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Check-All-That-Apply method for sensory characterization of pork from immunocastrated male pigs fed different oil sources

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, other quality attributes have emerged as the main aspects that impact pork consumers acceptance, such as environmentally friendly production, nutritional value, and animal welfare. This study applies a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questionnaire for sensory characterization of loins from genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs fed diets containing either a standard commercial diet with 1.5 % soybean oil (control) or 3 % oil from either soybean oil (SO), canola oil (CO), or fish oil (FO) during the growing-finishing phases. Twenty CATA attributes for loin samples were generated. We interviewed 101 consumers to select all the CATA terms that they considered suitable to characterize sensory attributes of longissimus lumborum muscle samples of pigs from each dietary treatment. The CATA results indicated differences among pork loin samples depending on the source and inclusion level of dietary oil. Loins from pigs fed 3 % SO were characterized by a higher frequency of the “juicy texture” attribute (p < 0.05) and a lower frequency of the “dry texture” attribute (p < 0.05) compared to loins from 3 % FO-fed pigs. Moreover, loins from pigs fed 3 % SO had a lower citation frequency of the “tasteless” attribute (p < 0.05) compared to loins from 3 % FO-fed pigs. The attributes “cooked pork meat-like taste”, “juicy texture”, “tender texture”, and “brightness” were placed close to the overall liking. “Tender texture”, “juicy texture”, “pork meat-like” (odor and taste), and “cooked pork meat-like taste” attributes were considered drivers of liking. Feeding genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs with diets containing 3 % SO may be advisable from a pork sensory quality perspective.

CATA; dietary oil source; immunologic castration; sensory profile; pork meat

Introduction

The most common attributes that influence consumers’ decision to purchase pork are linked to visual appearance, particularly backfat depth and color of meat as well as its eating quality characteristics, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor (Garmyn, 2020Garmyn, A. 2020. Consumer preferences and acceptance of meat products. Foods 9: 708. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060708
https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060708...
; Ngapo and Gariépy, 2008Ngapo, T.M.; Gariépy, C. 2008. Factors affecting the eating quality of pork. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 48: 599-633. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390701558126
https://doi.org/10.1080/1040839070155812...
). Over the last decade, other quality attributes, such as environmentally friendly production and animal welfare, have emerged as the main aspects for pork consumers acceptance (Burnier et al., 2021Burnier, P.C.; Spers, E.E.; Barcellos, M.D. 2021. Role of sustainability attributes and occasion matters in determining consumers’ beef choice. Food Quality and Preference 88: 104075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104075
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2020....
). Therefore, given the concerns expressed by consumers regarding the surgical castration of piglets without pain relief, immunocastration has become a more welfare-friendly alternative management practice for pig husbandry (Di Pasquale et al., 2020Di Pasquale, J.; Vecchio, Y.; Martelli, G.; Sardi, L.; Adinolfi, F.; Nannoni, E. 2020. Health risk perception, consumption intention, and willingness to pay for pig products obtained by immunocastration. Animals 10: 1548. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091548
https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091548...
). Studies have indicated that meat from immunocastrated pigs has the same sensory profile as pork from surgically castrated pigs (Jeong et al., 2011Jeong, J.-Y.; Choi, J.-H.; Choi, Y.-S.; Han, D.-J.; Kim, H.-Y.; Lee, M.-A.; Lee, D.-H; Kim, C.-J. 2011. The effects of immunocastration on meat quality and sensory properties of pork bellies. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources 31: 372-380. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2011.31.3.372
https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2011.31.3....
) and that immunological castration provides acceptable dry-cured meat products to consumers (Żakowska-Biemans et al., 2021Żakowska-Biemans, S.; Kostyra, E.; Škrlep, M.; Aluwé, M.; Čandek-Potokar, M. 2021. Sensory profiling and liking of salami and pancetta from immunocastrated, surgically castrated and entire male pigs. Animals 11: 2786. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102786
https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102786...
).

