Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Widely disseminated in both national and international scenarios, greenhouses are agribusiness solutions which are designed to allow for greater efficiency and control of the cultivation of plants. Bearing this in mind, the construction of greenhouses should take into consideration the incidence of wind, and other such aspects of comfort and safety, and ensure they are factored into the design of structural elements. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pressure coefficients established by the European standard EN 13031-1 (2001) and the Brazilian standard ABNT (1988), which are applicable to the structures of greenhouses with flat roofs, taking into account the following variables: roof slope, external and internal pressure coefficients and height-span ratio of the structure. Using the ANSYSTM computer program, zones of columns and roof were discretized by the Beam44 finite element to identify the maximum and minimum stress portions connected to the aerodynamic coefficients. With this analysis, we found that, in the smallest roof slope (a equal to 20°), the frame stress was quite similar for standards adopted. On the other hand, for the greatest inclination (a equal to 26°), the stress was consistently lower under the Brazilian standard. In view of this, we came to the conclusion that the differences between stresses when applying both standards were more significant at the higher degrees of height-span ratio and roof slope.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1) grazing based systems (Los Lagos region); and 2) housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR) diets (Los Angeles region). Simultaneously, commercial samples of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and Gouda cheese were analyzed. Furthermore, samples of raw milk and processed products (powdered and sweetened condensed milk) were also analyzed. Dairy farms based on grazing systems had higher levels of CLA in raw milk than TMR farms. In addition, average values of CLA were 1.72 g 100 g−1 of total fatty acids, in spring milk in the Los Lagos region, and 0.42 g 100 g−1 in summer milk, in the Los Angeles region. Similarly, the CLA content of dairy products was higher than that of raw milk. Milk processing affected the transferring of CLA from fresh milk into the final products. Sweetened condensed milk presented lower CLA values than raw and powdered milk. In conclusion, this study indicates the importance of the production systems to the CLA content as well as the effects of milk processing into dairy products. To sum up, more research is needed to elucidate the exact effect of the processing conditions of dairy products on the CLA content.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT ‘Persian’ lime (PL) [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka) Tanaka] is an important species both for domestic fresh fruit consumption in Brazil as well as the export market, since the country is one of the largest producers in the world despite the fact that, in commercial plantations, it is still not uncommon to find trees with low productivity and high plant vigor of unknown origin. Selections of Persian lime ‘CNPMF–2000’, ‘CNPMF–2001’, ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘IAC–5’, ‘IAC–5.1’, ‘Bearss’, ‘Persian–58’, and ‘5059’, were therefore grafted onto Swingle citrumelo [C. paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] rootstocks and evaluated in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil in a field experiment conducted in a completely randomized block design with five replications and two trees per plot. The biometric attributes (canopy height, diameter and volume), yield parameters (yield during the off-season harvest period, yield per plant, production efficiency), and fruit quality traits, were evaluated. The ‘CNPMF–2001’, ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘IAC–5’, and ‘Bearss’ selections had 5-11 % shorter trees than the other cultivars. ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘Persian–58’, and ‘5059’ presented higher yield efficiency values, between 3.1-3.4 kg m−3, and higher yield levels during the off-season harvest periods. The ‘Bearss’, ‘Persian–58’, ‘CNPMF–2000’, ‘IAC–5.1’ and ‘5059’ selections had more acid fruits and the latter three, smaller fruits. Based on their horticultural performance up to eight years of age, ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘Persian–58’ and ‘5059’ selections were the most promising varieties of Persian lime.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is one of the most important pests of sugarcane in Brazil. Measures for population control are currently restricted to the use of chemical insecticides and fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, in part because very little information exists regarding resistance of sugarcane cultivars. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate resistance mechanisms of 12 different sugarcane cultivars to M. fimbriolata to provide information for growers for pest management. Isolated buds of each cultivar were planted in pots and kept in a greenhouse for approximately three months. The pots were then moved to climate test chambers (26 ± 1 ºC; 70 ± 10 % relative humidity; 12 h photoperiod) to carry out laboratory tests to evaluate adult feeding and female oviposition preferences (using both free-choice and no-choice tests) as well as the effects of cultivars on nymph development and cultivars tolerance to pest attack. The least attractive cultivars for adult feeding were IACSP96-2042 and IAC91-1099. Cultivars IACSP96-2042, IACSP96-3060 and IACSP94-2101 received the fewest eggs in the free-choice and no-choice oviposition tests and exhibited some level of antixenosis resistance. Cultivar IAC91-1099 showed the highest level of antibiosis resistance with a nymph survival rate in the roots of only 20 %. Finally, cultivar IACSP94-2094 appears to be tolerant to M. fimbriolata, as it did not show significant reductions in aboveground biomass weight, despite showing reduced leaf chlorophyll levels following pest attack.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Natural antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are set to become an important component in food preservation methodology. The effect of alternative natural preservatives (Sinapis alba L.-M, Rosmarinus officinalis L.-R, Juniperus communis L.-J) in combination with acid whey (AW) was investigated after the ripening period (21d) and over a prolonged storage period of sausage. An antioxidant activity of extracts exercise was performed. The antimicrobial, oxidative stability and sensory properties of these natural preservatives were compared to curing-control (C). Significantly lower rancid odor and rancid flavor (1.48) were observed for R and M compared with the C sample. The low level of these attributes evidenced the antioxidant properties of the R sample, which confirmed the lower CD (~0.48-0.48 µmol mg−1) and TBARS values (~0.41-1.02 mg MDA kg−1) during sausage storing and the highest antioxidant activity against ABTS+ radicals (~85.45 %). Incorporation of acid whey with rosemary extract will give the product a threefold effect: high quality (sensory acceptance), healthy benefit (elimination of nitrite and nitrate from meat products) and safety (improved microbiological and oxidative stability).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT It has been argued that genetic diversity in crop varieties has been on the decline in recent times due to plant breeding. This can have serious consequences for both the genetic vulnerability of crops and their plasticity when responding to changes in production environments. It is, therefore, vital for plant breeding programs to maintain sufficient diversity in the cultivars deployed for multi-period cultivation. In this study, to understand the temporal genetic diversity in durum wheat, 21 improved durum wheat cultivars released in Morocco, since 1956 and five exotic cultivars currently used in crossing programs were analyzed using 13 microsatellite markers. The analysis revealed a total of 44 alleles and average genetic diversity of 0.485 with genetic distances ranging from 0.077 to 0.846 at 13 microsatellite loci in Moroccan durum wheat cultivars. All the durum cultivars of Morocco could be distinguished using the 13 microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles and unique alleles were highest in cultivars developed before 1990, decreasing in cultivars developed during the 1990s and 2000s, indicating that recent durum breeding efforts have reduced allelic richness in recent cultivars. Thus, deployment of exotic durum wheat lines in breeding programs could enhance genetic diversity in durum wheat cultivars.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Genomic selection (GS) has recently been proposed as a new selection strategy which represents an innovative paradigm in crop improvement, now widely adopted in animal breeding. Genomic selection relies on phenotyping and high-density genotyping of a sufficiently large and representative sample of the target breeding population, so that the majority of loci that regulate a quantitative trait are in linkage disequilibrium with one or more molecular markers and can thus be captured by selection. In this study we address genomic selection in a practical fruit breeding context applying it to a breeding population of table grape obtained from a cross between the hybrid genotype D8909-15 (Vitis rupestris × Vitis arizonica/girdiana), which is resistant to dagger nematode and Pierce’s disease (PD), and ‘B90-116’, a susceptible Vitis vinifera cultivar with desirable fruit characteristics. Our aim was to enhance the knowledge on the genomic variation of agronomical traits in table grape populations for future use in marker-assisted selection (MAS) and GS, by discovering a set of molecular markers associated with genomic regions involved