Abstract in English:Mechanical maceration enhances site and extent of digestion of low-moisture, low-quality forages. Four Holstein steers (172 ± 8 kg) with cannulas in rumen and proximal duodenum were used in 4x4 Latin square design to evaluate the process of mechanical maceration of sudangrass hay on the characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion. Treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based growing diet supplemented with 21 % forage (DM basis) as: i) wheat straw (Triticum aestivum, STRW), ii) sudangrass hay (Sorghum sudanense, SG), iii) macerated SG at intensity of 4,134 kPa (MAC600) and 4) macerated SG at intensity of 6,200 kPa (MAC900). All forages were ground to pass through a 3.8 cm screen before incorporation into complete mixed diets (21:79 forage to concentrate ratio). Maceration did not affect (p ≥ 0.17) on site and extent of OM, N and ADF, and DE of sudangrass supplemented diets. Characteristics of ruminal digestion of OM, ADF, starch, as well as, microbial efficiency (microbial N, g kg-1 of OM fermentad) and protein efficiency (nonammonia N, g g-1 of N intake) were not different (p ≥ 0.11) for wheat straw versus sudangrass supplemented diets. However, total tract digestion of OM, ADF, N, and DE diet were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for sudangrass than for wheat straw supplemented diets. Using the replacement technique, DE value of SG averaged 9.59 MJ kg-1, very close to the expected value given its chemical composition. Mechanical maceration did not enhance the feeding value of sudangrass hay. Increase the intensity of maceration from 4,134 to 6,200 kPa did not altered ruminal or total tract digestion of OM, NDF or energy value of processed hay
Abstract in English:Broiler meat quality is one of the primary factors considered by the poultry industry. This study was conducted to estimate heritability and genetic correlation coefficients for meat quality traits in a single male broiler line. The meat ultimate pH (24 h after slaughter) and lightness presented the highest heritability estimates. Given the estimated genetic correlations, the pH measured at 15 min and 24 h after slaughtering, as well as lightness, were characterized by a close and negative genetic relationship with water holding capacity traits. In contrast, meat quality traits exhibited only non-significant genetic correlations with performance and carcass traits. Noticed exceptions were breast weight, which was genetically and favorably associated with the initial pH and thawing-cooking losses, and ultrasound record of pectoral muscle depth, which was genetically and unfavourably associated with the shear force of meat. Meat pH values at 24 h after slaughtering or lightness may be a favorable selection criterion for the poultry industry for improving meat quality, since these traits are associated with the water holding capacity of the meat. Out of the traits studied, lightness is most easily assessed on the industrial slaughtering line. The direct selection for breast weight could improve the initial pH and thawing-cooking losses of meat, even as selection for ultrasound records of Pectoralis major may affect the meat tenderness in this line
Abstract in English:Knowledge regarding morphogenetic characteristics has contributed to the understanding of plant responses to variations in climatic conditions and management practices. However, the original framework has been developed for temperate grass species, and indicates no ontogenetic effect on the expression of morphogenetic traits. Similar information for tropical grass species is scarce, but not less important. This experiment aimed at evaluating the influence of tiller age on the morphogenetic characteristics of continuously stocked marandu palisadegrass swards maintained at 30 cm and fertilized with nitrogen (N). Treatments corresponded to three nitrogen application rates (150, 300 and 450 kg ha-¹ of N) plus the control (no fertilization) and were assigned to experimental units (1,200 m² paddocks) according to a complete randomized block design, with four replications. The following response variables were measured during autumn/winter (Jun. to Jul. 2007) and summer (Feb. to Mar. 2008): leaf appearance rate (LAR), leaf elongation rate (LER) and the age profile of the tiller population. In general, LAR and LER were higher on young (< 2 months old) relative to mature (2 to 4 months old) and old (> 4 months old) tillers during both autumn/winter and summer. During autumn/winter swards were mainly comprised of old tillers (> 4 months old), the opposite happening during summer, when they were mainly comprised of young tillers. Overall, there was no N effect within tiller age categories. Tiller age was an important factor interfering with the morphogenetic responses of marandu palisadegrass, indicating that there is an ontogenetic effect on plant morphogenesis that should be considered further in future studies of this nature
Abstract in English:Although it has been known that the seed's physiological potential affects its response to osmoconditioning and abiotic stresses, researches involving seed aging and priming associated to abiotic stresses are scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of seed priming on salt tolerance in sorghum seedlings from seeds with two vigor levels (aged or non-aged) and to verify the organic and inorganic solute contributions as osmoregulators in NaCl-stressed seedlings from aged and primed seeds. The combinations of two seed vigor levels (aged or not), two seed types (primed or not) and two salinity levels (exposed to NaCl at 100 mM or not) were evaluated. In low physiological quality seeds (aged seeds), priming provided an attenuation of salinity's negative effects (0 or NaCl at 100 mM) on seedling growth. The accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions in NaCl-stressed sorghum seedling shoot from primed seeds indicate a plant osmotic adjustment induced by seed priming, which was efficient in reducing the osmotic stress caused by salinity. Proline was the main organic solute that contributed to osmoregulation in NaCl-stressed sorghum seedling shoot and its levels increased due to seed priming. Changes in inorganic and organic solute contents, in both shoot and roots, could have been induced by seed priming and as a function of salt stress tolerance, although the changes in these organs were poorly related to each other.
