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Knowledge translation in the reality of Brazilian public health

ABSTRACT

The term knowledge translation has been used to describe the process of applying research results to the real world, in order to enhance the quality and effectiveness of health care and services. The aim of this article is to discuss the incorporation of knowledge translation in the Brazilian public health. The article addresses the basic activities of knowledge translation and lists challenges and perspectives in Brazilian scenario. Brazil began to move towards understanding the process of translating scientific knowledge into practice. Investing in pilot studies to adapt the so-called effective interventions to the Brazilian scenario may be an alternative. Increasing the qualification of Brazilian researchers in the design and evaluation of implementation studies is relevant to improve this field in the country.

Implementation Science; Information Dissemination; Translational Medical Research; Health Communication; Public Health

RESUMO

O termo tradução do conhecimento tem sido utilizado para descrever o processo de aplicar os resultados de pesquisa no mundo real, com o intuito de potencializar a qualidade e a eficácia dos serviços e cuidados de saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a incorporação da tradução do conhecimento na saúde pública do Brasil. No artigo, aborda-se as atividades básicas da tradução do conhecimento e elenca-se desafios e perspectivas no cenário brasileiro. O Brasil começou a caminhar no entendimento do processo de traduzir o conhecimento científico para a prática. Investir em estudos pilotos para adaptar intervenções efetivas, assim rotuladas em outros países, para o cenário brasileiro pode ser uma alternativa. Aumentar a capacitação de pesquisadores brasileiros no delineamento e avaliação de estudos de implementação é relevante para a melhoria deste campo no País.

Ciência da Implementação; Disseminação de Informação; Pesquisa Médica Translacional; Comunicação em Saúde; Saúde Pública

INTRODUCTION

The application of real-life search results is an old challenge that persists to this day11. Tarde G. The laws of imitation. New York: Henry Holt and Company; 1903.. Traditionally, the implementation of new knowledge takes many years, which makes it difficult to innovate in the provision of health services, results in inefficiency of health systems and impacts on the population’s quality of life22. Morris ZS, Wooding S, Grant J. The answer is 17 years, what is the question: understanding time lags in translational research. J R Soc Med. 2011;104(12):510-20. https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.2011.110180
https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.2011.110180...
. Considering this difficulty, efforts have emerged to ensure that evidence is effectively understood and implemented in health practices33. Grimshaw JM, Eccles MP, Lavis JN, Hill SJ, Squires JE. Knowledge translation of research findings. Implement Sci. 2012;7:50. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-50
https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-50...
.

There is no consensus among the terms used to describe these efforts44. McKibbon KA, Lokker C, Wilczynski NL, Ciliska D, Dobbins M, Davis DA, et al. A cross-sectional study of the number and frequency of terms used to refer to knowledge translation in a body of health literature in 2006: a Tower of Babel? Implement Sci. 2010;5:16. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-16
https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-16...
. Research utilization, implementation science, knowledge translation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge mobilization are expressions often employed44. McKibbon KA, Lokker C, Wilczynski NL, Ciliska D, Dobbins M, Davis DA, et al. A cross-sectional study of the number and frequency of terms used to refer to knowledge translation in a body of health literature in 2006: a Tower of Babel? Implement Sci. 2010;5:16. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-16
https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-16...

5. Straus SE, Tetroe J, Graham I. Defining knowledge translation. CMAJ. 2009;181(3-4):165-8. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.081229
https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.081229...
-66. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. More about knowledge translation at CIHR: knowledge translation definition. Ottawa (CAN): CIHR; 2014 [cited 2019 Jul 10]. Available from: http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/39033.html
http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/39033.html...
. Some also suggest the use of K* (knowledge star)77. Shaxson L, Bielak AT, et al. Expanding our understanding of K* (KT, KE, KTT, KMb, KB, KM, etc). A concept paper emerging from the K* conference held in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, April 2012. Hamilton (CAN): 2012 UN University, Institute for Water, Environment and Health; 2012.. In this article, we will use knowledge translation because it is the most used worldwide88. World Health Organization. “Bridging the “know-do” gap meeting on knowledge translation in global health”; 10-12 Oct 205; Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva: WHO; 2005..

