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Scientia Agricola, Volume: 70, Issue: 3, Published: 2013
  • Efficiency of water application of irrigation systems based on microsprinkling in banana plantations Agricultural Engineering

    Silva, Alisson Jadavi Pereira da; Coelho, Eugênio Ferreira; Miranda, Jarbas Honório de

    Abstract in English:

    Further food production may be limited by the reduced availability of water resources. Since irrigated agriculture is the productive sector that presents a higher demand of water, this sector has been under intense pressure in order to ensure food production with improved efficiency of water use. This study aimed to use the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique to measure percolation losses and to determine water application efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) trees using microsprinkler irrigation systems. Three systems were studied: (i) one 32 L h-1 microsprinkler for four plants; (ii) one 60 L h-1 microsprinkler for four plants; and (iii) one 60 L h-1 microsprinkler for two plants. Systems that replace water to the soil with the lowest variation of infiltrated water depths at different distances from plant pseudostem were the most efficient. The water application efficiency of microsprinkler irrigation systems using the (i), (ii), and (iii) microsprinkler systems were 85%, 80 % and 90 % respectively.
  • Recovery of copper (II) absorbed in biomass of Cladosporium cladosporioides Agricultural Microbiology

    Carmo, Juliana Ribeiro do; Pimenta, Carlos José; Silva, Júlia Ferreira da; Souza, Sara Maria Chaulfoun de

    Abstract in English:

    The biosorption process, characterized by the use of biomass for removing metals from aqueous solutions, is an attractive technology using inactive and dead biomasses to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions in the absence of metabolic activity necessary for intracellular accumulation. The desorption process, which concentrates the metal previously absorbed for possible reuse, is also important. The desorption of copper (Cu) (II) associated with the biomass of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres) de Vries was evaluated following the biosorption process (adsorption). Specifically, four eluents were used (all at a concentration 0.1 mol L-1), sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetate disodium and calcium chloride, as well as the recovery of Cu (II) desorbed as copper sulfate. After 120 h, 97 % of Cu in solution had been adsorbed. C. cladosporioides can efficiently adsorb Cu (II). Further, 0.1 mol L-1 sulfuric acid was viable and the most efficient for the desorption of the absorbed metal, while ensuring viability of C. cladosporioides after desorption, which is important for the reuse of the biomass in cycles of sorption-desorption.
  • Compatibility of conventional agrochemicals used in rice crops with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Entomology

    Silva, Rodrigo Alves da; Quintela, Eliane Dias; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Barrigossi, José Alexandre Freitas; Lião, Luciano Moraes

    Abstract in English:

    The toxicological impact of chemical pesticides on fungal entomopathogens and their use in tank-mixing can be directly measured through in vitro compatibility tests. This study reports the in vitro toxicity of eight insecticides, four fungicides and five herbicides in the conidial germination, vegetative growth and conidiation of Metarhizium anisopliae (strain CG 168). A conidial suspension containing the pesticide at recommended field dosage was subjected to constant agitation in a rotary shaker for 3h to simulate a tank mixing. Then, aliquots of each suspension were used to determine conidial germination, vegetative growth and conidiation on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The fungicides difenoconazole (69 mL ha-1), propiconazole (75 mL ha-1), trifloxystrobin (313 g ha-1) and azoxystrobin (56 mL ha-1) were the most harmful products to all biological stages of M. anisopliae and they should not be applied together with this fungus in tank mixing. The insecticides exhibited the least degree of toxicity to this fungal pathogen, whereas the herbicides had the greatest impact on mycelial growth. The agrochemicals compatible with M. anisopliae were the insecticides methyl parathion (240 mL ha-1), thiamethoxam (31 g ha-1), and lambda-cyhalothrin (6.3 mL ha-1) and the herbicides glyphosate (1560 mL ha-1), bentazon (720 mL ha-1), and imazapic+ imazapyr (84 g ha-1). The compatible pesticides could be simultaneously used with this bio-control agent for integrated pest management in rice production systems.
  • Cytogenetic identification of wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid × triticale progenies for English grain aphid resistance Genetics And Plant Breeding

    Xie, Quan; Kang, Houyang; Sparkes, Debbie Louise; Tao, Shan; Hu, Zhiqin; Xu, Lili; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jian; Zhou, Yonghong

    Abstract in English:

    English grain aphid (EGA, Sitobion avenae Fabricius) is an important pest in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To develop EGA-resistant varieties, introducing the desirable genes from related species is regarded as an efficient avenue. In this study, the F1, F2 and F3 plants derived from the cross of EGA-susceptible wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng ex Kuo amphiploid (PHW-SA, AABBDDNsNs) and EGA-resistant triticale (Zhongsi 828, AABBRR) were analyzed for EGA resistance. Consequently, PHW-SA was moderately susceptible while Zhongsi 828 and their F1 hybrids were immune, suggesting that the resistance is dominant. All the F2 plants showed high resistance or immunity over two years, indicating that EGA resistance genes are more likely carried by the rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosomes rather than the genomes A or B of Zhongsi 828. In the F3 generation, 25 of 239 lines became susceptible. Giemsa C-banding patterns revealed that these F3 lines had 38-40 chromosomes, including complete rye genome except 5R (and 2R in five lines). Genomic in situ hybridization analysis confirmed this result. During meiosis, all the chromosomes formed bivalents. Six bivalents in 20 lines and five bivalents in five lines were characterized from rye. In contrast, their F2 parental lines had 42 chromosomes (21 bivalents), containing 1R-7R of rye. No P. huashanica chromosomes were detected. Therefore, we propose that the rye chromosome 5R may be related to EGA resistance.
  • Genetic potential of common bean parents for plant architecture improvement Genetics And Plant Breeding

    Silva, Vanessa Maria Pereira e; Carneiro, Pedro Crescêncio Souza; Menezes Júnior, José Ângelo Nogueira de; Carneiro, Vinícius Quintão; Carneiro, José Eustáquio de Souza; Cruz, Cosme Damião; Borém, Aluizio

    Abstract in English:

    In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding, plant selection that associate erect plant architecture, high yield, and grains with good commercial acceptance has been the choice of breeders. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate potential parents, to obtain promising segregating populations that associate high yield, erect plant architecture and carioca grain type, as well as to obtain information on heterosis, general and specific combining ability of these parents regarding grain yield and traits related to plant architecture. Fourteen common bean lines were crossed under a partial diallel scheme. Group 1 was composed by eight erect plant lines and group 2 by six carioca grain type lines. The F1's plants from the crosses and the 14 parents were evaluated during spring (Mar. sowing) for plant architecture grade, diameter of the hipocotyl, plant mean height, and grain yield. Predominance of additive effects was observed for plant architecture grade and diameter of the hypocotyls. For grain yield and plant mean height, there was a greater contribution of the dominance effects. Thus, selection of erect plants, with a larger diameter of the hypocotyl can be carried out in early generations; while for grain yield and plant mean height, it must be delayed, preferably, to later generations.
  • Seeding density in wheat: the more, the merrier? Genetics And Plant Breeding

    Valério, Igor Pirez; Carvalho, Fernando Irajá Félix de; Benin, Giovani; Silveira, Gustavo da; Silva, José Antonio Gonzalez da; Nornberg, Rafael; Hagemann, Thais; Luche, Henrique de Souza; Oliveira, Antônio Costa de

    Abstract in English:

    Adjustment of seeding schemes is one of the crop management techniques that most influences grain yield components. This work aimed to characterize the potential grain yield and its components in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes with contrasting tillering ability under different seeding densities and environments. Five experiments were conducted in split-plot design, each with ten cultivars (main plot), sown in five distinct seeding densities (subplots). Experiments were sown in three locations in southern Brazil in the years 2005, 2006 and 2007. The grain yield per plot and its yield components: number of fertile tillers, weight of 1,000 grains, ear weight and number of grains per ear were evaluated. Genotypes with reduced tillering ability expressed an increase in grain yield with an increase in seeding densities, however showing a reduction in ear weight. The number of grains per ear did not affect grain yield but was highly influenced by seeding densities. The compensatory effect was expressed by the weight of a thousand grains as a function of the experimental conditions in which the genotypes were evaluated, regardless of seeding densities used. Results pointed to differences among cultivars tested in specific locations and years.
  • Colonization of Greek olive cultivars' root system by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus: root morphology, growth, and mineral nutrition of olive plants Soils And Plant Nutrition

    Chatzistathis, Theocharis; Orfanoudakis, Michail; Alifragis, Dimitrios; Therios, Ioannis

    Abstract in English:

    Rooted leafy cuttings of three Greek olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars (Koroneiki, Kothreiki and Chondrolia Chalkidikis) were grown for six months in three soil types, in an experimental greenhouse, in order to investigate: i) if their root system was colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) genus and, ii) if genotypic differences concerning growth and mineral nutrition of olive plants existed. Gigaspora sp. colonized the root system of the three cultivars studied, while Glomus sp. colonized only the root system of 'Koroneiki'. Furthermore, in most cases root colonization by AMF differed among cultivars and soil types. The maximum root colonization, in all soils, was found in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis'. In the three soils studied, the ratio shoot dry weight (SDW)/ root dry weight (RDW) was higher in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis' than in the other two cultivars. Furthermore, root system morphology of the three olive cultivars was completely different, irrespectively of soil type. Leaf Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations, as well as total per plant nutrient content and nutrient use efficiency, differed among cultivars under the same soil conditions. These differences concerning root morphology, SDW/RDW, as well as nutrient uptake and use efficiency, could be possibly ascribed to the differential AMF colonization by Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp.
  • Spatial variability of soil CO2 emission in a sugarcane area characterized by secondary information Soils And Plant Nutrition

    Teixeira, Daniel De Bortoli; Bicalho, Elton da Silva; Panosso, Alan Rodrigo; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Pereira, Gener Tadeu; Scala Júnior, Newton La

    Abstract in English:

    Soil CO2 emission (FCO2) is governed by the inherent properties of the soil, such as bulk density (BD). Mapping of FCO2 allows the evaluation and identification of areas with different accumulation potential of carbon. However, FCO2 mapping over larger areas is not feasible due to the period required for evaluation. This study aimed to assess the quality of FCO2 spatial estimates using values of BD as secondary information. FCO2 and BD were evaluated on a regular sampling grid of 60 m × 60 m comprising 141 points, which was established on a sugarcane area. Four scenarios were defined according to the proportion of the number of sampling points of FCO2 to those of BD. For these scenarios, 67 (F67), 87 (F87), 107 (F107) and 127 (F127) FCO2 sampling points were used in addition to 127 BD sampling points used as supplementary information. The use of additional information from the BD provided an increase in the accuracy of the estimates only in the F107, F67 and F87 scenarios, respectively. The F87 scenario, with the approximate ratio between the FCO2 and BD of 1.00:1.50, presented the best relative improvement in the quality of estimates, thereby indicating that the BD should be sampled at a density 1.5 time greater than that applied for the FCO2. This procedure avoided problems related to the high temporal variability associated with FCO2, which enabled the mapping of this variable to be elaborated in large areas.
  • Texture and organic carbon contents do not impact amount of carbon protected in Malagasy soils Soils And Plant Nutrition

    Razafimbelo, Tantely; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Albrecht, Alain; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Rakotondrasolo, Fela Nirina; Michellon, Roger; Rabeharisoa, Lilia; Bernoux, Martial

    Abstract in English:

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is usually said to be well correlated with soil texture and soil aggregation. These relations generally suggest a physical and physicochemical protection of SOC within soil aggregates and on soil fine particles, respectively. Because there are few experimental evidences of these relations on tropical soils, we tested the relations of soil variables (SOC and soil aggregate contents, and soil texture) with the amount of SOC physically protected in aggregates on a set of 15 Malagasy soils. The soil texture, the SOC and water stable macroaggregate (MA) contents and the amount of SOC physically protected inside aggregates, calculated as the difference of C mineralized by crushed and intact aggregates, were characterized. The relation between these variables was established. SOC content was significantly correlated with soil texture (clay+fine silt fraction) and with soil MA amount while protected SOC content was not correlated with soil MA amount. This lack of correlation might be attributed to the highest importance of physicochemical protection of SOC which is demonstrated by the positive relation between SOC and clay+fine silt fraction.
  • Valuation and assessment of soil erosion costs Point Of View

    Telles, Tiago Santos; Dechen, Sonia Carmela Falci; Souza, Luiz Gustavo Antonio de; Guimarães, Maria de Fátima

    Abstract in English:

    Soil is an essential natural resource for humans and an important part of the environment. However, soil is often used and managed inappropriately, causing its erosion and degradation, with concomitantly negative social, political and economic impacts. This study aimed to discuss sustainable development; and losses and problems caused by soil erosion, and to suggest a model for assessing erosion costs. The relevance of economic models for costing soil erosion is stressed. Based on an economic theory, it presents a procedure for assessing economic costs of soil erosion, centered on the on-site and off-site costs that are generated. The physical processes of soil erosion are described and their economic effects reviewed, drawing on theoretical and empirical sources. Limited data and information is available on the economic losses resulting from erosion, which hampers assessment and valuation.
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