Abstract in English:Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.
Abstract in English:Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian Savannah (“Cerrado”) region, recommended for the recovery of degraded areas and also for medicinal use. Seeds of some species of the Annonaceae require a long period to germinate and many studies have focused on determining methods which can rapidly analyze seed quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. seeds in accordance to their weight, through X-ray images and emergence test. Seeds were collected from dehiscent follicles with a blower and one portion was separated into weight categories: very light seeds, light seeds and heavy seeds. Another seed portion was separated in water by their density, into those that sank and those that floated. The seeds from each weight category were weighed and X-rayed. A further seed portion from the categories (separated by blower and in water) was also placed in 500 mg L-1 of a solution [gibberellin 4 (GA4) + gibberellin 7 (GA7) and cytocinin] to overcome dormancy and was later sown in soil taken from the “Cerrado”. The internal seed morphology andseedling emergence of X. aromatica were influenced by seed weight. The elimination of badly formed and insect- infested seeds improved the physiological potential of the seed lot. The X-ray test can efficiently evaluate seed quality but does not permit a visualization of the embryos.
Abstract in English:Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an allogamic plant, which needs insects on flowering, especially the honeybees for seed production. Collecting nectar and pollen by honeybees in agricultural crops is essential to apiculture, as well as a better understanding of plant biology. The foraging behavior of Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) and its efficiency of pollination on seed yield of sunflower genotypes (open pollination and restricted pollination) were evaluated. There were peaks of visits by A. mellifera for nectar collection on the 2nd and 3rd flowering days between 7h00 and 8h30. The average density of A. mellifera during increased visitation ranged from 2.27 to 2.94 bees per capitulum. Nectar collecting bees were more frequent (2.28 bees per capitulum) than pollen collecting (0.40 bees per capitulum). On the 3rd flowering day, Helio 360 and Aguará hybrids had higher (p ≤ 0.05) number of bee visits per flower head than the other genotypes. Seed yield was 43 % higher (p ≤ 0.05) from sunflower plants that were visited by pollinator-insects compared with plants restricted to pollinators.
Abstract in English:The agro-morphological characterization is fundamental in order to provide information for plant breeding programs. The aim of the present study was to characterize 146 accessions of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.), based on qualitative and quantitative agro-morphological descriptors. The experiment was conducted in Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replicates. Polymorphism was observed among 12 of 14 qualitative characters evaluated, whereas significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for 11 of the 14 analysed quantitative traits. Genetic variance was higher than environmental variance and the average inheritability coefficients were above 80 % for all characters, which ensures the predominance of the genetic components in the differences observed among accessions. On the cluster analysis for qualitative traits the accessions were classified in two groups with a total of 18 duplicates, whereas for the quantitative traits three groups were obtained with few subgroups. The principal component analysis for quantitative traits showed great dispersion of the accessions. The most divergent group of accessions included the genotypes Mitsukasane, Mie, Tomoe mochi, Ooba kirishima and Nourin mochi 6, which showed a higher number of spicklets per plant. There is high variability among the rice accessions from the germplasm collection studied, which presents great importance for breeding programs or for genetic studies on this species.
Abstract in English:Information about genetic control of plant reaction to pathogens is essential in plant breeding programs focusing resistance. This study aimed to obtain information about genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) line ESAL 686. This line was crossed with cultivars Jalo EEP 558 (resistant), Cornell 49-242 (resistant) and Carioca MG (susceptible). Generations F1, F2 and backcrosses (BC11 and BC21) were obtained. In the dry season (2009), parents and respective populations were evaluated for angular leaf spot reaction under field conditions. Disease severity was evaluated on leaves and pods using diagrammatic scales. Severity scores were obtained and mean and variance genetic components were estimated for both. Segregation of F2 generation was analyzed for some crosses. Different genes control angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods. Mean and variance components showed predominance of additive effects. Heritability was high, however, was greater on pods than on leaves which indicated that leaf reaction is more influenced by the environment.