Some middle- and low-income countries have advanced in understanding and executing strategies for knowledge translation99. Malla C, Aylward P, Ward P. Knowledge translation for public health in low- and middle- income countries: a critical interpretive synthesis. Glob Health Res Policy. 2018; 3:29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-018-0084-9.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-018-0084-...
. What about Brazil? What are the obstacles and advances of KT? Are research results used to formulate guidelines for practices, policies and programs? Are the guidelines for practice and options for policies and programs implemented? These questions motivated the elaboration of this article, which discusses concepts that describe some of the complexities that influence knowledge translation in the Brazilian public health.

WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION?

Knowledge translation is one of several terms used to describe the science of putting evidence into action and understanding how evidence-based practices work in the real world. It is an interactive process of knowledge that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and use of knowledge in order to improve services and make effective products available to the population and, thus, strengthen the health system. Table 1 shows the elements that compose a definition of knowledge translation and its respective descriptions77. Shaxson L, Bielak AT, et al. Expanding our understanding of K* (KT, KE, KTT, KMb, KB, KM, etc). A concept paper emerging from the K* conference held in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, April 2012. Hamilton (CAN): 2012 UN University, Institute for Water, Environment and Health; 2012.,99. Malla C, Aylward P, Ward P. Knowledge translation for public health in low- and middle- income countries: a critical interpretive synthesis. Glob Health Res Policy. 2018; 3:29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-018-0084-9.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-018-0084-...
.

Table 1
Elements that make up the definition of knowledge translation and their description.

Numerous models represent the components needed for knowledge translation1010. Strifler L, Cardoso R, McGowan J, Cogo E, Nincic V, Khan PA, et al. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models, and frameworks with limited use. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018; 100:92-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2018.04.008
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2018....
. The common aspects among them focus on the suggestion of overcoming the traditional ways of disseminating a new discovery1111. Graham ID, Logan J, Harrison MB, Straus SE, Tetroe J, Caswell W, et al. Lost in knowledge translation: time for a map? J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2006;26(1):13-24. https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.47
https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.47...
. The Figure shows a knowledge roundabout, analogous to a transit roundabout, where the continuous flow of traffic around the central island encompasses dynamic phases for the use of evidence. It represents the idea of knowledge in motion, which when synthesized and transferred is presumably better implemented by users.

Figure
Knowledge translation roundabout. The continuous traffic flow around the central island represents activities for knowledge translation that can start at any stage of the process. Namely: evidence generation, comprises the primary studies essential to support future research; evidence synthesis, compiles the results of primary studies to determine what is known about a problem and interpret them in the context of global evidence; evidence transfer, employs strategies for diffusion or dissemination of knowledge to the potential user; and evidence implementation, uses methods to adopt evidence-based interventions and understand how and why they work in certain contexts. Vehicles entering and leaving the roundabout represent the interaction between knowledge producers and users who provide information throughout the process. Involving people at the right time and place is essential to ensure the success of knowledge translation.

Although knowledge translation interacts with a number of activities, including evidence-based health, continuing medical education, continuous professional development, and quality improvement, it is broader than all of them. It involves multiple factors present at different levels of the health system, which influence the way evidence is used by parties involved in decision-making1111. Graham ID, Logan J, Harrison MB, Straus SE, Tetroe J, Caswell W, et al. Lost in knowledge translation: time for a map? J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2006;26(1):13-24. https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.47
https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.47...
. Activities for knowledge translation may not be sequential and begin at any of the phases of the process, which will be listed below.

Evidence Generation

This generation is represented by individual primary studies, i.e. first-hand reports of research results. In general, they are not ready to be transferred to practice yet, although they are essential to support future research. Randomized and observational controlled studies are examples of these first-generation studies.