Nutrition is one of the most influential factors for pork quality, affecting mainly tenderness, juiciness, and flavor (Miller, 2020Miller, R. 2020. Drivers of consumer liking for beef, pork, and lamb: a review. Foods 9: 428. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040428
https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040428...
). Previous data have shown that loins from genetically lean immunocastrated pigs fed diets with either 3 % soybean oil (SO) or canola oil (CO) had more significant tenderness compared to loins from pigs fed a standard commercial diet with 1.5 % SO (Almeida et al., 2021Almeida, V.V.; Silva, J.P.M.; Schinckel, A.P.; Meira, A.N.; Moreira, G.C.M.; Gomes, J.D.; Poleti, M.D.; Dargelio, M.D.B.; Patinho, I.; Contreras-Castillo, C.J.; Coutinho, L.L.; Mourão, G.B.; Reecy, J.M.; Koltes, D.; Serão, N.V.L.; Regitano, L.C.A.; Fukumasu, H.; Brustolini, A.P.L.; Alencar, S.M.; Lucchiari Filho, A.; Cesar, A.S.M. 2021. Effects of increasing dietary oil inclusion from different sources on growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits, and fatty acid profile in genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs. Livestock Science 248: 104515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.104515
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.10...
). The potential of dietary fat/oil on pork quality is well documented in the literature (Apple et al., 2009Apple, J.K.; MaxwelL, C.V.; Galloway, D.L.; Hutchison, S.; Hamilton, C.R. 2009. Interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight in growing-finishing swine. I. Growth performance and longissimus muscle fatty acid composition. Journal of Animal Science 87: 1407-1422. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1453
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1453...
; Bertol et al., 2013Bertol, T.M.; Campos, R.M.L.; Ludke, J.V.; Terra, N.N.; Figueiredo, E.A.P.; Coldebella, A.; Santos Filho, J.I.; Kawski, V.L.; Lehr, N.M. 2013. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat. Meat Science 93: 507-516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.11.012
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.1...
; Park et al., 2012Park, J.C.; Kim, S.C.; Lee, S.D.; Jang, H.C.; Kim, N.K.; Lee, S.H.; Jung, H.J.; Kim, I.C.; Seong, H.H.; Choi, B.H. 2012. Effects of dietary fat types on growth performance, pork quality, and gene expression in growing-finishing pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 25: 1759-1767. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12416
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12416...
); however, data are scarce on the effects of different sources of dietary oil on sensory traits and consumers’ acceptance of meat from immunocastrated male pigs.

Among the approaches to assess consumers’ acceptance of meat and meat products, the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) method is a versatile multiple-choice questionnaire that has gained importance regarding consumers’ perceptions (Saldaña et al., 2021Saldaña, E.; Merlo, T.C.; Patinho, I.; Rios-Mera, J.D.; Contreras-Castillo, C.J.; Selani, M.M. 2021. Use of sensory science for the development of healthier processed meat products: a critical opinion. Current Opinion in Food Science 40: 13-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2020.04.012
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2020.04.0...
). In the CATA questionnaire, the participants are presented with a list of terms and must check all attributes that apply to describe a sample (Ares and Jaeger, 2015Ares, G.; Jaeger, S.R. 2015. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions with consumers in practice: experimental considerations and impact on outcome. p. 227-245. In: Delarue, J.; Lawlor, J.B.; Rogeaux, M., eds. Rapid sensory profiling techniques. Woodhead Publishing, Sawston, UK. https://doi.org/10.1533/9781782422587.2.227
https://doi.org/10.1533/9781782422587.2....
). Although CATA questions have been reported in many food products (Ares and Jaeger, 2013Ares, G.; Jaeger, S.R. 2013. Check-all-that-apply questions: influence of attribute order on sensory product characterization. Food Quality and Preference 28: 141-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2012.08.016
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2012....
; Saldaña et al., 2018Saldaña, E.; Garcia, A.O.; Selani, M.M.; Haguiwara, M.M.H.; Almeida, M.A.; Siche, R.; Contreras-Castillo, C.J. 2018. A sensometric approach to the development of mortadella with healthier fats. Meat Science 137: 176-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.11.027
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.1...
), little information is available on their application to fresh pork from immunocastrated pigs. This study was conducted to assess the sensory attributes of pork loins from genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs fed diets containing different oil sources by applying the CATA questionnaire.