in this variation. A number of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) were discovered but this method is inaccurate and the genetic architecture of the studied population was better captured by the BLasso method of genomic selection, which allowed for efficient inference about the genetic contribution of the various marker loci. The technology of genomic selection afforded greater efficiency than QTL analysis and can be very useful in speeding up the selection procedures for agronomic traits in table grapes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Caused by the vascular fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata, mango wilt is considered to be one of the most serious threats in mango-producing regions worldwide. However, changes in leaf gas exchange level and the mechanisms underlying host responses to this fungal infection remain poorly described. This study aimed to evaluate potential changes in the leaf gas exchange of different mango cultivars (Ubá, Espada, Haden and Tommy Atkins) in response to two Brazilian isolates of C. fimbriata (CEBS15 and MSAK16) to non-invasively assess cultivar variability in relation to the basal level of resistance to mango wilt. Both isolates, regardless of the cultivar, caused reductions in stomatal conductance and, thus, a reduction in CO2 assimilation via diffusive limitations. Taking into account the full length of the internal lesion and the radial colonization of the stem tissues, both isolates showed equivalent aggressiveness when inoculated into the Haden and Tommy Atkins cultivars. Conversely, when compared to the CEBS15 isolate of C. fimbriata, the MSAK16 isolate was more aggressive in cv. Espada and less aggressive in cv. Ubá.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT When the harvesting of sugarcane involves a mechanized process, plant residues remain on the soil surface, which makes proximal and remote sensing difficult to monitor. This study aimed to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, differences in the soil spectral behavior of surface layers Quartzipsamment and Hapludox soil classes due to increasing levels of sugarcane’s dry (DL) and green (GL) leaf cover on the soil. Soil cover was quantified by supervised classification of the digital images (photography) taken of the treatments. The spectral reflectance of the samples was obtained using the FieldSpec Pro (350 to 2500 nm). TM-Landsat bands were simulated and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and soil line were also determined. Soil cover ranged from 0 to 89 % for DL and 0 to 80 % for GL. Dry leaf covering affected the features of the following soil constituents: iron oxides (480, 530 and 900 nm) and kaolinite (2200 nm). Water absorption (1400 and 1900 nm) and chlorophyll (670 nm) were determinant in differentiating between bare soil and GL covering. Bands 3 and 4 and NDVI showed pronounced variations as regards differences in soil cover percentage for both DL and GL. The soil line allowed for discrimination of the bare soil from the covered soil (DL and GL). High resolution sensors from about 50 % of the DL or GL covering are expected to reveal differences in soil spectral behavior. Above this coverage percentage, soil assessment by remote sensing is impaired.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Processes regulating pesticide fate in the environment are influenced by the physicochemical properties of pesticides and soils. Sorption and desorption are important processes as they regulate the movement of pesticides in soil. Although sorption-desorption is widely studied for herbicides, studies involving their metabolites in soil are scarce. Sorption and desorption of indaziflam metabolites (indaziflam-triazinediamine (FDAT), indaziflam-triazine-indanone (ITI) and indaziflam-carboxilic acid (ICA)) were investigated in six Brazilian (BRA) soils and three United States (USA) soils with different physicochemical properties. The Freundlich equation described sorption of the metabolites for all soils (R2 > 0.98; 1/n ~ 1). Sorption order (Kf) was ITI > ICA > FDAT. Mean values of Kf,oc were 453, 289, and 81 (BRA) and 444, 48, and 48 (USA) for metabolites ITI, ICA, and FDAT respectively. Desorption was hysteretic for all metabolites in all soils. These results suggest that these metabolites fall in the classification range of mobile to moderately mobile in soils.