Evidence Synthesis

The synthesis consists of compiling the results of individual studies to determine what is known about the subject. In the health field, systematic reviews are very common, with or without meta-analyses1212. Munn Z, Stern C, Aromataris E, Lockwood C, Jordan Z. What kind of systematic review should I conduct? A proposed typology and guidance for systematic reviewers in the medical and health sciences. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018;18(1):5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-017-0468-4
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-017-0468-...
.

Evidence Transfer

The transfer concerns the transmission of knowledge to the potential user. Communication is fundamental and cultural and linguistic boundaries interfere in the process. At least two aspects can be identified, the diffusion and dissemination of evidence. Diffusion refers to the distribution of information, usually by traditional means such as journal publications, conference presentation, and various activities based on the web (e.g., posts, blogs)1313. Lomas J. Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: who should do what? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993; 703:226-35; discussion 35-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb26351.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993...
.

Dissemination extends beyond information by packaging the message to a specific audience1313. Lomas J. Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: who should do what? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993; 703:226-35; discussion 35-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb26351.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993...
. It includes active and targeted methods such as art-based activities (e.g., development of video clips, dramaturgy) and use of knowledge disseminators (people who appropriate evidence and promote it within their own organization or in other environments)1414. Wilson PM, Petticrew M, Calnan MW, Nazareth I. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks. Implement Sci. 2010;5:91. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-91
https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-91...
.

Evidence Implementation

The implementation focuses on strategies used to adopt and integrate evidence-based interventions and on how they work in certain scenarios. It emphasizes the importance of external validity (i.e. the degree to which the results of a study may be generalizable and relevant to populations other than those in which the original studies were conducted) and scalability (i.e. expansion of evidence-based practices to benefit more people and populations)1515. Lockwood C, Stephenson M, Lizarondo L, Van Den HoeckJ, Harrison M. Evidence implementation: development of an online methodology from the knowledge-to-action model of knowledge translation. Int J Nurs Pract. 2016;22(4):322-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12469
https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12469...
,1616. Szklo M. Translational epidemiology: some considerations. Epidemiol. Serv. Saúde. 2015, vol.24, n.1, pp.161-172. ISSN 2237-9622. http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742015000100018.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742015...
. Table 2 shows the main components of the implementation1717. Lockwood C, Stephenson M, Lizarondo L, Van Den Hoek J, Harrison M. Evidence implementation: development of an online methodology from the knowledge-to-action model of knowledge translation. Int J Nurs Pract. 2016;22(4):322-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12469
https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12469...
.

Table 2
Main components of evidence implementation.

CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES OF KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION IN BRAZIL

The study of the theme in Brazil faces difficulties that are common to low- and middle-income countries. These difficulties are related to the local reality, characterized by low level of infrastructure and little engagement of people to translate evidence into practices, policies or programs1818. Cordero C, Delino R, Jeyaseelan L, Lansang MA, Lozano JM, Kumar S, et al. Funding agencies in low- and middle-income countries: support for knowledge translation. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(7):524-34. https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.07.040386
https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.07.040386...
. There is also the restricted interaction between researchers and health decision-makers.

The health field has numerous impasses for the transfer and utilization of a new discovery. One of the major obstacles is the weakness of the research culture within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). The interaction between knowledge producers and users should be increasingly stimulated from the identification of health problems, as it helps research agendas to be relevant to that context.

Some initiatives aim at identifying national and regional health needs and increase selective induction for relevant knowledge production – for example, the development of the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR)1919. Akerman M, Fischer A. National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR): focus on agenda 18 – Health Promotion. Saude Soc. 2014;23(1):180-90. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-12902014000100014
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-1290201400...
. It is relevant to systematize the process of defining health research priorities, in order to make it more transparent and stimulate the participation of public administrators, health professionals, politicians and the civil community in this construction1919. Akerman M, Fischer A. National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR): focus on agenda 18 – Health Promotion. Saude Soc. 2014;23(1):180-90. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-12902014000100014
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-1290201400...
.