Materials and Methods

Animals and dietary treatments

All experimental protocols were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil, Protocol number CEUA 2018-28) and complied with the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (FASS, 2010FASS. 2010. Guide for the care and use of agricultural animals in research and teaching. 3ed. FASS, Champaign, IL, USA.).

Animals, housing, experimental design, and dietary treatments for this study have been previously described in detail (Almeida et al., 2021Almeida, V.V.; Silva, J.P.M.; Schinckel, A.P.; Meira, A.N.; Moreira, G.C.M.; Gomes, J.D.; Poleti, M.D.; Dargelio, M.D.B.; Patinho, I.; Contreras-Castillo, C.J.; Coutinho, L.L.; Mourão, G.B.; Reecy, J.M.; Koltes, D.; Serão, N.V.L.; Regitano, L.C.A.; Fukumasu, H.; Brustolini, A.P.L.; Alencar, S.M.; Lucchiari Filho, A.; Cesar, A.S.M. 2021. Effects of increasing dietary oil inclusion from different sources on growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits, and fatty acid profile in genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs. Livestock Science 248: 104515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.104515
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.10...
). Briefly, 96 genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs (Large White sires × Large White dams; 28.44 ± 2.95 kg of average body weight; 71 ± 1.8 days of age) were blocked by initial body weight and randomly allotted to one of four treatments in a 98-day feeding study. There were six replicate pens per treatment and each pen contained four pigs. Treatments consisted of corn-soybean-meal based diets supplemented with 1.5 % SO (control) or 3 % oil from either SO, CO, or fish oil (FO).

Sampling procedure

On day 98, three pigs from each pen (n = 72; 18 pigs per treatment) were euthanized by electrical stunning followed by exsanguination. The carcasses were split longitudinally and chilled overnight at 4 °C. At 24 h postmortem, the loins (L. lumborum muscle) were removed from the left side of each carcass, sliced into 2.5-cm-thick chops, and then individually stored at –20 °C until the sensory analyses.

Sensory analyses

Frozen loin chops were thawed at 4 °C overnight before cooking on an electric grill flat plate (SSE-50) to an internal endpoint temperature of 71 °C. Chops were flipped halfway through cooking when they reached an internal temperature of 35 °C. The internal temperature was monitored by a hand-held digital thermometer (HM-600) inserted into the geometric center of each chop. No oil was used to grease the grill. All secondary muscles and subcutaneous fat were trimmed. We randomly selected six chops per treatment and cooked chops were cut into 2-cm3 cubes, which were mixed, wrapped in aluminum foil, and labelled with randomly established three-digit blinding codes. A consumer sample represented one cube per treatment provided in a serving boat. The samples were kept in an oven at 60 °C to maintain the temperature prior to the sensory test (less than 5 min).

Consumers

The study comprised 101 participants (60 female; 40 male, and 1 other; aged 18 to 65 years old), who were randomly recruited from students and staff of Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo. The complete characteristics of the participants are given in Table 1. All participants declared themselves to be regular consumers of pork meat and filled out a consent form, which was previously approved by the Ethics Committee of Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (Protocol number CAAE 04352718.6.0000.5395).

Table 1
Demographic characteristics of participants (n = 101).

Check-All-That Apply (CATA) question

Before the test, participants were familiarized with the Compusense software. Additionally, an introductory description of both the experimental protocol and the sensory attributes in the CATA questionnaire was verbally given to each participant prior to sample evaluations. Consumers were allocated to individual sensory booths under an artificial white light environment. Sessions lasted approximately 30 min and consumers remained at least 2 m apart to avoid interaction. The samples were placed in 50 mL disposable plastic cups and served in sequential monadic order, according to a design based on Williams Latin Square. Samples were rated for overall liking using a nine-point hedonic scale described by Almeida et al. (2021)Almeida, V.V.; Silva, J.P.M.; Schinckel, A.P.; Meira, A.N.; Moreira, G.C.M.; Gomes, J.D.; Poleti, M.D.; Dargelio, M.D.B.; Patinho, I.; Contreras-Castillo, C.J.; Coutinho, L.L.; Mourão, G.B.; Reecy, J.M.; Koltes, D.; Serão, N.V.L.; Regitano, L.C.A.; Fukumasu, H.; Brustolini, A.P.L.; Alencar, S.M.; Lucchiari Filho, A.; Cesar, A.S.M. 2021. Effects of increasing dietary oil inclusion from different sources on growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits, and fatty acid profile in genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs. Livestock Science 248: 104515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.104515
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.10...
. Then, consumers were asked to complete a CATA questionnaire with 20 sensory attributes, which were selected by trained and experienced assessors in sensory testing of food products from the Laboratório de Qualidade e Processamento de Carne at Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo. Filtered water and unsalted crackers were served as palate cleansers between samples.