Abstract in English:Most strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) cultivars used in Brazil are developed in other countries, it became clear the need to start the strawberry breeding program in the country. To start a breeding program is necessary the genetic characterization of the germplasm available. Molecular markers are important tools that can be used for this purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic similarity among 11 strawberry cultivars using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers and to indicate the possible promising crosses. The DNA of the eleven strawberry cultivars was extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA fragments were separated in agarose gel for the RAPD markers and in polyacrylamide gel for the ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. Based on this matrix, the cultivars were grouped using the UPGMA method. The dendogram generated by the RAPD markers distributed the cultivars in three groups while the ISSR markers generated two groups. There was no direct relationship between the marker groups when the two types of markers were compared. The grouping proposed by the ISSR markers was more coherent with the origin and the genealogy of the cultivars than that proposed by the RAPD markers, and it can be considered the most efficient method for the study of genetic divergence in strawberry. The most promising crosses, based on the genetic divergence estimated from the RAPD and ISSR molecular data were between the Tudla and Ventana and the Oso Grande and Ventana cultivars, respectively.
Abstract in English:The effect of competition is an important source of variation in breeding experiments. This study aimed to compare the selection of plants of open-pollinated families of Eucalyptus with and without the use of competition covariables. Genetic values were determined for each family and tree and for the traits height, diameter at breast height and timber volume in a randomized block design, resulting in the variance components, genetic parameters, selection gains, effective size and selection coincidence, with and without the use of covariables. Intergenotypic competition is an important factor of environmental variation. The use of competition covariables generally reduces the estimates of variance components and influences genetic gains in the studied traits. Intergenotypic competition biases the selection of open-pollinated eucalypt progenies, and can result in an erroneous choice of superior genotypes; the inclusion of covariables in the model reduces this influence.
Abstract in English:This paper joins the main properties of joint regression analysis (JRA), a model based on the Finlay-Wilkinson regression to analyse multi-environment trials, and of the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The study compares JRA and AMMI with particular focus on robustness with increasing amounts of randomly selected missing data. The application is made using a data set from a breeding program of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., Durum Group) conducted in Portugal. The results of the two models result in similar dominant cultivars (JRA) and winner of mega-environments (AMMI) for the same environments. However, JRA had more stable results with the increase in the incidence rates of missing values.
Abstract in English:Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt) was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt), identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV) is proposed for this new potyvirus.
Abstract in English:Geomorphometric variables are applied in digital soil mapping because of their strong correlation with the disposition and distribution of pedological components of the landscapes. In this research, the relationship between environmental components of tropical hillslope areas in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, artificial neural networks (ANN), and maximum likelihood algorithm (MaxLike) were evaluated with the aid of geoprocessing techniques. ANN and MaxLike were applied to soilscape mapping and the results were compared to the original map. The ANN architectures with seven and five neurons in the hidden layer produced the best classifications when using samples obtained systematically. When random samples were applied, the best neural net architectures were within 22 and 16 neurons in the hidden layer. In conclusion, the ANN can contribute to soilscape surveys, making map delineation faster and less expensive. The digital elevation model (DEM) and its derived attributes can contribute to the understanding of the soil-landscape relationship of tropical hillslope areas; the use of artificial neural networks and MaxLike is feasible for digital soilscape mapping. The systematic sampling method provided a global accuracy of 70 % and 65.9 % for the ANN and the MaxLike, respectively. When the random sampling method was applied, the ANN had a global accuracy of 69.6 %, and the MaxLike had an accuracy of 62.1 %, considering the total study area in relation to the reference map.
Abstract in English:Capão Bonito forest soils, São Paulo state, Brazil, have been used for forestry purposes for almost one century. Detailed knowledge about the distribution of soil attributes over the landscape is of fundamental importance for proper management of natural resources. The purpose of this study was to identify the variability and spatial dependence of chemical and physical attributes of Capão Bonito forest soils. A large soil database of regional land was raised and organized. Most of the selected variables were close to the lognormal frequency range. Soil texture presented a higher range in the A horizon, and the nugget effect and sill were greater in the B horizon. These differences are attributed to the parent material of the region (Itararé Geologic Formation), which presents uneven distribution of sediments. Chemical attributes related to soil fertility presented a higher spatial dependence range in the B horizon, probably as a result of more intensive management and erosion history of the superficial soil layer. Maps for some attributes were interpolated. These had specific areas of occurrence and a wide distribution along the perimeter of the Capão Bonito District Forest, allowing a future site-specific soil management.