Brazil has secondary data collected in various forms by information systems and surveys2020. Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. PNS apresentação. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto de Comunicação e Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde -FIOCRUZ; 2013 [updated 2010; cited 2019 Jul 24]. Available from: https://www.pns.icict.fiocruz.br/
https://www.pns.icict.fiocruz.br/...
. These are valuable local evidence to assist in decision-making. However, the use of these data is limited due to the restricted skills of critical analysis and interpretation of evidence by health decision-makers. Furthermore, understanding what the information does not respond to is as important as what it can elucidate when analyzing a database. And since the amount of information missing is, most of the time, greater than the information available, it is necessary to ask the right questions. Disseminators of knowledge could play a role of providers of evidence and, thus, assist evidence-informed decision-making in the clinical area or in the management of services 2121. Ward V, House A, Hamer S. Knowledge brokering: the missing link in the evidence to action chain? Evid Policy. 2009;53(3):267-79. https://doi.org/10.1332/174426409X463811
https://doi.org/10.1332/174426409X463811...
. Some argue that national funding agencies need to be more supportive of evaluative studies for dissemination and implementation of the knowledge produced. This way, the advancement of the practice in the public health field could be promoted2222. McLean RKD, Graham ID, Tetroe JM, Volmink JA. Translating research into action: an international study of the role of research funders. Health Res Policy Syst. 2018;16(1):44. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-018-0316-y
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-018-0316-...
.

The lack of institutionalization in the use of evidence is a difficulty to be overcome. The World Health Organization has encouraged the use of evidence in health decision-making processes. One of the initiatives was the creation of the Evidence-Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet, https://www.who.int/evidence/en/). This initiative had repercussions in Brazil. EVIPNet Brasil prepares evidence syntheses for policies and deliberative dialogues to discuss the results of the syntheses2323. World Health Organization. Evidence-Informed Policy Network. EVIPNet in action: 10 years, 10 stories. Geneva: WHO; 2016..

The evidence synthesis is part of the process of knowledge translation that assists the decision-making process, but it is not enough to ensure evidence-informed decision making alone2424. Shearer JC, Lavis J, Abelson J, Walt G, Dion M. Evidence-informed policymaking and policy innovation in a low-income country: does policy network structure matter? Evid Policy. 2018;14(3):381-401. https://doi.org/10.1332/174426418X15330477583836
https://doi.org/10.1332/174426418X153304...
. Political and economic interests can hinder this process2525. Pérez-Escamilla R, Lutter CK, Rabadan-Diehl C, Rubinstein A, Calvillo A, Corvalán C, et al. Prevention of childhood obesity and food policies in Latin America: from research to practice. Obes Rev. 2017;18 Suppl 2:28-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12574
https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12574...
, and the presence of institutional leaders who value the use of evidence facilitates its adoption2626. Tomm-Bonde L, Schreiber RS, Allan DE, MacDonald M, Pauly B, Hancock T, et al. Fading vision: knowledge translation in the implementation of a public health policy intervention. Implement Sci. 2013; 8:59. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-8-59
https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-8-59...
. In Brazil, the applicability of knowledge translation differs due to the peculiarity of the management of the system in three decision-making spheres. With municipalization, each local administrator manages a local health system with discretion, that is, administrators have freedom of choice, based on convenience and opportunity, to base or not their decision on evidence. Another challenge to be overcome concerns knowledge transfer, that is, the packaging of the main message in products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. In this sense, some actions were developed in Brazil, for example: clinical protocols and therapeutic guidelines (http://www.saude.gov.br/protocolos-e-diretrizes), the primary health care portal (https://aps.saude.gov.br/), the community of primary care practices (https://novo.atencaobasica.org.br/), and the Brazilian Cochrane Center (https://brazil.cochrane.org/). However, most of these actions are focused on diffusion.