The following 20 sensory attributes were used in the CATA questionnaire: “brightness”, “dry meat-like appearance”, and “fiber meat-like appearance” for appearance category; “pork meat-like taste”, “cooked pork meat-like taste”, “chicken meat-like taste”, “sweet taste”, “sour taste”, “salty taste”, “tasteless”, “off-flavor”, and “monosodium glutamate taste” for flavor/taste category; “pork meat-like odor” and “chicken meat-like odor” for odor/aroma category; and “tender texture”, “tough texture”, “fiber texture”, “juicy texture”, “crumbly texture”, and “dry texture” for textural category. All selected attributes and definitions are shown in Table 2.

Table 2
Definition of the sensory attributes used on Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) study.

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed using XLSTAT 2015 software. The frequency of each sensory attribute term in the CATA questionnaire was determined by counting the number of consumers that used that term to describe each loin chop sample. The Cochran’s Q test was performed to identify differences (p < 0.05) among loin chop samples from pigs fed different oil sources for each attribute included in the CATA questionnaire. When there were differences between loin samples for a given attribute, the post-hoc multiple pairwise comparisons were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p < 0.05). The correspondence analysis, based on chi-square distance (Vidal et al., 2015)Vidal, L.; Tárrega, A.; Antúnez, L.; Ares, G.; Jaeger, S.R. 2015. Comparison of correspondence analysis based on Hellinger and chi-square distances to obtain sensory spaces from check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions. Food Quality and Preference 43: 106-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2015.03.003
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2015....
, was used to obtain the relationships between the loin chop samples from pigs fed different oil sources and CATA attributes. The principal coordinate analysis was carried out to display the relationship between overall liking and CATA attributes. Finally, the penalty analysis was performed on CATA data using overall liking to identify positive and negative drivers of liking (Meyners et al., 2013)Meyners, M.; Castura, J.C.; Carr, B.T. 2013. Existing and new approaches for the analysis of CATA data. Food Quality and Preference 30: 309-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2013.06.010
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2013....
.

Results and Discussion

Twenty sensory attribute terms were included in the CATA questionnaire to describe loin chop samples. The Cochran’s Q test revealed that consumers perceived and identified six of these attributes differently (p < 0.05) due to the oil source added to pig diets, including one appearance attribute (dry meat-like appearance), two taste/flavor attributes (sour taste and tasteless), and three textural attributes (firm, juicy, and dry) (Table 3). The most frequently chosen attributes were “pork meat-like odor”, “cooked pork meat-like taste”, “pork meat-like taste”, and “tender texture”; however, none of these attributes showed differences (p > 0.05).

Table 3
Frequency (%) of selection of the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) attributes for loin chop samples from immunocastrated pigs fed different oil sources.

Using the post-hoc multiple pairwise comparisons, consumers perceived differences in pork from pigs fed diets with different oil sources (Table 3). However, no pairs were found to be different for dry meat-like appearance, even though the overall Cochran’s Q test detected a significant difference. For the attributes in the taste/flavor category, “sour taste” was more frequently (p < 0.05) chosen for loins from control-fed pigs in comparison with loins from 3 % FO-fed pigs. Moreover, loins from pigs fed diets containing 3 % FO were characterized by a higher frequency (p < 0.05) of mention of “tasteless” when compared to those from pigs fed diets with 3 % SO.

