65. DOI:10.1590/S1415-52732000000300002
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52732000000300002
  • 5
    Coelho Filho JM, Marcopito LF, Castelo A. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2004;38(4):557-64. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102004000400012
  • 6
    Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE, Waller JL, Maclean JR, Beers MH. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med . 2003;163(22):2716-24. DOI:10.1001/archinte.163.22.2716
    » https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.22.2716
  • 7
    Flores LM, Mengue SS. Uso de medicamentos por idosos em região do sul do Brasil. Rev Saude Publica . 2005;39(6):925-9. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102005000600009
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102005000600009
  • 8
    Helling DK, Lemke JH, Semla TP, Wallace RB, Lipson DP, Cornoni-Huntley J. Medication use characteristics in the elderly: The Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc . 1987;35(1):4-12.
  • 9
    Junius-Walker U, Theile G, Hummers-Pradier E. Prevalence and predictors of polypharmacy among older primary care patients in Germany. Fam Pract . 2007;24(1):14-9. DOI:10.1093/fampra/cml067
    » https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cml067
  • 10
    Kadam UT. Potential health impacts of multiple drug prescribing for older people: a case-control study. Br J Gen Pract . 2011;61(583):128-30. DOI:10.3399/bjgp11X556263
    » https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp11X556263
  • 11
    Lebrão ML, Laurenti R. Saúde, bem-estar e envelhecimento: o estudo SABE no Município de São Paulo. Rev Bras Epidemiol . 2005;8(2):127-41. DOI:10.1590/S1415-790X2005000200005
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2005000200005
  • 12
    Linjakumpu T, Hartikainen S, Klaukka T, Veijola J, Kivelä SL, Isoaho R. Use of medications and polypharmacy are increasing among the elderly. J Clin Epidemiol . 2002;55(8):809-17.
  • 13
    Lipschitz DA. Screening for nutritional status in the elderly. Prim Care . 1994;21(1):55-67.
  • 14
    Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R. Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics; 1988.
  • 15
    Loyola Filho AI, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF. Estudo epidemiológico de base populacional sobre uso de medicamentos entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica . 2006;22(12):2657-67. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2006001200015
  • 16
    Monsegui GBG, Rozenfeld S, Veras RP, Vianna CMM. Avalição da qualidade do uso de medicamentos em idosos. Rev Saude Publica . 1999;33(5):437-44. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89101999000500002
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89101999000500002
  • 17
    Papaléo Netto M, Borgonovi N. Biologia e teorias do envelhecimento. In: Papaléo Netto M, organizador. Gerontologia. São Paulo: Atheneu; 1997. p.44-59.
  • 18
    Paskulin LMG, Vianna LAC. Perfil sociodemográfico e condições de saúde autorreferidas de idosos de Porto Alegre. Rev Saude Publica . 2007;41(5):757-68. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102007000500010
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102007000500010
  • 19
    Pereira LRL, Vecchi LUP, Baptista MEC, Carvalho D. Avaliação da utilização de medicamentos em pacientes idosos por meio de conceito de farmacoepidemiologia e farmacovigilância. Cienc Saude Coletiva . 2004;9(2):479-81. DOI:10.1590/S1413-81232004000200023
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232004000200023
  • 20
    Ribeiro AQ, Rozenfeld S, Klein CH, César CC, Acucio FA. Inquérito sobre uso de medicamentos por idosos aposentados, Belo Horizonte, MG. Rev Saude Publica . 2008;42(4):724-32. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102008005000031
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102008005000031
  • 21
    Rozenfeld S. Prevalência, fatores associados e mau uso de medicamentos entre idosos: uma revisão. Cad Saude Publica . 2003;19(3):717-24. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2003000300004
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2003000300004
  • 22
    Ruzicka LT. The use of mortaliy and morbidy statistics for national health promotion. London: WHO; 1990.
  • 23
    Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Hipertensão; Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia. VI Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensão Arterial. Arq Bras Cardiol . 2010;95(1 supl.1):1-51.
  • 24
    Tavares EL, Anjos LA. Perfil antropométrico da população idosa brasileira: resultados da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição. Cad Saude Publica 1999;15(4):759-68. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X1999000400010
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X1999000400010
  • 25
    Veras R. Envelhecimento populacional contemporâneo: demandas, desafios e inovações. Rev Saude Publica . 2009;43(3):548-54. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102009005000025
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102009005000025
  • 26
    Zhan C, Sangl J, Bierman AS, Miller MR, Friedman B, Wickizer SW, et al. Potentially inappropriate medication use in the community-dwelling elderly: findings from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. JAMA . 2001;286(22):2823-9. DOI:10.1001/jama.286.22.2823
    » https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.286.22.2823

  • a
    Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Censo demográfico 2010: resultados preliminares. Rio de Janeiro; 2010.
  • b
    Veras RP, Lourenço R, Martins CSF, Sanchez MA, Chaves PH. Novos paradigmas do modelo assistencial no setor saúde: consequência da explosão populacional dos idosos no Brasil. In: Veras RP, organizador. Terceira idade: gestão contemporânea em saúde. Rio de Janeiro: Relume Dumará; 2002. p.11-79.
  • c
    Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do Recife. Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica. Recife; 2009.
  • d
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. ATC/DDD Index 2010. Oslo; 2010 [cited 20 May 2010] Available from: http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/
  • e
    Ministério da Saúde. Saúde Brasil 2009: uma análise da situação de saúde e da agenda nacional e internacional de prioridades em saúde. Brasília (DF): 2010.9.
  • f
    Malta DC, Moura L, Souza FM, Rocha FM, Fernandes RM. Doenças crônicas não transmissíveis: mortalidade e fatores de risco no Brasil, 1990 a 2006. In: Ministério da Saúde. Saúde Brasil 2008. Brasília (DF); 2009. p.337-62.
  • Study based on the doctoral thesis of Neves S.J.F., entitled: Estado nutricional e uso de medicamentos em idosos assistidos pela Estratégia Saúde da Família , presented to the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco , in 2011.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Aug 2013

History

  • Received
    24 Sept 2011
  • Accepted
    4 Mar 2013
Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Avenida Dr. Arnaldo, 715, 01246-904 São Paulo SP Brazil, Tel./Fax: +55 11 3061-7985 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revsp@usp.br