It is expected to advance in strategies for dissemination of evidence that consider the cultural differences of Brazil. For example, evidence transfer in the Northeast can be performed by means of a cordel chapbook, depending on the issue involved. In addition, researchers should be encouraged to submit plans for knowledge translation as part of their grant proposals and improve the communication of their research results to the general public or establish partnerships with communication professionals and graphic designers2727. Proctor EK, Powell BJ Baumann AA, Hamilton AM, Santens RL Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients. Implement Sci. 2012; 7:96. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-96
https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-96...
.

There are different strategies for knowledge translation, however, most were proposed and evaluated in developed countries2828. Tabak RG, Khoong EC, Chambers DA, Brownson RC. Bridging research and practice: models for dissemination and implementation research. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43(3):337-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05.024
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05...
. Common characteristics for the success of these techniques include strong qualification, which considers the cultural, political and economic context and encourages a collaborative approach between researchers and decision-makers2828. Tabak RG, Khoong EC, Chambers DA, Brownson RC. Bridging research and practice: models for dissemination and implementation research. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43(3):337-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05.024
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05...
.

It is easier to implement research after receiving qualification for the use of evidence2929. Sagili KD, Satyanarayana S, Chadha SS, Wilson NC, Kumar AMV, Moonan PK, et al. Operational research within a Global Fund supported tuberculosis project in India: why, how and its contribution towards change in policy and practice. Glob Health Action. 2018;11(1):1445467. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2018.1445467
https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2018.14...
. A Brazilian initiative to sensitize and qualify administrators for the use of evidence is the specialization in evidence-informed policy (Espie), promoted by the Ministry of Health. This example could be expanded to benefit the whole country.

The implementation of evidence in the Brazilian public health is advancing slowly, mainly because there is still not enough skilled scientists and professionals. It is necessary to qualify epidemiologists for knowledge translation, in order to contribute effectively to the integration of evidence in practice, as they are among the main evidence generators. Epidemiology can boost implementation by providing evidence on effective interventions, as well as informing methods, impact indicators and design of implementation studies3030. Neta G, Brownson RC, Chambers DA. Opportunities for epidemiologists in implementation science: a primer. Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(5):899-910. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx323
https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx323...
.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Brazil began to move towards the process of applying scientific knowledge to real life. Investing in pilot studies to adapt knowledge translation interventions to the Brazilian scenario may be an alternative. Qualifying Brazilian researchers in the design and evaluation of implementation studies is relevant to improve this field in the country.