No difference (p > 0.05) was observed for the “off-flavor” attribute across loin chops from different oil sources, which agrees with the findings reported in other studies evaluating linseed, co-extruded flaxseed, and LIPEX feeding regimen (Gonzalez et al., 2020Gonzalez, J.M.; Houser, T.A.; O’Quinn, T.G.; Nuttelman, D.E.; Odgaard, R.L.; Coulter, J.M.; Faltys, G.; Stelzleni, A.M.; Azain, M.J. 2020. The effects of the LIPEX finishing diet regimen on pork quality, fatty acid profile, palatability, and color stability. Translational Animal Science 4: 339-351. https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz149
https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz149...
; Juárez et al., 2011Juárez, M.; Dugan, M.E.R.; Aldai, N.; Aalhus, J.L.; Patience, J.F.; Zijlstra, R.T.; Beaulieu, A.D. 2011. Increasing omega-3 levels through dietary co-extruded flaxseed supplementation negatively affects pork palatability. Food Chemistry 126: 1716-1723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.065
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010....
; Sheard et al., 2000)Sheard, P.R.; Enser, M.; Wood, J.D.; Nute, G.R.; Gill, B.P.; Richardson, R.I. 2000. Shelf life and quality of pork and pork products with raised n-3 PUFA. Meat Science 55: 213-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00145-X
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00...
. In contrast, previous studies showed that addingfish oil at relatively low levels (1 to 3 %) to pig diets led to off-flavor and odors in pig tissues and pork processed products (Leskanich et al., 1997Leskanich, C.O.; Matthews, K.R.; Warkup, C.C.; Noble, R.C.; Hazzledine, M. 1997. The effect of dietary oil containing (n-3) fatty acids on the fatty acid, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of pig meat and fat. Journal of Animal Science 75: 673-683. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.753673x
https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.753673x...
; Øverland et al., 1996)Øverland, M.; Taugbøl, O.; Haug, A.; Sundstøl, E. 1996. Effect of fish oil on growth performance, carcass characteristics, sensory parameters, and fatty acid composition in pigs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A: Animal Science 46: 11-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/09064709609410919
https://doi.org/10.1080/0906470960941091...
. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay is commonly used as an indicator of lipid oxidation; thus, possibly pork loins from different oil sources in our study had thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values below a threshold of 0.5 mg malondialdehyde kg1 at which consumers may detect rancidity (Gray and Pearson, 1987)Gray, J.I.; Pearson, A.M. 1987. Rancidity and warmed-over flavor. p. 221-269. In: Pearson, A.M.; Dutson, T.R., eds. Advances in meat research. vol. 3: Restructured meat and poultry products. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., NY, USA..

For textural attributes, “firm” was more frequently (p < 0.05) chosen for loins from control-fed pigs when compared to loins from pigs fed diets containing 3 % SO (Table 3). Consumers cited with a significantly higher frequency (p < 0.05) the “juicy texture” attribute in loins from pigs fed diets containing 3 % SO compared to the 3 % FO treatment. The results for the juiciness assessment showed that the frequency of mention of the “dry texture” attribute was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in loins from 3 % SO-fed pigs in comparison with loins from 3 % FO-fed pigs.