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Blast, caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae, is an important disease affecting rice and wheat yield worldwide. This study investigated the cytological aspects of incompatible (non-host resistance) and compatible (host resistance) rice- (R_Po) and wheat- (W_Po) Pyricularia oryzae isolate interactions. Inoculations of rice and wheat with the R_Po and W_Po isolates of P. oryzae, respectively, were expected to be compatible interactions (host resistance), whereas inoculations of rice and wheat with the W_Po and R_Po isolates of P. oryzae, respectively, were considered to be incompatible interactions (non-host resistance). For the compatible interactions (rice-R_Po and wheat-W_Po), fungal hyphae penetrated and colonized the epidermal cells and also invaded many neighboring cells. By contrast, in the case of the incompatible interactions (rice-W_Po and wheat-R_Po), fungal hyphae were not able to penetrate nor colonize the epidermal cells, but when penetration did occur, the hyphae were restricted to the first-invaded epidermal cell. The frequency of appressorial sites exhibiting infection hyphae within the epidermal cell underlying an appressorium was greater in the case of the compatible interactions. By contrast, unsuccessful penetrations with cytoplasmic granulation occurred with high frequency in the incompatible wheat-R_Po and rice-W_Po interactions and the number of necrotic epidermal cells underlying the appressorium was low for the rice-W_Po interaction as well as for the wheat- R_Po interaction, where no symptoms of necrosis were exhibited. However, the opposite was observed for the compatible interactions. The present study presents cytological features associated with incompatible and compatible rice- and wheat-P. oryzae interactions that may be useful to studies involving variability, coevolution, diagnosis, and regulation of quarantine or even in a rice or wheat breeding program whose aim is to transfer genes involved in non-host resistance to host resistance due to similarities in downstream mechanisms.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT White mold caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is the most yield-limiting disease of common bean in Brazil. To date, there has been no commercial cultivar resistant to this disease. In a greenhouse we evaluated white mold resistance sources (Cornell 605, A195 and G122) against eight isolates of S. sclerotiorum from five Brazilian states. A Brazilian cultivar (BRSMG Madrepérola) and a susceptible check (Beryl) were used as control. Treatments were arranged in factorial combinations (5 × 8) in a completely random design with four replicates. Disease severity was assessed on a rating scale of 1-to-9 together with lesion length, which was used to determine an area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Polymorphisms detected in ten microsatellite loci were used to assess variability between the isolates. Each isolate was a distinct haplotype; they formed a genetic tree with two clusters. One cluster was formed by three isolates collected from the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo (southeastern); the others, by isolates from Paraná, Santa Catarina (southern), Goiás (Mid-western), and again, Minas Gerais. Genotype × isolate interaction was significant. In general, Beryl was more susceptible than BRSMG Madrepérola. Considering the AUDPC and/or the white mold reaction score, Cornell 605 exhibited more physiological resistance than BRSMG Madrepérola to seven isolates, A195 to five isolates, and G122 to two isolates. Our results suggest that Cornell 605 is the best source of resistance to white mold for the southern region, whereas Cornell 605 and A195 are somewhat superior to G122 for the southeastern and mid-western regions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Beer is an extremely complex mixture of more than 3,000 different compounds in an aqueous environment. Thus, it is perhaps not surprising that the maintenance of beer quality throughout its lifetime has been a considerable challenge for brewers. Whilst it is inevitable that chemical changes will occur in beer with the passage of time, it is the formation of flavor-active components which is of immediate concern to an overview of beer shelf life stability. Sulfur dioxide has long been recognized by brewers as the most important factor in delaying flavor staling, and prolonging the shelf life of beer. However, nowadays, sulfur dioxide and sulfites are considered allergens and concerns about the safety of their use as food additives have been on the increase. The present review is structured into three main parts. Firstly, the chemical properties of sulfur dioxide are presented, along with the toxic effects and maximum legal levels permitted according to U.S. and EU legislation. As the accurate determination of the free, bound and total sulfur dioxide in beer is essential to ensuring regulatory compliance, several methods have been developed for analyzing sulfur dioxide in beer. Thus, secondly, various types of methods are reported and compared with the officially recommended ones. Finally, the crucial role of sulfite in the control of flavor instability of beer is discussed in light of the current data. Two courses of action have been proposed, which are elucidated in detail relating firstly to the fact that sulfite inhibits beer oxidation during storage by acting as an antioxidant and, secondly, sulfite reacts with the carbonyl staling compounds in beer, and thereby masks stale flavors.