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Tarde G. The laws of imitation. New York: Henry Holt and Company; 1903.
  • 2
    Morris ZS, Wooding S, Grant J. The answer is 17 years, what is the question: understanding time lags in translational research. J R Soc Med. 2011;104(12):510-20. https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.2011.110180
    » https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.2011.110180
  • 3
    Grimshaw JM, Eccles MP, Lavis JN, Hill SJ, Squires JE. Knowledge translation of research findings. Implement Sci. 2012;7:50. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-50
    » https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-50
  • 4
    McKibbon KA, Lokker C, Wilczynski NL, Ciliska D, Dobbins M, Davis DA, et al. A cross-sectional study of the number and frequency of terms used to refer to knowledge translation in a body of health literature in 2006: a Tower of Babel? Implement Sci. 2010;5:16. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-16
    » https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-16
  • 5
    Straus SE, Tetroe J, Graham I. Defining knowledge translation. CMAJ. 2009;181(3-4):165-8. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.081229
    » https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.081229
  • 6
    Canadian Institutes of Health Research. More about knowledge translation at CIHR: knowledge translation definition. Ottawa (CAN): CIHR; 2014 [cited 2019 Jul 10]. Available from: http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/39033.html
    » http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/39033.html
  • 7
    Shaxson L, Bielak AT, et al. Expanding our understanding of K* (KT, KE, KTT, KMb, KB, KM, etc). A concept paper emerging from the K* conference held in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, April 2012. Hamilton (CAN): 2012 UN University, Institute for Water, Environment and Health; 2012.
  • 8
    World Health Organization. “Bridging the “know-do” gap meeting on knowledge translation in global health”; 10-12 Oct 205; Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva: WHO; 2005.
  • 9
    Malla C, Aylward P, Ward P. Knowledge translation for public health in low- and middle- income countries: a critical interpretive synthesis. Glob Health Res Policy. 2018; 3:29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-018-0084-9
    » https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-018-0084-9
  • 10
    Strifler L, Cardoso R, McGowan J, Cogo E, Nincic V, Khan PA, et al. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models, and frameworks with limited use. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018; 100:92-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2018.04.008
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2018.04.008
  • 11
    Graham ID, Logan J, Harrison MB, Straus SE, Tetroe J, Caswell W, et al. Lost in knowledge translation: time for a map? J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2006;26(1):13-24. https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.47
    » https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.47
  • 12
    Munn Z, Stern C, Aromataris E, Lockwood C, Jordan Z. What kind of systematic review should I conduct? A proposed typology and guidance for systematic reviewers in the medical and health sciences. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018;18(1):5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-017-0468-4
    » https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-017-0468-4
  • 13
    Lomas J. Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: who should do what? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993; 703:226-35; discussion 35-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb26351.x
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb26351.x
  • 14
    Wilson PM, Petticrew M, Calnan MW, Nazareth I. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks. Implement Sci. 2010;5:91. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-91
    » https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-91
  • 15
    Lockwood C, Stephenson M, Lizarondo L, Van Den HoeckJ, Harrison M. Evidence implementation: development of an online methodology from the knowledge-to-action model of knowledge translation. Int J Nurs Pract. 2016;22(4):322-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12469
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12469
  • 16
    Szklo M. Translational epidemiology: some considerations. Epidemiol. Serv. Saúde. 2015, vol.24, n.1, pp.161-172. ISSN 2237-9622. http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742015000100018
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742015000100018
  • 17
    Lockwood C, Stephenson M, Lizarondo L, Van Den Hoek J, Harrison M. Evidence implementation: development of an online methodology from the knowledge-to-action model of knowledge translation. Int J Nurs Pract. 2016;22(4):322-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12469
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12469
  • 18
    Cordero C, Delino R, Jeyaseelan L, Lansang MA, Lozano JM, Kumar S, et al. Funding agencies in low- and middle-income countries: support for knowledge translation. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(7):524-34. https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.07.040386
    » https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.07.040386
  • 19
    Akerman M, Fischer A. National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR): focus on agenda 18 – Health Promotion. Saude Soc. 2014;23(1):180-90. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-12902014000100014
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-12902014000100014
  • 20
    Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. PNS apresentação. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto de Comunicação e Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde -FIOCRUZ; 2013 [updated 2010; cited 2019 Jul 24]. Available from: https://www.pns.icict.fiocruz.br/
    » https://www.pns.icict.fiocruz.br/
  • 21
    Ward V, House A, Hamer S. Knowledge brokering: the missing link in the evidence to action chain? Evid Policy. 2009;53(3):267-79. https://doi.org/10.1332/174426409X463811
    » https://doi.org/10.1332/174426409X463811
  • 22
    McLean RKD, Graham ID, Tetroe JM, Volmink JA. Translating research into action: an international study of the role of research funders. Health Res Policy Syst. 2018;16(1):44. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-018-0316-y
    » https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-018-0316-y
  • 23
    World Health Organization. Evidence-Informed Policy Network. EVIPNet in action: 10 years, 10 stories. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
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    » https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx323
  • Funding
    Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal/FAP-DF (process 0193.001604-2016).

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    24 July 2020
  • Date of issue
    2020

History

  • Received
    10 Sept 2019
  • Accepted
    29 Oct 2019
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