Juiciness is greatly influenced by the amount of saliva each consumer produces; thus, confounding the overall sensory perception of meat tenderness (Findlay, 2017Findlay, C.J. 2017. Dual-attribute time-intensity. p. 267-282. In: Hort, J.; Kemp, S.E.; Hollowood, T. eds. Time-dependent measures of perception in sensory evaluation. John Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, UK. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118991640
https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118991640...
). Although loins from 3 % SO-fed pigs showed higher citation frequency for the “juicy texture” term in comparison with the FO treatment, no differences (p > 0.05) were found in the “tender texture” attribute across dietary treatments using the CATA method. This is an interesting result given that, in our previous study, loins from pigs fed diets with either 3 % SO or CO showed decreased Warner-Bratzler shear force compared to loins from control-fed pigs (Almeida et al., 2021Almeida, V.V.; Silva, J.P.M.; Schinckel, A.P.; Meira, A.N.; Moreira, G.C.M.; Gomes, J.D.; Poleti, M.D.; Dargelio, M.D.B.; Patinho, I.; Contreras-Castillo, C.J.; Coutinho, L.L.; Mourão, G.B.; Reecy, J.M.; Koltes, D.; Serão, N.V.L.; Regitano, L.C.A.; Fukumasu, H.; Brustolini, A.P.L.; Alencar, S.M.; Lucchiari Filho, A.; Cesar, A.S.M. 2021. Effects of increasing dietary oil inclusion from different sources on growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits, and fatty acid profile in genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs. Livestock Science 248: 104515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.104515
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.10...
). Instrumental measurements of pork loin tenderness, such as Warner-Bratzler shear force and texture profile analysis, accounted for less than 20 % of the variability in sensory evaluation (Choe et al., 2016)Choe, J.-H.; Choi, M.-H.; Rhee, M.-S.; Kim, B.-C. 2016. Estimation of sensory pork loin tenderness using Warner-Bratzler shear force and texture profile analysis measurements. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 29: 1029-1036. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0482
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0482...
.

The biplot of correspondence analysis shows the differences in the sensory map across the loin chop samples from pigs fed different dietary oil sources (Figure 1). The two first dimensions explained 85.97 % (53.87 % for dimension 1 and 32.10 % for dimension 2) of the total variance. Loin samples were in different quadrants, showing a distinct sensory map. More specifically, loins from 3 % CO- or FO-fed pigs were located in the same quadrant and mainly related to “tasteless”, “dry texture”, “fiber meat-like appearance”, “dry meat-like appearance”, “chicken meat-like taste”, and “salty taste” attributes. In contrast, those from 3 % SO-fed pigs were more linked to “tender texture”, “pork meat-like odor”, “pork meat-like taste”, “juicy texture”, “cooked pork meat-like taste”, and “brightness” attributes. The attributes that best described loins from control-fed pigs were “fiber texture”, “sweet taste”, “chicken meat-like odor”, “off-flavor”, as well as “firm texture”. Therefore, based on the set of CATA terms selected by the consumers, loin samples could be separated into the following three groups: 1) control, 2) 3 % SO, and 3) 3 % CO and FO. These findings indicate that different sensory attributes are perceived depending on the source and inclusion level of dietary oil for pigs.

Figure 1
Representation of the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) attributes (●) used to describe loin chop samples from immunocastrated pigs fed four dietary treatments (◆) in the first two dimensions of the correspondence analysis performed using the CATA attributes. Dietary treatments consisted of corn-soybean-meal based diets supplemented with 1.5 % soybean oil (control) or 3 % oil from either soybean oil (SO), canola oil (CO), or fish oil (FO); Dim 1 and Dim 2 = percentage of the total variance explained.

The nine-point hedonic scale is the most useful sensory method to measure product liking and preference, which ranges from 1 = Dislike extremely to 9 = Like extremely (Stone et al., 2020Stone, H.; Bleibaum, R.N.; Thomas, H.A. 2020 Affective testing. p. 297-336. In: Stone, H.; Bleibaum, R.N.; Thomas, H.A., eds. Sensory evaluation practices. Academic Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.). As we reported above, adding 3 % SO (5.98 ± 0.21) to pig diets resulted in loin chops that were rated higher for overall consumer liking when compared with chops from pigs fed the control diet (5.30 ± 0.21) or diet with 3 % FO (5.24 ± 0.21), whereas the addition of 3 % CO (5.78 ± 0.19) to pig diets had similar consumer overall liking score than chops from all other diets (Almeida et al., 2021Almeida, V.V.; Silva, J.P.M.; Schinckel, A.P.; Meira, A.N.; Moreira, G.C.M.; Gomes, J.D.; Poleti, M.D.; Dargelio, M.D.B.; Patinho, I.; Contreras-Castillo, C.J.; Coutinho, L.L.; Mourão, G.B.; Reecy, J.M.; Koltes, D.; Serão, N.V.L.; Regitano, L.C.A.; Fukumasu, H.; Brustolini, A.P.L.; Alencar, S.M.; Lucchiari Filho, A.; Cesar, A.S.M. 2021. Effects of increasing dietary oil inclusion from different sources on growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits, and fatty acid profile in genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs. Livestock Science 248: 104515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.104515
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.10...
).

Considering the principal coordinate analysis (Figure 2), overall liking (lower right quadrant) seemed to be positively correlated with attributes that were linked to loin samples from 3 % SO-fed pigs in the correspondence analysis. The attributes “cooked pork meat-like taste”, “juicy texture”, “tender texture”, and “brightness” were located close to the overall liking and may have a significant influence on consumer acceptability. Consumers have demonstrated a high acceptance for the more tender and juicier fresh pork (Aaslyng et al., 2007Aaslyng, M.D.; Oksama, M.; Olsen, E.V.; Bejerholm, C.; Baltzer, M.; Andersen, G.; Bredie, W.L.; Byrne, D.V.; Gabrielsen, G. 2007. The impact of sensory quality of pork on consumer preference. Meat Science 76: 61-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.10.014
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.1...
) and particularly for increased brightness in processed pork products (Lebret and Čandek-Potokar, 2022Lebret, B.; Čandek-Potokar, M. 2022. Review: Pork quality attributes from farm to fork. Part II. Processed pork products. Animal 16 supl. 1: 100383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100383
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.10...
).

Figure 2
Principal coordinate analysis plot of Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) attributes frequencies (●) and overall liking scores (■) for loin chop samples from immunocastrated pigs fed four dietary treatments; Dim 1 and Dim 2 = percentage of the total variance explained.

Conversely, overall liking is mainly negatively correlated to “chicken meat-like” (odor and taste), “dry meat-like appearance”, “dry texture”, and “pork meat-like” (odor and taste) attributes, which were characteristics linked to loins from 3 % CO- and FO-fed pigs, and to a minor degree to the other attributes laying in the negative side of the first dimension (Figure 2). These findings reinforce the greater overall liking of consumers for loin chops from pigs fed diets that contained 3 % SO, whereas the least valued loin samples, based on their sensory attributes, were those from the 3 % FO and CO treatments.

Drivers of consumer liking reveal which attributes positively or negatively impact consumer acceptance (Kuesten and Bi, 2018Kuesten, C.; Bi, J. 2018. Temporal drivers of liking based on functional data analysis and non-additive models for multi-attribute time-intensity data of fruit chews. Foods 7: 84. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7060084
https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7060084...
). The liking mean impact plot displays the attributes with significant influence on overall liking (Figure 3). Therefore, “tender texture”, “juicy texture”, “pork meat-like” (odor and taste), and “cooked pork meat-like taste” attributes were drivers of liking, whereas “dry meat-like appearance”, “fiber texture”, “dry texture”, “tasteless”, and “firm texture” attributes negatively affected the overall liking mean impact, noted as drivers of disliking. The drivers of consumer liking were also observed in the correspondence analysis biplot, which were linked to loins from 3 % SO-fed pigs.

Figure 3
Liking mean impact plot displaying the attributes identified as “drivers of liking” (black) and “drivers of disliking” (gray).

Conclusions

The CATA method may help characterize variations in pork loin sensory attributes depending on the oil source and the level added to genetically lean immunocastrated pig diets. The most appreciated loins by the consumers came from pigs fed diets with 3 % SO, which were mainly associated with textural-related attributes. Therefore, adding 3 % SO to immunocastrated pig diets is certainly relevant from a pork sensory quality perspective.

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank the collaborative support of the Universidade de São Paulo and Laboratório de Qualidade e Processamento de Carne at Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo. We also thank DB Genética Suína for providing the animals, housing, feeding, and employees, who helped to carry out this research. We are grateful for support of Crista Indústria e Comércio Ltda and Patense Indústria de Rendering in sourcing the canola and fish oils, respectively. This study was supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, grant numbers: 2018/25180-2, 2018/15653-3, 2018/26797-6, and 2020/00743-7); and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) that provided a researcher fellowship to 15th author (grant number: 301083/2018-5).

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Edited by

Edited by: Luís Guilherme de Lima Ferreira Guido

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    12 Sept 2022
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    26 Jan 2022
  • Accepted
    02 July 2022
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